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The Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) is one of the most widely used analysis packages for regional and teleseismic seismic data. For the first time, this book provides users at introductory and advanced levels with a complete guide to SAC. It leads new users of SAC through the steps of learning basic commands, describes the SAC processing philosophy, and presents its macro language in full, supported throughout with example inputs and outputs from SAC. For more experienced practitioners, the book describes SAC's many hidden features, including advanced graphics aspects, its file structure, how to write independent programs to access and create files, and much more. Tutorial exercises engage users with newly acquired skills, providing data and code to implement the standard methods of teleseismic shear-wave splitting and receiver function analysis. Methodical and authoritative, this is a key resource for researchers and graduate students in global seismology, earthquake seismology and geophysics.
Tornadoes, nature's most violent and unpredictable storms, descend from the clouds nearly one thousand times yearly and have claimed eighteen thousand American lives since 1880. However, the U.S. Weather Bureau--fearing public panic and believing tornadoes were too fleeting for meteorologists to predict--forbade the use of the word "tornado" in forecasts until 1938.
Scanning the Skies traces the history of today's tornado warning system, a unique program that integrates federal, state, and local governments, privately controlled broadcast media, and individuals. Bradford examines the ways in which the tornado warning system has grown from meager beginnings into a program that protects millions of Americans each year. Although no tornado forecasting program existed before WWII, the needs of the military prompted the development of a severe weather warning system in tornado prone areas. Bradford traces the post-war creation of the Air Force centralized tornado forecasting program and its civilian counterpart at the Weather Bureau. Improvements in communication, especially the increasing popularity of television, allowed the Bureau to expand its warning system further.
This book highlights the modern tornado watch system and explains how advancements during the latter half of the twentieth-century--such as computerized data collection and processing systems, Doppler radar, state-of-the-art television weather centers, and an extensive public education program--have resulted in the drastic reduction of tornado fatalities.
This book demonstrates the benefits of using commercially available surfactants, or surface-active agents, for remediation of metal-contaminated soil and sediment. First the book offers theoretical reviews of commercially available surfactants, then it proceeds to a study of various available surfactants for the mobilization of metals. Surfactants representative of amphiphiles discovered in the digestive environment of sediment-ingesting organisms are used to examine the extent and rate of metal (Al, Fe, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) mobilization from contaminated estuarine sediment. Metals can cause harmful effects to the environment and organisms. It is difficult to treat contaminants that are often tightly bound to the extremely small size of the estuarine sediments. The book also demonstrates the mechanisms of metal mobilization that appear to be related to complexation with monomers and adsorption to micelles of the anionic amphiphiles, and to the denudation of hydrophobic host phases or coatings on the sediment by micelles of both anionic and nonionic surfactants. Readers obtain a better understanding of current commercial surfactants, their impact on the environment, and possible remediation. This transdisciplinary book contributes toward Sustainable Development Goals numbers 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) and 13 (Climate Action) set by the United Nations and is useful for students and teachers of sediment studies, coastal studies, environmental sciences, hydrology, civil engineering, and policy sciences.
Geoarchaeology is the application of geoscience to the study of archaeological deposits and the archaeological record. Employing techniques from pedology, geomorphology, sedimentology, geochronology, and stratigraphy, geoarchaeologists investigate and interpret sediments, soils and landforms at the focal points of archaeological research.
Edited by Rolfe D. Mandel and with contributions by John Albanese, Joe Allen Artz, E. Arthur Bettis III, C. Reid Ferring, Vance T. Holliday, David W. May, and Mandel, this volume traces the history of all major projects, researchers, theoretical developments, and sites contributing to our geoarchaeological knowledge of North America's Great Plains. The book provides a historical overview and explores theoretical questions that confront geoarchaeologists working in the Great Plains, where North American geoarchaeology emerged as a discipline.
Quaternary of the Levant presents up-to-date research achievements from a region that displays unique interactions between the climate, the environment and human evolution. Focusing on southeast Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Israel, it brings together over eighty contributions from leading researchers to review 2.5 million years of environmental change and human cultural evolution. Information from prehistoric sites and palaeoanthropological studies contributing to our understanding of 'out of Africa' migrations, Neanderthals, cultures of modern humans, and the origins of agriculture are assessed within the context of glacial-interglacial cycles, marine isotope cycles, plate tectonics, geochronology, geomorphology, palaeoecology and genetics. Complemented by overview summaries that draw together the findings of each chapter, the resulting coverage is wide-ranging and cohesive. The cross-disciplinary nature of the volume makes it an invaluable resource for academics and advanced students of Quaternary science and human prehistory, as well as being an important reference for archaeologists working in the region.
