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The book is an overview of the diversity of anthropogenic aquifer recharge (AAR) techniques that use aquifers to store and treat water. It focusses on the processes and the hydrogeological and geochemical factors that affect their performance. This book is written from an applied perspective with a focus of taking advantage of global historical experiences, both positive and negative, as a guide to future implementation. Most AAR techniques are now mature technologies in that they have been employed for some time, their scientific background is well understood, and their initial operational challenges and associated solutions have been identified. However, opportunities exist for improved implementation and some recently employed and potential future innovations are presented. AAR which includes managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a very important area of water resources management and there is no recent books that specifically and comprehensively addresses the subject.
This comprehensive textbook presents an overview of petroleum geoscience for geologists active in the petroleum industry, while also offering a useful guide for students interested in environmental geology, engineering geology and other aspects of sedimentary geology. In this second edition, new chapters have been added and others expanded, covering geophysical methods in general and electromagnetic exploration methods in particular, as well as reservoir modeling and production, unconventional resources and practical petroleum exploration.
This book treats the latest developments in the theory of order-restricted inference, with special attention to nonparametric methods and algorithmic aspects. Among the topics treated are current status and interval censoring models, competing risk models, and deconvolution. Methods of order restricted inference are used in computing maximum likelihood estimators and developing distribution theory for inverse problems of this type. The authors have been active in developing these tools and present the state of the art and the open problems in the field. The earlier chapters provide an introduction to the subject, while the later chapters are written with graduate students and researchers in mathematical statistics in mind. Each chapter ends with a set of exercises of varying difficulty. The theory is illustrated with the analysis of real-life data, which are mostly medical in nature.
Comparative Ocean Governance examines the world's attempts to improve ocean governance through place-based management - marine protected areas, ocean zoning, marine spatial planning - and evaluates this growing trend in light of the advent of climate change and its impacts on the seas. This monograph opens with an explanation of the economics of the oceans and their value to the global environment and the earth's population, the long-term stressors that have impacted oceans, and the new threats to ocean sustainability that climate change poses. It then examines the international framework for ocean management and coastal nations' increasing adoption of place-based governance regimes. The final section explores how these place-based management regimes intersect with climate change adaptation efforts, either accidentally or intentionally. It then offers suggestions for making place-based marine management even more flexible and responsive for the future. Environmental law scholars, legislators and policymakers, marine scientists, and all those concerned for the welfare of the world's oceans will find this book of great value.
This title brings together a detailed description of the physics of the IT system in conjunction with numerical techniques to solve the complex system of equations that describe the system, as well as issues of current interest.
Every rock is a tangible trace of the earth's past. In The Story of the Earth in 25 Rocks, Donald R. Prothero tells the fascinating stories behind the discoveries that shook the foundations of geology. In twenty-five chapters-each about a particular rock, outcrop, or geologic phenomenon-Prothero recounts the scientific detective work that took us from the unearthing of exemplary specimens to tectonic shifts in how we view our planet and history. Prothero follows in the footsteps of the scientists who asked-and answered-geology's biggest questions: How do we know how old the earth is? What happened to the supercontinent Pangea? How did ocean rocks end up at the top of Mount Everest? What can we learn about our planet from meteorites and moon rocks? The Story of the Earth in 25 Rocks answers these questions through expertly chosen case studies, such as Pliny the Elder's firsthand account of the eruption of Vesuvius; the granite outcrops that led a Scottish scientist to theorize that the landscapes he witnessed were far older than Noah's Flood; the gypsum deposits under the Mediterranean Sea that indicate that it was once a desert; and how trying to date the age of meteorites revealed the dangers of lead poisoning. Each of these breakthroughs filled in a piece of the puzzle that is the earth, with scientific discoveries dovetailing with each other to offer increasingly solid evidence of the geologic past. Summarizing a wealth of information in an entertaining, approachable style, The Story of the Earth in 25 Rocks is essential reading for the armchair geologist, the rock hound, and all who are curious about the earth beneath their feet.
This useful supplement to high school Earth Science textbooks features: A comprehensive, newly streamlined topic review covering fundamentals of astronomy, geology, and meteorology The 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science More than 1,100 practice questions with answers covering all exam topics drawn from recent Regents exams One recent full-length Regents exam with answers
In 1940 Steinbeck sailed in a sardine boat with his great friend the marine biologist, Ed Ricketts, to collect marine invertebrates from the beaches of the Gulf of California.
