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Climate change is currently at the centre of scientific and political debate, and the need for well-designed international climate policies is widely recognised. Despite this, the complexity of both the climate change problem and the international negotiation process has resulted in a large number of outstanding issues which still require attention. The authors of this book attempt to address and resolve some of the problems which have remained on the climate change agenda, without serious action, for far too long. The authors contribute to the many discussions on international climate policy and provide an in-depth analysis of the main characteristics of the problem of climate change. They highlight the various potential solutions to the problem and their consequences, and look at the development and implementation of the international climate regime. Adopting a long-term perspective, they pay particular attention to the economic, institutional, political and social aspects of climate change. Issues in International Climate Policy is a comprehensive book which makes the complicated themes and issues accessible to a wider audience. It will be invaluable reading for all scientists, policymakers and environmental economists with a serious interest in climate change and the negotiation process.
This Routledge Revivals set makes available for the first time
as a collection the first three volumes of The History of the Study
of Landforms or the Development of Geomorphology, the
groundbreaking and definitive study in geomorphology compiled by
Richard J. Chorley, Robert P. Beckinsale and Antony J. Dunn.
Volume 1 (1964) dealt with contributions to the field up to 1890. Volume 2 (1973) dealt with the concepts and seminal contributions of William Morris Davis and Volume 3 (1991) treats historical and regional themes during the 'classic' period of geomorphology, between 1890 and 1950.
Climate change is an issue in which every human being on the planet is a potential stakeholder. Therefore, equity and ethical considerations have an important role to play in determining a climate change response strategy that will prevent the worst case scenario. In this context, the authors of this important new book attempt to provide a better understanding of the practical and analytical issues surrounding climate change negotiations. Each of the chapters reflects on an issue linked to the concepts of ethics, equity and climate change such as economics, morality, politics, rights and law, philosophy, and atmospheric science. The authors, who come from a diverse range of national, disciplinary and sectoral backgrounds, advance pragmatic policy suggestions to enhance international negotiations on climate change and highlight the value of considering more humanistic aspects in the negotiation process. Greenhouse gas emissions are widely considered to be the ultimate environmental externality and consequently an issue of great contemporary concern. This insightful and original treatment of the important issues will be welcomed by climate change negotiators, policymakers, and economic, environmental and social researchers. It will also be of interest to anyone who believes that the negotiation process may benefit from a more deep-rooted shift in social attitudes and beliefs.
This re-issue, first published in 1964, is the first of a seminal series analysing the development of the study of landforms, from both the geographical and geological point of view, with especial emphasis upon fluvial geomorphology. Volume 1 treats the subject up to the first important statement of the cycle of erosion by W. M. Davis in 1889, and attempts to identify the most significant currents of geomorphic thought, integrating them into the broader contemporary intellectual frameworks with which they were associated. As well as dealing with such key figures as Werner, De Saussure, Hutton, Playfair, Buckland, lyell, Agassiz, Ramsay, Dana, Peschel, Powell, Gilbert and Davis, attention is also given to many less important contributions by American, British and continental workers. A spirited biographical treatment, attractively set off by contemporary portraits, diagrams and sketches, will make this book of great interest to the historian of science, and indeed to the general reader, as well as to the student and scholar in geomorphology, hydrology and any other earth science.
More than 850 individuals partly forgotten by name, but sometimes found in historical writings, together with many well known or recently deceased persons are presented in terms of bio-data, short career highlights, and main advances made to the profession with a short biography of the main writings. If available, a portrait is also included. Hydraulicians in Europe, Volume 2 is a continuation of the first volume, both in outline and in coverage and pagination. Volumes 1 and 2 include more than 1500 biographies.
Producing maps that depict the real world accurately has been a major concern of cartographers for centuries. This is especially true today as escalating access to geospatial data and the subsequent increase in user-generated content provided by Web 2.0 have significantly altered the typical processes used to produce, distribute, and use geospatial data.
