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This Routledge Revivals set makes available for the first time
as a collection the first three volumes of The History of the Study
of Landforms or the Development of Geomorphology, the
groundbreaking and definitive study in geomorphology compiled by
Richard J. Chorley, Robert P. Beckinsale and Antony J. Dunn.
Volume 1 (1964) dealt with contributions to the field up to 1890. Volume 2 (1973) dealt with the concepts and seminal contributions of William Morris Davis and Volume 3 (1991) treats historical and regional themes during the 'classic' period of geomorphology, between 1890 and 1950.
For much of history, soil has played a major, and often central, role in the lives of humans. Entire societies have risen, and collapsed, through the management or mismanagement of soil; farmers and gardeners worldwide nurture their soil to provide their plants with water, nutrients, and protection from pests and diseases; major battles have been aborted or stalled by the condition of soil; murder trials have been solved with evidence from the soil; and, for most of us, our ultimate fate is the soil. In this book Richard Bardgett discusses soil and the many, and sometimes surprising, ways that humanity has depended on it throughout history, and still does today. Analysing the role soil plays in our own lives, despite increasing urbanization, and in the biogeochemical cycles that allow the planet to function effectively, Bardgett considers how superior soil management could combat global issues such as climate change, food shortages, and the extinction of species. Looking to the future, Bardgett argues that it is vital for the future of humanity for governments worldwide to halt soil degradation, and to put in place policies for the future sustainable management of soils.
This re-issue, first published in 1964, is the first of a seminal series analysing the development of the study of landforms, from both the geographical and geological point of view, with especial emphasis upon fluvial geomorphology. Volume 1 treats the subject up to the first important statement of the cycle of erosion by W. M. Davis in 1889, and attempts to identify the most significant currents of geomorphic thought, integrating them into the broader contemporary intellectual frameworks with which they were associated. As well as dealing with such key figures as Werner, De Saussure, Hutton, Playfair, Buckland, lyell, Agassiz, Ramsay, Dana, Peschel, Powell, Gilbert and Davis, attention is also given to many less important contributions by American, British and continental workers. A spirited biographical treatment, attractively set off by contemporary portraits, diagrams and sketches, will make this book of great interest to the historian of science, and indeed to the general reader, as well as to the student and scholar in geomorphology, hydrology and any other earth science.
Australopithecines, dinosaurs, trilobites--such fossils conjure up images of lost worlds filled with vanished organisms. But in the full history of life, ancient animals, even the trilobites, form only the half-billion-year tip of a nearly four-billion-year iceberg. Andrew Knoll explores the deep history of life from its origins on a young planet to the incredible Cambrian explosion, presenting a compelling new explanation for the emergence of biological novelty. The very latest discoveries in paleontology--many of them made by the author and his students--are integrated with emerging insights from molecular biology and earth system science to forge a broad understanding of how the biological diversity that surrounds us came to be. Moving from Siberia to Namibia to the Bahamas, Knoll shows how life and environment have evolved together through Earth's history. Innovations in biology have helped shape our air and oceans, and, just as surely, environmental change has influenced the course of evolution, repeatedly closing off opportunities for some species while opening avenues for others. Readers go into the field to confront fossils, enter the lab to discern the inner workings of cells, and alight on Mars to ask how our terrestrial experience can guide exploration for life beyond our planet. Along the way, Knoll brings us up-to-date on some of science's hottest questions, from the oldest fossils and claims of life beyond the Earth to the hypothesis of global glaciation and Knoll's own unifying concept of "permissive ecology." In laying bare Earth's deepest biological roots, Life on a Young Planet helps us understand our own place in the universe--and our responsibility as stewards of a world four billion years in the making. In a new preface, Knoll describes how the field has broadened and deepened in the decade since the book's original publication.
As the growth of the world's population requires the continued search for residential space, the urbanization of natural lands is an inevitable process, but that process does not have to be one that is accomplished without regard for environmental quality. This book presents the unique perspective of naturbanization, the urbanization of protected and highly valued natural spaces that are geographically removed from current urban centers. It discusses the search and selection of new residential spaces, economic planning and policy in such areas, environmentally sensitive construction, and public investment in infrastructure to make the areas more accessible and habitable.