The expedition was described by the two men in SEA OF CORTEZ, published in 1941. The day-to-day story of the trip is told here in the Log, which combines science, philosophy and high-spirited adventue.
An exhilarating and highly entertaining read.
This book is geared for advanced level research in the general subject area of remote sensing and modeling as they apply to the coastal marine environment. The various chapters focus on the latest scientific and technical advances in the service of better understanding coastal marine environments for their care, conservation and management. Chapters specifically deal with advances in remote sensing coastal classifications, environmental monitoring, digital ocean technological advances, geophysical methods, geoacoustics, X-band radar, risk assessment models, GIS applications, real-time modeling systems, and spatial modeling. Readers will find this book useful because it summarizes applications of new research methods in one of the world s most dynamic and complicated environments. Chapters in this book will be of interest to specialists in the coastal marine environment who deals with aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment via remote sensing techniques and numerical modeling."
This substantial volume showcases 35 of the presentations delivered at the 5th International Brachiopod Congress in Copenhagen. The brachiopod congresses are a focus for cutting-edge research in brachiopod palaeontology and neontology. The presentations from the Copenhagen Congress cover a wide range of material from basic morphology and taxonomy through advances in molecular phylogeny and ultrastructural studies to the biogeography and palaeoecology of the phylum. About 75% of the papers relate to fossil brachiopods and the rest to living forms The following fields are represented in the volume: Taxonomy/Morphology (25%), Ecology/Palaeoecology (35%) and Stratigraphy/Biogeography (20%), phylogeny (10%) and Biochemistry/Genetics (10%). The volume is beautifully illustrated throughout and the papers together represent an exciting snapshot of contemporary brachiopod research as it continues into the third millennium.
This undergraduate textbook presents a unique comprehensive overview on Mathematics in Earth Sciences and Geography. It deals with fundamental theoretical and applied mathematics, needed by bachelor students in a wide range of subjects. The book is illustrated with many examples and over a hundred practical exercises, with solutions included in the book. In addition, this textbook highlights numerical resources by using two free software packages (R and Xcas) and introducing their use.
Abiotic stress drastically limits agricultural crop productivity worldwide. Climate change threatens the sustainable agriculture with its rapid and unpredictable effects, making it difficult for agriculturists and farmers to respond to the challenges cropping up from environmental stresses.In light of population growth and climate changes, investment in agriculture is the only way to avert wide scale food shortages. This challenge comes at a time when plant sciences are witnessing remarkable progress in understanding the fundamental processes of plant growth and development. Plant researchershave identifiedgenes controlling different aspects of plant growth and development, but many challenges still exist in creating an apt infrastructure, access to bioinformatics and good crop results. "Improvement of Crops in the Era of Climatic Changes, Volume2"focuses on many existing opportunities that can be applied methodically through conventional breeding, without touching upon the latest discoveries such as the power of genomics to applied breeding in plant biology.
Written by a diversefaction of internationally famedscholars, this volume adds new horizons in the field of crop improvement, genetic engineering and abiotic stress tolerance. Comprehensive and lavishly illustrated, "Improvement of Crops in the Era of Climatic Changes, Volume2"is a state-of-the-art guide to recent developmentsvis-a-visvarious aspects of plant responses in molecular and biochemical ways to create strong yields and overall crop improvement."
Quaternary Paleoenvironments examines the drowned landscapes exposed as extensive and attractive territory for prehistoric human settlement during the Ice Ages of the Pleistocene, when sea levels dropped to 120m-135m below their current levels. This volume provides an overview of the geological, geomorphological, climatic and sea-level history of the European continental shelf as a whole, as well as a series of detailed regional reviews for each of the major sea basins. The nature and variable attractions of the landscapes and resources available for human exploitation are examined, as are the conditions under which archaeological sites and landscape features are likely to have been preserved, destroyed or buried by sediment during sea-level rise. The authors also discuss the extent to which we can predict where to look for drowned landscapes with the greatest chance of success, with frequent reference to examples of preserved prehistoric sites in different submerged environments. Quaternary Paleoenvironments will be of interest to archaeologists, geologists, marine scientists, palaeoanthropologists, cultural heritage managers, geographers, and all those with an interest in the drowned landscapes of the continental shelf.