Focusing on users and decisions as well as the data, Spatial Data Quality: From Process to Decisions provides an up-to-date overview of scientific progress in this core sub-discipline of the Geographic Information Sciences. Presenting results from a number of current research projects in spatial data quality (SDQ) ? from the assessment of data accuracy to legal aspects relating to the quality of geographic information ? this reference reflects the changes in practice in response to the rapid technological developments over the past decade.
An impressive panel of internationally recognized expert contributors focuses on the relationship between the quality of geographic data and the quality of decisions based on such data. Structured for easy reference, the first section of the book discusses conceptual approaches to SDQ, the second presents a number of applications of spatial data quality methods, the third looks at SDQ issues for remote sensing data, and the final section presents papers that consider the interface between the law and SDQ.
In addition to the main chapters presented in each section, a number of shorter notes present on-going and recent research projects investigating various aspects of spatial data quality.
This monograph provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art
description of the work carried out in the UK and Japan on "Flow
and Sediment Transport in Compound Channels." It therefore
describes research which has been conducted, primarily over the
last two decades, and which has yielded a fairly detailed picture
of the important behaviours of compound channels and produced a
number of engineering prediction methods which ought to be widely
adopted in practice. The text will inevitably highlight areas where
our knowledge is sparse and it will spur others on in the task of
filling in such gaps.
This open access book contains a collection of rare geologic maps and figures made by Chinese geologists in the last century. Preserved in National Geological Archives of China, these artworks demonstrate the development and innovation of geological mapping technology in China in the past 100 years. The collections are highly scientific and artistic, with most of the hand-drawn maps featured with traditional Chinese painting techniques, while the newer ones being more accurate and embedded with more scientific information with the aid of computer techniques.
In this work, several modelling approaches are explored to represent spatial pattern dynamics of aquatic populations in aquatic ecosystems by the combination of models, knowledge and data in different scales.
It is shown that including spatially distributed inputs
retrieved from Remote Sensing images, a conventional
physically-based Harmful Algal Bloom model can be enhanced. Also,
Cellular Automata based models using high resolution photographs
prove to be good in representing aquatic plant growth. Multi-Agent
Systems can capture well the spatial patterns exhibited in GIS
density maps. A synthesis modelling framework was developed to
include biological/ecological growth and diffusive processes, and
local effects in conventional modelling framework. The results of
the complementary modelling paradigms investigated in this research
can be of help in achieving a sustainable environmental management
This undergraduate textbook on the key subject of geology closely follows the core curriculum adopted by most universities throughout the world and is a must for every geology student. It covers all aspects of petrology, including not only the principles of petrology but also applications to the origin, composition, and field relationships of rocks. Although petrology is commonly taught in the junior year, this book is a useful resource for graduate students as well.
Fluxes of trace gases, water and energy - the 'breathing of the biosphere' - are controlled by a large number of interacting physical, chemical, biological and ecological processes. In this interdisciplinary book, the authors provide the tools to understand and quantitatively analyse fluxes of energy, organic compounds such as terpenes, and trace gases including carbon dioxide, water vapour and methane. It first introduces the fundamental principles affecting the supply and demand for trace gas exchange at the leaf and soil scales: thermodynamics, diffusion, turbulence and physiology. It then builds on these principles to model the exchange of water, carbon dioxide, terpenes and stable isotopes at the ecosystem scale. Detailed mathematical derivations of commonly used relations in biosphere-atmosphere interactions are provided for reference in appendices. An accessible introduction for graduate students and a key resource for researchers in related fields, such as atmospheric science, hydrology, meteorology, climate science, biogeochemistry and ecosystem ecology.