The risks posed by climate change and its effect on climate extremes are an increasingly pressing societal problem. This book provides an accessible overview of the statistical analysis methods which can be used to investigate climate extremes and analyse potential risk. The statistical analysis methods are illustrated with case studies on extremes in the three major climate variables: temperature, precipitation, and wind speed. The book also provides datasets and access to appropriate analysis software, allowing the reader to replicate the case study calculations. Providing the necessary tools to analyse climate risk, this book is invaluable for students and researchers working in the climate sciences, as well as risk analysts interested in climate extremes.
The Sun is our nearest star; it is a dynamic star, which changes with time. Solar variations have significant influence on Earth's space environment and climate through the Sun's magnetic field, irradiation and energetic particles. Long-term and reliable historical datasets of solar and stellar activity indices are crucial for understanding the variations and predicting the future solar cycle. IAU Symposium 340 brings together scientists from diverse, interdisciplinary areas to address the latest discoveries from these long-term datasets for the understanding of solar and stellar magnetic cycles. They make comparisons between different datasets and discuss how to make uniform databases. The proceedings of IAU S340 contain a selection of presentations and reviews from internationally renowned experts. They provide an up-to-date account of this field of importance to researchers and advanced students in solar, stellar, space and heliospheric physics.
Mathematical models and methods are required for diverse studies in Geosciences and simultaneously, new problems are posing new needs where Mathematics is needed. At the initiative of American and Canadian research mathematical institutes and societies, year 2013 was declared a thematic year in Mathematics and the Planet Earth, under the patronage of UNESCO. To mark the MPE2013, and highlight the two-way street between Mathematics and Earth Sciences, the workshop "Mathematics and Geosciences: Global and Local Perspectives" was hold in Madrid at ICMAT from 4-8 November, 2013. This is the first volume of the Topical Issue on "Mathematics and Geosciences: Global and Local Perspectives" and contains 13 papers, most of which were presented at the congress. They address different topics under both global and local perspectives such as the percolation theory to observe micro seismicity in fracking, fractional differential analysis to model complex dynamics, climate change, earthquake statistics, earth rotation, geomagnetic field, fire models, Mars exploration, numerical methods in meteorology and environmental conservation, probabilistic models in study of soils and fluid mechanics. This volume addresses the interest of scientists of many of the branches in Earth Sciences as well as postgraduate students, covering both approaches, applied and theoretical ones, to solve different problems in Geosciences with the help of mathematical models and methods.
"We are buried beneath mountains of fast-accumulating data. In such circumstances, this book, rather than adding to the data load, aims to offer real understanding." -James Lovelock Human beings are extraordinary creatures. Intelligent, agile, and curious, we have adapted and invented our way to becoming the most important species on the planet. So great is the extent of our influence, that many speak of a new geological era, the Anthropocene, an age defined by human-induced change to the blue and green globe we call home. Our lofty status comes with responsibility as much as possibility: How should we approach our present and future? What knowledge should we carry with us? Conceived by James Lovelock, inventor of the Gaia theory, this illustrated essay collection brings together an all-star lineup of thinkers and scientists to offer essential understanding about who we are, how we live, and where we might be going. Much as the Gaia theory considers our Earth as an integrated whole of living systems, The Earth and I encourages holistic understanding. Across 12 chapters, we take in both the intricate details and immense structures of our species and our planet, from our ever-expanding universe to our minuscule but mighty cells. We see stellar explosions and the layers of life beneath our feet, delve into the neuroscience of decision-making, get to grips with our climate, and contemplate our increasing intimacy with technology. The book's world-class contributors include quantum physicist Lisa Randall, Astronomer Royal Martin Rees, Pulitzer Prize-winning biologist Edward O. Wilson, and Nobel Prize-winning neuroscientist Eric Kandel. With lively illustrations from British artist Jack Hudson, the result is an inspiration for curious minds young and old, and a trusted tool kit for an informed and enlightened future.
Ongoing climate change necessitates advances in our understanding of the interrelationships between climate, landscape-shaping processes and human activity over long time periods, especially in areas that are already climatically stressed. This volume presents new ideas on macroscale landscape evolution; mountain, fluvial and aeolian processes; and environments in southern Africa, a key region in the story of human evolution during the last two million years. Interdisciplinary in scope, it brings together an international team of experts to synthesise the latest research and understanding of landscape-human relationships in this region. It incorporates results from the emerging fields of geoarchaeology and cultural landscapes and utilises the latest data and analytical techniques. A key reference for researchers studying hominid evolution, geoarchaeology and environmental change, it provides a benchmark study of southern African landscape evolution during the Quaternary. It will also appeal to professionals and policymakers with interests in future human-landscape evolution in southern Africa.