A sweeping, interdisciplinary history of the world's third-largest river, a potent symbol across South Asia and the Hindu diaspora Originating in the Himalayas and flowing into the Bay of Bengal, the Ganges is India's most important and sacred river. In this unprecedented work, historian Sudipta Sen tells the story of the Ganges, from the communities that arose on its banks to the merchants that navigated its waters, and the way it came to occupy center stage in the history and culture of the subcontinent. Sen begins his chronicle in prehistoric India, tracing the river's first settlers, its myths of origin in the Hindu tradition, and its significance during the ascendancy of popular Buddhism. In the following centuries, Indian empires, Central Asian regimes, European merchants, the British Empire, and the Indian nation-state all shaped the identity and ecology of the river. Weaving together geography, environmental politics, and religious history, Sen offers in this lavishly illustrated volume a remarkable portrait of one of the world's largest and most densely populated river basins.
Until a few thousand years ago, creatures-"megafauna"-that could have been from a sci-fi thriller roamed the earth. With a handful of exceptions, all are now gone. Ross MacPhee explores the question of what caused the disappearance of these prehistoric behemoths, examining the extinction theories, weighing the evidence and presenting his conclusions. He comments on how past extinctions can shed light on future losses and on the possibility of bringing back extinct species through genetic engineering. Gorgeous four-colour illustrations bring these megabeasts back to life in vivid detail.
The past few decades have witnessed remarkable growth in the application of passive seismic monitoring to address a range of problems in geoscience and engineering, from large-scale tectonic studies to environmental investigations. Passive seismic methods are increasingly being used for surveillance of massive, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and development of enhanced geothermal systems. The theoretical framework and techniques used in this emerging area draw on various established fields, such as earthquake seismology, exploration geophysics and rock mechanics. Based on university and industry courses developed by the author, this book reviews all the relevant research and technology to provide an introduction to the principles and applications of passive seismic monitoring. It integrates up-to-date case studies and interactive online exercises, making it a comprehensive and accessible resource for advanced students and researchers in geophysics and engineering, as well as industry practitioners.
This volume provides a detailed overview of water pollution and control of several selected Chinese reservoirs. It explores sediment contamination as well as algal blooms and their impact on water quality. Several chapters also discuss various methods of quality control, such as mixing-oxygenation combined with microbial remediation technologies. Due to their broad geographical distribution and different nutrition levels, the investigated reservoirs, the Jinpen, Shibianyu, Fenhe, Zhelin and Zhoucun reservoirs, can be regarded as representative for China. This comprehensive work will appeal to researchers, advanced students and reservoir managers.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are recognized as one of the greatest threats to crop production throughout the world. Estimated annual crop losses of $8 billion in the United States and $78 billion worldwide are attributed to plant parasitic nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes not only cause damage individually but form disease-complexes with other microorganisms thereby increasing crop loss. Nematode diseases of crops are difficult to control because of their insidious nature and lack of specific diagnostic symptoms which closely resemble those caused by other plant pathogens and abiotic diseases. Future developments of sustainable management systems for preventing major economical agricultural losses due to nematodes is focused on strategies that limit production costs, enhance crop yields, and protect the environment. This book presents a first compendium and overview for nematode problems and their management across North America. Each chapter provides essential information on the occurrence and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes, their major crop hosts, impact on crop production and sustainable management strategies for each region of the continent including, Canada, Mexico and all states of the USA. For each region, a thematic overview of changes in crop production affected by plant parasitic nematodes and their management strategies over time will provide invaluable information on the important role of plant parasitic nematodes in sustainable agriculture.