Specifically, the book analyzes naturbanization as it is occurring in National Parks located along the European Union borders. Recent declarations have made the parks more accessible to development and consequently they are serving as models for ways to reach workable solutions and encourage the sort of economic development that will satisfy both developers and environmentalists
The focal main objective of the book is to constitute a meaningful linkage among research problems, geoinformation methods and corresponding applications. The research goals, related both to theoretical and practical issues, derive from multidisciplinary fields such as archaeology, history, geography, landscape planning, environment, geoinformation science, geology and geomorphology. All the aforementioned scientific areas have the spatial dimension in common, i.e. the vast amount of spatially referenced data. Their research issues can be addressed and analysed with geoinformation technology; though, the researchers should get familiar to the range of available geoinformation methods. The book provides description of a variety of research problems issues and technological ?solutions?approaches that can be used to support processes of data capturing, mapping and analysis. These techniques and concepts are illustrated on numerous practical examples. along with specific examples, where these have been applied. The current structure of the book includes the following four chapters: introduction, data capturing and mapping, analysis and modelling, and study cases. In the following we provide a more detailed content of each chapter listing the main topics included within the selected articles.
This book details the experiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterranean watershed - the Catalan River Basin District - following the launch of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Groundwater and coastal water experts present 13 chapters defining tools for water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. The content of this and the companion volume Experiences from Surface Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part I) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA and several Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challenges provided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a useful guide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European as well as Non-European river basins.
This book details the experiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterranean watershed - the Catalan River Basin District - following the launch of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Experts in rivers, reservoirs, lakes, wetlands and estuaries present 13 chapters defining tools for water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. The content of this and the companion volume Experiences from Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part II) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA and several Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challenges provided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a useful guide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European as well as Non-European river basins.
Tackling structural geology problems today requires a quantitative understanding of the underlying physical principles, and the ability to apply mathematical models to deformation processes within the Earth. Accessible yet rigorous, this unique textbook demonstrates how to approach structural geology quantitatively using calculus and mechanics, and prepares students to interface with professional geophysicists and engineers who appreciate and utilize the same tools and computational methods to solve multidisciplinary problems. Clearly explained methods are used throughout the book to quantify field data, set up mathematical models for the formation of structures, and compare model results to field observations. An extensive online package of coordinated laboratory exercises enables students to consolidate their learning and put it into practice by analyzing structural data and building insightful models. Designed for single-semester undergraduate courses, this pioneering text prepares students for graduates studies and careers as professional geoscientists.
Scientific disciplines have their own view on catastrophes. Here, natural scientists, engineers, physicians as well as historians and social scientists define and discuss geo-hazards and associated technical disasters, natural disasters as a business case, medicine and its catastrophes. After war aspects of the Shoah are described with Gershom Sholems Concept of Jewish Totality, and the situation of Displaced Persons in Germany as well as the Nakba for Palestinians related to the happiness of Jews celebrating their new State of Israel. The book also reminds of Hamburg's Flood Disaster in 1962, the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 and other historical catastrophes in Japan, the Lisbon earthquake in 1755 and the Age of Enlightenment, and the eruption of the Tambora in 1815 followed by the "year without summer".
This latest Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students, researchers and policy makers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology, atmospheric chemistry and environmental policy.
An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of advanced research in the field of efficient, clean and renewable energy production, conversion and storage. The ten chapters, written by internationally respected experts, address the following topics: (1) solar and wind energy; (2) energy storage in batteries; (3) biomass; and (4) socio-economic aspects of energy. Given its multidisciplinary approach, which combines environmental analysis and an engineering perspective, the book offers a valuable resource for all researchers and students interested in environmentally sustainable energy production, conversion, storage and its engineering.
Are we deranged? The acclaimed Indian novelist Amitav Ghosh argues that future generations may well think so. How else to explain our imaginative failure in the face of global warming? In his first major book of nonfiction since In an Antique Land, Ghosh examines our inability--at the level of literature, history, and politics--to grasp the scale and violence of climate change. The extreme nature of today's climate events, Ghosh asserts, make them peculiarly resistant to contemporary modes of thinking and imagining. This is particularly true of serious literary fiction: hundred-year storms and freakish tornadoes simply feel too improbable for the novel; they are automatically consigned to other genres. In the writing of history, too, the climate crisis has sometimes led to gross simplifications; Ghosh shows that the history of the carbon economy is a tangled global story with many contradictory and counterintuitive elements. Ghosh ends by suggesting that politics, much like literature, has become a matter of personal moral reckoning rather than an arena of collective action. But to limit fiction and politics to individual moral adventure comes at a great cost. The climate crisis asks us to imagine other forms of human existence--a task to which fiction, Ghosh argues, is the best suited of all cultural forms. His book serves as a great writer's summons to confront the most urgent task of our time.