With the global population expected to reach nine billion by 2050, our capacity to provide enough food, water and energy relies on our understanding and management of the complex interdependencies in the climate-energy-water nexus. This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of the interdependencies between these sectors and the knock-on consequences of those interactions for other sectors, such as food production and biodiversity conservation. The interdisciplinary nature of the book across the three sectors of climate, energy and water means that it will be valuable for advanced students, researchers and policymakers across a broad range of fields, including environmental/energy/water/climate policy, environmental economics, climate science, hydrology, ecology and geography.
The past half century has seen an evolution in thinking from 'flood control' to 'flood risk management', recognizing that risk results from both hazard and vulnerability. Rather than rely only on engineering structures to reduce flood magnitude or extent, recent policies emphasize avoiding construction in flood-prone areas (or moving people from floodplains), reducing impacts on exposed populations through early warning systems, and insurance to aid in recovery. Implementing this new approach faces many challenges but also offers opportunities for synergies, as described in this book for a range of large floodplain rivers and smaller urban streams across North America and Europe. This book is unique in presenting the voices of those on the front lines of implementing a new paradigm in flood risk management, each river with a unique set of challenges and opportunities derived from its specific geography as well as differences in governance between the American and European contexts.
This book focusses on hydrological modeling, water management, and water governance. It covers the applications of remote sensing and GIS tools and techniques for land use and land cover classifications, estimation of precipitation, evaluation of morphological changes, and monitoring of soil moisture variability. Moreover, remote sensing and GIS techniques have been applied for crop mapping to assess cropping patterns, computation of reference crop evapotranspiration, and crop coefficient. Hydrological modeling studies have been carried out to address various issues in the water sector. MODFLOW model was successfully applied for groundwater modeling and groundwater recharge estimation. Runoff modeling has been carried out to simulate the snowmelt runoff together with the rainfall and sub-surface flow contributions for snow-fed basins. A study has been included, which predicts the impact of the land use and land cover on stream flow. Various problems in the water sector have been addressed employing hydrological models such as SWAT, ArcSWAT, and VIC. An experimental study has been presented wherein the laboratory performance of rainfall simulator has been evaluated. Hydrological modeling studies involving modifications in the curve number methodology for simulation of floods and sediment load have also been presented. This book is useful for academicians, water practitioners, scientists, water managers, environmentalists, and administrators, NGOs, researchers, and students who are involved in water management with the focus on hydrological modeling, water management, and water governance.
This book presents a beautifully illustrated overview of the most prominent landscapes of South Africa and the distinctive landforms associated with them. It describes the processes, origins and the environmental significance of those landscapes, including their relationships to human activity of the past and present. The sites described in this book include, amongst others, the Blyde River Canyon, Augrabies Falls, Kruger National Park, Kalahari desert landscapes, the Great Escarpment, Sterkfontein caves and karst system, Table Mountain, Cape winelands, coastal dunes, rocky coasts, Boer War battlefield sites, and Vredefort impact structure. Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa provides a new perspective on South Africa's scenic landscapes by considering their diversity, long and short term histories, and importance for geoconservation and geotourism. This book will be relevant to those interested in the geology, physical geography and history of South Africa, climate change and landscape tourism.
This edited book discusses various challenges in teaching structural geology and tectonics and how they have been overcome by eminent instructors, who employed effective and innovative means to do so. All of the chapters were written by prominent and active academics and geoscientists fully engaged in teaching Structural Geology and Tectonics. New instructors will find this book indispensible in framing their teaching strategy. Effective teaching of Structural Geology and Tectonics constitutes the backbone of geoscience education. Teaching takes place not only in classrooms, but also in labs and in the field. The content and teaching methodologies for these two fields have changed over time, shaped by the responsibilities that present-day geoscientists are expected to fulfill.
Provides a country-by-country review of the world's weather, guiding you through local seasons and advising you on what clothes to take, when best to go, and when you should definitely stay away.
Long regarded as an empty and inhospitable environment, the deep ocean is rapidly emerging as an ecological hot spot with a remarkable diversity of biological life. Yet, the world's oceans are currently on a dangerous trajectory of decline, threatened by acidification, oil and gas drilling, overfishing, and, in the long term, deep-sea mining, bioprospecting, and geo-engineering. In The Geopolitics of Deep Oceans, noted environmental sociologist John Hannigan examines the past, present and future of our planet's 'final frontier'. The author argues that our understanding of the deep - its definition, boundaries, value, ownership, health and future state - depends on whether we see it first and foremost as a resource cornucopia, a political chessboard, a shared commons, or a unique and threatened ecology. He concludes by locating a new storyline that imagines the oceans as a canary-in-the-mineshaft for gauging the impact of global climate change. The Geopolitics of Deep Oceans is a unique introduction to the geography, law, politics and sociology of the sub-surface ocean. It will appeal to anyone seriously concerned about the present state and future fate of the largest single habitat for life on our planet.