Before you read this book, you have homework to do. Grab a notebook, go outside, and find a nearby patch of nature. What do you see, hear, feel, and smell? Are there bugs, birds, squirrels, deer, lizards, frogs, or fish, and what are they doing? What plants are in the vicinity, and in what ways are they growing? What shape are the rocks, what texture is the dirt, and what color are the bodies of water? Does the air feel hot or cold, wet or dry, windy or still? Everything you notice, write it all down. We know that the Earth's climate is changing, and that the magnitude of this change is colossal. At the same time, the world outside is still a natural world, and one we can experience on a granular level every day. Ground Truth is a guide to living in this condition of changing nature, to paying attention instead of turning away, and to gathering facts from which a fuller understanding of the natural world can emerge over time. Featuring detailed guidance for keeping records of the plants, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals in your neighborhood, this book also ponders the value of everyday observations, probes the connections between seasons and climate change, and traces the history of phenology--the study and timing of natural events--and the uses to which it can be put. An expansive yet accessible book, Ground Truth invites readers to help lay the groundwork for a better understanding of the nature of change itself.
A number of extreme weather events have struck the Northern Hemisphere in recent years, from scorching heatwaves to desperately cold winters, and from floods and storms to droughts and wildfires. These events have fuelled intense discussions in scientific conferences, government agencies, cafes, and on street corners around the world. Why are these events happening? Is this the emerging signal of climate change, and should we expect more of this? Media reports vary widely, but one mysterious agent has risen to prominence in many cases: the jet stream. The story begins on a windswept beach in Barbados, from where we follow the ascent of a weather balloon that will travel along the jet stream all around the world. From this viewpoint we observe the effect of the jet in influencing human life around the hemisphere, and witness startling changes emerging. What is the jet stream and how well do we understand it? How does it affect our weather and is it changing? These are the main questions tackled in this book. We learn about how our view of the wind has developed from Aristotle's early theories up to today's understanding. We see that the jet is intimately connected with dramatic contrasts between climate zones and has played a key historical role in determining patterns of trade. We learn about the basic physics underlying the jet and how this knowledge is incorporated into computer models which predict both tomorrow's weather and the climate of future decades. And finally, we discuss how climate change is expected to affect the jet, and introduce the vital scientific debate over whether these changes have contributed to recent extreme weather events.
This new edition of Guide to Process Based Modeling of Lakes and Coastal Seas brings the modeling up to date, taking into account multiple stressors acting on aquatic systems. The combination of acidification and increasing amounts of anoxic waters associated with eutrophication puts severe stress on the marine environment. The detection and attribution of anthropogenic changes in coastal seas are therefore crucial and transparent modeling tools are increasingly important. Modeling the marine CO2-O2 system makes systematic studies on climate change and eutrophication possible and is fundamental for understanding the Earth system. This second edition also includes new sections on detection and attribution and on modeling future changes, as well as improved exercises, updated software, and datasets. This unique book will stimulate students and researchers to develop their modeling skills and make model codes and data transparent to other research groups. It uses the general equation solver PROBE to introduce process-oriented numerical modeling and to build understanding of the subject step by step. The equation solver has been used in many applications, particularly in Sweden and Finland with their numerous lakes, archipelago seas, fjords, and coastal zones. It has also been used for process studies in the Polar Seas and the Mediterranean Sea and the approach is suitable for applications in many other environmental applications. Guide to Process Based Modeling of Lakes and Coastal Seas: * is a unique teaching tool for systematic learning of aquatic modeling; * approaches lake and ocean modeling from a new angle; * introduces aquatic numerical modeling using a process-based approach; * enables the thorough understanding of the physics and biogeochemistry of lakes and coastal seas; * provides software, datasets, and algorithms needed to reproduce all calculations and results in the book; * provides a number of creative and stimulating exercises with solutions; * addresses the interaction between climate change and eutrophication and is a good basis for learning Earth System Sciences.
Under one cover, Frank P. Incropera provides a comprehensive, objective and critical assessment of all issues germane to the climate change debate: science, technology options, economic ramifications, cultural and behavioural issues, the influence of special interests and public policy, geopolitics and ethical dimensions. The underlying science is treated in depth, but in an approachable and accessible manner. A strong case is made for the reality of anthropogenic climate change, while confronting the range of issues that remain uncertain and deconstructing opposing views. Incropera assesses the strengths and weaknesses of technology options for mitigating the effects of climate change, analyzes nontechnical factors - economic, cultural and political - and provides an in-depth treatment of ethical implications. This book is intended for those wishing to become fully informed about climate change and is designed to provide the reader with a firm foundation for drawing his or her own conclusions.
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