Geology has been taught at what became the University of Manchester since 1851 when W.C. Williamson was appointed as the first Professor. (He was also Professor of Botany and Zoology in the early years and a medical doctor specialising in ear surgery!) Beginning with Williamson, this book outlines the fascinating story of the growth in teaching and research in geology at one of the world's foremost centres throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and early years of the present century. Manchester was one of three centres (with Oxford and Cambridge) which led research and teaching in geology in the UK and associated with the `big names' (Boyd Dawkins, Holland, O.T. Jones, Pugh, Deer, and Vincent). As well as describing the Heads and their contributions, the `comings and goings' of all academic staff are outlined. A chapter on the evolving `research scene' takes readers through the early years, when individual scientists focussed on the basic description of rocks, fossils and minerals or the geological mapping of areas in the UK. This led on to research groups in areas such as experimental petrology, isotope geochemistry and cosmochemistry, and molecular environmental science. Another major theme of this book covers the student experience and outlines the history of buildings used for teaching and research, along with student numbers, and teaching quality. A more personal aspect is given by a chapter of recollections from former students and staff. These accounts offer a fascinating insight into life as a geology student at Manchester in the mid to late 20th and early 21st centuries. The successes of these geologists led to recognition in the form of knighthoods, fellowships, medals and awards and brought substantial resources into the Department. Although this account ends in 2004, a short `epilogue' speaks of further major developments to around 2018.
Arc-continent collision has been one of the important tectonic processes in the formation of mountain belts throughout geological time, and it continues to be so today along tectonically active plate boundaries such as those in the SW Pacific or the Caribbean. Arc-continent collision is thought to have been one of the most important process involved in the growth of the continental crust over geological time, and may also play an important role in its recycling back into the mantle via subduction. Understanding the geological processes that take place during arc-continent collision is therefore of importance for our understanding of how collisional orogens evolve and how the continental crust grows or is destroyed. Furthermore, zones of arc-continent collision are producers of much of the worlds primary economic wealth in the form of minerals, so understanding the processes that take place during these tectonic events is of importance in modeling how this mineral wealth is formed and preserved. This book brings together seventeen papers that are dedicated to the investigation of the tectonic processes that take place during arc-continent collision. It is divided into four sections that deal firstly with the main players involved in any arc-continent collision; the continental margin, the subduction zone, and finally the volcanic arc and its mineral deposits. The second section presents eight examples of arc-continent collisions that range from being currently active through to Palaeoproterozoic in age. The third section contains two papers, one that deals with the obduction of large-slab ophiolites and a second that presents a wide range of physical models of arc-continent collision. The fourth section brings everything that comes before together into a discussion of the processes of arc-continent collision.
Seismology is a highly effective tool for investigating the internal structure of the Earth. Similar techniques have also successfully been used to study other planetary bodies (planetary seismology), the Sun (helioseismology), and other stars (asteroseismology). Despite obvious differences between stars and planetary bodies, these disciplines share many similarities and together form a coherent field of scientific research. This unique book takes a transdisciplinary approach to seismology and seismic imaging, reviewing the most recent developments in these extraterrestrial contexts. With contributions from leading scientists, this timely volume systematically outlines the techniques used in observation, data processing, and modelling for asteroseismology, helioseismology, and planetary seismology, drawing comparisons with seismic methods used in geophysics. Important recent discoveries in each discipline are presented. With an emphasis on transcending the traditional boundaries of astronomy, solar, planetary and Earth sciences, this novel book is an invaluable resource and reference for undergraduates, postgraduates and academics.
Soils play a central role in the conversion of organic matter and element fluxes because of the large number of microorganisms present in the soil. In this book the more important processes that are driven by microbiological activity are discussed. It will be of interest to students of chemistry, biology, ecology, soil science and related areas. Researchers from these fields will profit from extended literature surveys in each chapter comprising important findings from early as well as the most recent investigations.