"Today, over two billion people in developing countries live without any electricity. They lead lives of misery, walking miles every day for water and firewood, just to survive. What if there was an existing, viable technology, that when developed to its highest potential could increase everyone's standard of living, cut fossil fuel demand and the resultant pollution" said Peter Meisen, President, Global Energy Network Institute in 1997. Even though energy is available, technology was not matured enough to tap this energy in the nineties. Now, with the advancement of drilling technology, extracting heat from hot rocks has become a reality. Very soon when CO2 replaces the circulation fluid to extract heat from granites then both fossil fuel based and renewable energy sources will coexists balancing the CO2 emissions and providing energy, food and water security to the rich and the poor countries. Red Sea rift represents the youngest spreading ridges in the world with a vast amount of heat energy stored on either side. The Red Sea is surrounded by countries with a weak economy. Developing a geothermal energy based economy in countries like Eritrea, Djibouti and Ethiopia will provide food and water security to these countries while for other countries, geothermal energy will help in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Although geothermal energy sources are available in all the countries since the opening of the Red Sea, millions of years ago, this was not brought to the light. Oil importing countries became highly dependent on the oil rich countries to sustain their economy and growth and thus remained poor. This book unfolds the huge energy source, hydrothermal and EGS, for the benefit of the poor countries to reduce poverty and lift the socio economic status of these countries. The book deals with i) future energy demand, ii) CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel based power plants, iii) black carbon emissions associated biomass energy source and iv) strategies to reduce CO2 emissions by using geothermal energy as energy source mix in all the countries-oil exporting and oil importing countries- around the Red Sea. The amount of energy available from hot granites in all the countries is well documented. EGS being the future energy source for mankind, this book will form the basis for future research by young scientists and academicians. Availability of fresh water is a matter of concern for all countries. The only way to satisfy the thirst of a growing population, to meet drinking water demand and food security, is to depend on seawater. A large volume of CO2 is being emitted from desalination plants supported by fossil fuel based energy sources. This book describes the advantages of using geothermal energy sources for the desalination process to meet the growing water and food demand of the countries around the Red Sea. Oil rich countries, using its geothermal resources, can now reduce food imports and become self sufficient in food production. This book gives hope for millions of children living in the underdeveloped countries around the Red Sea to satisfy their hunger and live a decent life with a continuous source of electricity, water and food available. This book ends with a note on the economic benefits of geothermal energy vs other renewables. With the signing of the GGA (Global Geothermal Alliance) by several countries during the December 2015 CoP 21 summit in Paris, policy makers and administrators will work together in implementing the necessary infrastructure and support to develop this clean energy source.
Wild Law weaves politics, legal theory, quantum physics and ancient wisdom into a fascinating and inspiring story about how to rediscover a viable role for the human species within the Earth community.
This title has been seminal in inspiring the global movement to recognise rights for Nature - a movement destined to shape the 21st Century as significantly as the human rights movements shaped the 20th Century. Wild Law reveals how the governance systems of contemporary civilisations legitimise and promote the disastrous exploitation and destruction of Earth and why an Earth-centred approach is essential to address climate change and the accelerating degradation of the ecological systems on which we depend. Cormac Cullinan explains how to begin transforming industrialized societies to ensure that the pursuit of human wellbeing enhances the beauty, health and diversity of Earth instead of diminishing it.
This edition includes a new preface, postscript and the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth proclaimed on 22nd April 2010 by the People's World Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth.
Regional Geology Guides provide a broad view and interpretation of the geology of a region.
In the follow up to Darwin's Lost World, Martin Brasier introduces the quest for the missing history of life and the cell. Through a series of journeys it emerges that the modern plant cell is one of the most deeply puzzling and unlikely steps in the whole history of life. Decoding this puzzle is a great adventure that has mainly taken place over the last half century. Brasier puts the big questions into context through lively descriptions of his explorations around the world, from the Caribbean Sea and the Egyptian pyramids, to the shores of the great lakes in Canada, and to the reefs and deserts of Australia. Covering the period from 1 to 2 billion years ago - a period he once dubbed 'the boring billion' - he demonstrates how it in fact involved great evolutionary potential with the formation of the complex (eukaryotic) cell. Without this cell there would be nothing on Earth today except bacteria, and the formation of this cell was a fundamental turning point in the history of life on Earth. Weaving together several threads, Brasier emphasizes the importance of single-celled forms to marine ecosystems; symbiosis and coral reefs; and the architecture and beauty of single-celled Foraminifera and what they tell us about evolution. From a master storyteller comes a vivid description of the earliest biological forms and a set of fascinating tales of travels and research.