This volume provides a detailed overview of water pollution and control of several selected Chinese reservoirs. It explores sediment contamination as well as algal blooms and their impact on water quality. Several chapters also discuss various methods of quality control, such as mixing-oxygenation combined with microbial remediation technologies. Due to their broad geographical distribution and different nutrition levels, the investigated reservoirs, the Jinpen, Shibianyu, Fenhe, Zhelin and Zhoucun reservoirs, can be regarded as representative for China. This comprehensive work will appeal to researchers, advanced students and reservoir managers.
This modern introduction to seismic data processing in both exploration and global geophysics demonstrates practical applications through real data and tutorial examples. The underlying physics and mathematics of the various seismic analysis methods are presented, giving students an appreciation of their limitations and potential for creating models of the sub-surface. Designed for a one-semester course, this textbook discusses key techniques within the context of the world's ever increasing need for petroleum and mineral resources - equipping upper undergraduate and graduate students with the tools they need for a career in industry. Examples presented throughout the text allow students to compare different methods and can be demonstrated using the instructor's software of choice. Exercises at the end of sections enable students to check their understanding and put the theory into practice and are complemented by solutions for instructors and additional case study examples online to complete the learning package.
What would we have seen if we looked out over the landscape of Scotland at its very beginning, before the impact of mankind? What would it be like to swim in the Jurassic sea? Or stand early one morning in the dragon-fly haunted coal forests of the Midland Valley? This book captures in words, drawings, paintings and photographs the dramatic sceneries - erupting volcanoes, colliding continents - and ever-changing landscape of Scotland. A second volume by Andrew Kitchener, describing the origins of wildlife in Scotland, is scheduled for 2006.
Ten years ago, on December 26, 2004, one of the world's most destructive natural disasters occurred. A magnitude Mw 9.1 earthquake (third strongest ever instrumentally recorded) generated a global tsunami that killed about 230,000 people along the coasts of 14 countries in the Indian Ocean and propagated as far as the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Since then, various countries from around the globe contributed major funding to tsunami research and mitigation, enabling the installation of hundreds of new high-precision instruments, the development of new technology and the establishment of more modern communication systems. As a result, incredible progress has been achieved in tsunami research and operation during the ten years after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.The papers presented in this second of two special volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time, including two papers devoted to global observations. Five papers provide new findings specifically in the Indian Ocean. Eight papers cover Pacific Ocean studies, focusing mainly on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Remaining papers in the volume describe studies in the Atlantic and Mediterranean and general tsunami source studies.The volume is of interest to scientists and practitioners involved in all aspects of tsunamis from earthquake source processes to transoceanic wave propagation and coastal impacts. Postgraduate students in geophysics, oceanography and coastal engineering - as well as students in the broader geosciences, civil and environmental engineering - will also find the book to be a valuable resource, as it combines recent case studies with advances in tsunami science and natural hazards mitigation.
Better Manage Soil C for Improved Soil Quality In the United States, soil has fueled the availability of abundant, safe food, thus underpinning economic growth and development. In the future we need to be more vigilant in managing and renewing this precious resource by replacing the nutrients and life-sustaining matter that we remove for our own needs. Taking these issues into consideration, Soil Carbon Management: Economic, Environmental, and Societal Benefits explores all of the advantages of effective soil carbon (C) management. A Different Way of Examining Soil C Management This unique resource provides a new conceptual framework to develop policies for managing and enhancing soil C and presents new approaches to achieve positive environmental outcomes. In each chapter, the book poses a problem or set of problems and then describes how effective soil C management can help to solve these challenges, listing the multiple benefits that arise from these practices. The book addresses specific problems such as soil erosion and land degradation and evaluates the advantages of soil C sequestration, specifically for policy development purposes. The policies discussed can be tailored to meet regional and local needs and constraints. The book also explains how to achieve an ideal environment by applying beneficial practices for farming and land management. A Plan for the Future Illustrating how to conserve and preserve soil quality for future generations and detailing how to restore the ecological functions of soil, this book will aid in the formulation of future agricultural policies that sustain food and fuel needs and have long-lasting, positive environmental impacts.
There is a growing crisis in our oceans as rates of infectious disease outbreaks are on the rise. Marine epidemics have the potential to cause a mass die-off of wildlife from the bottom to the top of the food chain, impacting the health of ocean ecosystems as well as lives on land. Fueled by sewage dumping, unregulated aquaculture, and drifting plastic in warming seas, ocean outbreaks are sentinels of impending global environmental disaster. Ocean Outbreak follows renowned scientist Drew Harvell and her colleagues as they investigate how four iconic marine animals-corals, abalone, salmon, and starfish-have been devastated by disease. Based on over twenty years of research, this firsthand account of the sometimes creeping, sometimes exploding impact of disease on our ocean's biodiversity ends with a hopeful message. Through policy changes and the implementation of innovative solutions from nature, we can reduce major outbreaks, save some ocean ecosystems, and protect our fragile environment.