Gravity and magnetic methods can be directly related to physical properties of rocks, i.e. the density and the susceptibility, and are very useful to field geologists and geophysicists in the mapping and identification of various rock types. They are also used for the detection of minerals with large contrast in density and susceptibility compared to country rock.
This reference volume consists of two parts: The first part describes the basic principles and methodology of the gravity and the magnetic methods of geophysical exploration with global examples. It deals with geological studies and gravity & magnetic methods; geodynamic studies (plate tectonics, crustal structures, plume tectonics); resource exploration (geological mapping, hydrocarbon, mineral and groundwater exploration); environmental studies (seismotectonics, engineering sites, climate changes, mining geophysics, volcanoes and volcanic activity, landslides, impact craters) and different modes of surveying. The second part is dedicated to the Indian Continent and deals with the application of geological data, integrated with other geophysical and geological information. It discusses geodynamics and seismotectonics with respect to the Indian Plate zone, including the Indian Ocean, Himalaya, Tibet and Archean- Proterozoic Cratons and Mobile Belts. It also presents ways for integrated exploration for hydrocarbons, minerals, groundwater and a number of environmental issues relevant in engineering and archaeology.
The accessible style of this unique work will benefit researchers, professionals, advanced students and interested readers in Geophysics, Geology, Economic Geology, Geological Engigeering, Geography, Mineralogy and related disciplines.
In an age of unprecedented exploration and innovation, our oceans remain largely unknown, and endlessly fascinating: full of mystery, danger, beauty, and inspiration. Bill Streever-a longtime deep-sea diver himself-has masterfully woven together the science and history of Earth's last remaining frontier: the sea. In Oceans Deep celebrates the daring pioneers who tested the limits of what the human body can endure under water: free divers able to reach 300 feet on a single breath; engineers and scientists who uncovered the secrets of decompression; teenagers who built their own diving gear from discarded boilers and garden hoses in the 1930s; saturation divers who lived under water for weeks at a time in the 1960s; and the trailblazing men who voluntarily breathed experimental gases at pressures sufficient to trigger insanity.Tracing both the little-known history and exciting future of how we travel and study the depths, Streever's captivating journey includes seventeenth-century leather-hulled submarines, their nuclear-powered descendants, a workshop where luxury submersibles are built for billionaire clients, and robots capable of roving unsupervised between continents, revolutionizing access to the ocean. In this far-flung trip to the wild, night-dark place of shipwrecks, trapped submariners, oil wells, innovative technologies, and people willing to risk their lives while challenging the deep, we discover all the adventures our seas have to offer-and why they are in such dire need of conservation.
Southern California is sandwiched between two tectonic plates with an ever-shifting boundary. Over the last several million years, movements of these plates have dramatically reshuffled the Earth's crust to create rugged landscapes and seascapes riven with active faults. Movement along these faults triggers earthquakes and tsunamis, pushes up mountains, and lifts sections of coastline. Over geologic time, beaches come and go, coastal bluffs retreat, and the sea rises and falls. Nothing about Southern California's coast is stable. Surf, Sand, and Stone tells the scientific story of the Southern California coast: its mountains, islands, beaches, bluffs, surfing waves, earthquakes, and related phenomena. It takes readers from San Diego to Santa Barbara, revealing the evidence for how the coast's features came to be and how they are continually changing. With a compelling narrative and clear illustrations, Surf, Sand, and Stone outlines how the coast will be altered in the future and how we can best prepare for it.
This textbook provides an intuitive yet mathematically rigorous introduction to the thermodynamics and thermal physics of planetary processes. It demonstrates how the workings of planetary bodies can be understood in depth by reducing them to fundamental physics and chemistry. The book is based on two courses taught by the author for many years at the University of Georgia. It includes 'Guided Exercise' boxes; end-of-chapter problems (worked solutions provided online); and software boxes (Maple code provided online). As well as being an ideal textbook on planetary thermodynamics for advanced students in the Earth and planetary sciences, it also provides an innovative and quantitative complement to more traditional courses in geological thermodynamics, petrology, chemical oceanography and planetary science. In addition to its use as a textbook, it is also of great interest to researchers looking for a 'one stop' source of concepts and techniques that they can apply to their research problems.
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