"The Southern Ocean is a wild and elusive place, an ocean like no other. With its waters lying between the Antarctic continent and the southern coastlines of Australia, New Zealand, South America, and South Africa, it is the most remote and inaccessible part of the planetary ocean, the only part that flows around Earth unimpeded by any landmass. It is notorious amongst sailors for its tempestuous winds and hazardous fog and ice. Yet it is a difficult ocean to pin down. Its southern boundary, defined by the icy continent of Antarctica, is constantly moving in a seasonal dance of freeze and thaw. To the north, its waters meet and mingle with those of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans along a fluid boundary that defies the neat lines of a cartographer." So begins Joy McCann's Wild Sea, the remarkable story of the world's remote Southern, or Antarctic, Ocean. Unlike the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic Oceans with their long maritime histories, little is known about the Southern Ocean. This book takes readers beyond the familiar heroic narratives of polar exploration to explore the nature of this stormy circumpolar ocean and its place in Western and Indigenous histories. Drawing from a vast archive of charts and maps, sea captains' journals, whalers' log books, missionaries' correspondence, voyagers' letters, scientific reports, stories, myths, and her own experiences, McCann embarks on a voyage of discovery across its surfaces and into its depths, revealing its distinctive physical and biological processes as well as the people, species, events, and ideas that have shaped our perceptions of it. The result is both a global story of changing scientific knowledge about oceans and their vulnerability to human actions and a local one, showing how the Southern Ocean has defined and sustained southern environments and people over time. Beautifully and powerfully written, Wild Sea will raise a broader awareness and appreciation of the natural and cultural history of this little-known ocean and its emerging importance as a barometer of planetary climate change.
By developing the scale that bears his name, Charles Richter not only invented the concept of magnitude as a measure of earthquake size, he turned himself into nothing less than a household word. He remains the only seismologist whose name anyone outside of narrow scientific circles would likely recognize. Yet few understand the Richter scale itself, and even fewer have ever understood the man. Drawing on the wealth of papers Richter left behind, as well as dozens of interviews with his family and colleagues, Susan Hough takes the reader deep into Richter's complex life story, setting it in the context of his family and interpersonal attachments, his academic career, and the history of seismology. Among his colleagues Richter was known as intensely private, passionately interested in earthquakes, and iconoclastic. He was an avid nudist, seismologists tell each other with a grin; he dabbled in poetry. He was a publicity hound, some suggest, and more famous than he deserved to be. But even his closest associates were unaware that he struggled to reconcile an intense and abiding need for artistic expression with his scientific interests, or that his apparently strained relationship with his wife was more unconventional but also stronger than they knew. Moreover, they never realized that his well-known foibles might even have been the consequence of a profound neurological disorder. In this biography, Susan Hough artfully interweaves the stories of Richter's life with the history of earthquake exploration and seismology. In doing so, she illuminates the world of earth science for the lay reader, much as Sylvia Nasar brought the world of mathematics alive in A Beautiful Mind.
This textbook on atmospheric thermodynamics is for students of meteorology or atmospheric science. It also serves as a reference text for working professionals in meteorology and weather forecasting. It is unique because it provides complete, calculus-based derivations of basic physics from first principles, and connects mathematical relationships to real-world, practical weather forecasting applications. Worked examples and practice problems are included throughout.
On February 15, 2013, the Chelyabinsk meteor sailed over Russian skies in a streak of light that was momentarily brighter than the Sun. The remarkable event and its subsequent shock wave were witnessed and documented by countless local residents, launching a widespread scientific expedition to gather and study the remaining meteoritic fragments. This book chronicles Chelyabinsk's tale of recovery and discovery from the minds of many of the scientists who studied the superbolide, leading field experiments and collecting meteorites and meteorite dust across the region. The Chelyabinsk superbolide is a complex and multi-aspect phenomenon. The book not only presents the results of the scientific research but also details the firsthand experiences of those involved in such efforts, providing readers with a unique opportunity to look at the "inner workings" of science that are seldom shown to the public. Over the course of their studies, the scientists collected over 200 photographs and a dozen video recordings taken by nearly 40 different eyewitnesses. Many of those never-before-published illustrations and photos can be found in full color in the pages of this book.
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