Dinosaurs are fascinating creatures and their popularity seems never ending, fuelled by films such as Jurassic Park and documentaries such as Walking with Dinosaurs. Yet dinosaurs (or more precisely non-avian dinosaurs) last trod the Earth 65 million years ago. All we know of them today are their fossilised bones, the tracks and traces that they left behind and, in very rare instances, some of the soft tissues or even traces of their chemistry. In many respects dinosaurs present us with one of the ultimate forensic challenges: they comprise the fragmentary remains of creatures that died many tens of millions of years ago, rather than just recently, or a few tens of years ago, which is the problem usually faced by forensic pathologists. How much do we really know about them, and to what extent can their remains inform us about ancient worlds, and indeed about the history of our planet? In this Very Short Introduction David Norman discusses how dinosaurs were first discovered and interpreted, and how our understanding of them has changed over the past 200 years. He looks at some of the amazing discoveries that have enabled us to gain new and unexpected insights into dinosaurs as animals with natural histories and behaviours, and considers some of the biggest questions in dinosaur biology, such as the implications of them having warm blood. Norman also shows how research upon dinosaurs has been enriched, particularly in recent decades, by technological break-throughs, which complement the informed speculation and luck which have played a part in many of the major discoveries. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
The focal main objective of the book is to constitute a meaningful linkage among research problems, geoinformation methods and corresponding applications. The research goals, related both to theoretical and practical issues, derive from multidisciplinary fields such as archaeology, history, geography, landscape planning, environment, geoinformation science, geology and geomorphology. All the aforementioned scientific areas have the spatial dimension in common, i.e. the vast amount of spatially referenced data. Their research issues can be addressed and analysed with geoinformation technology; though, the researchers should get familiar to the range of available geoinformation methods. The book provides description of a variety of research problems issues and technological ?solutions?approaches that can be used to support processes of data capturing, mapping and analysis. These techniques and concepts are illustrated on numerous practical examples. along with specific examples, where these have been applied. The current structure of the book includes the following four chapters: introduction, data capturing and mapping, analysis and modelling, and study cases. In the following we provide a more detailed content of each chapter listing the main topics included within the selected articles.
This book offers an in-depth analysis and interpretation methods applicable to mine-induced seismicity. It is based on over 40 years of experience in mine and exploration geophysics. Another unique feature of this book is the complete history of the caving process as evidenced by the recorded seismicity at the South African copper mine Palabora Lift 1. Until now, the literature has only presented theory and case studies discussing the interpretation of results, and there has been no discussion of the input-data quality or why a certain interpretation technique was applied. This book fills that gap. This book is a fascinating read, written by one of the world's leading mine seismologists. It summarises the history and progression of mine seismology. It outlines the practical use of back analysis of data and how it can be used on a daily basis. The book explains how mine seismology can be used as an effective monitoring tool for key events as the mine progresses as well as for future caving operations.Anthony Allman MAusIMM, CP(Min), RPEQ Antcia Consulting Pty Ltd, Director, Mining Engineer The content of the book is really solid and robust and I have no doubt it is going to be considered a great contribution for the mining community.Raul Fuentes, Former Director of Master Program in Geomechanics Applied to Mining, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile This book is long overdue and helps to present some difficult concepts in a way that they can be clearly understood by non-experts in this area. Stefan has personally managed to take mine seismology from being a black-art into a useful tool to help make mines a safer and more controlled environment. Neil Hepworth C. Eng, MIMMM, Geomin Consultorio - Brazil, Consultant Mining and Geotechnics Seismic monitoring is an important tool in cave management. The information from monitoring allows a number of key production factors to be determined including cave advance rates, the approximate location of the cave back, insight into the size of the air gap and allows the tracking of broad changes in stress. These all assist in the day to day management of a safe and successful cave. Dr. Glazer's book provides guidance on the application of microseismicity to cave management through a review of appropriate theory and more importantly illustrates its use through case histories, particularly from the Palabora block cave. The text will be a good addition for all practitioners in cave engineering and operations.Allan Moss, General Manager - Grasberg Underground Liaison, Copper Development, Rio Tinto
Water Resources and Coastal Management presents a comprehensive and unique collection of articles which provide an interdisciplinary perspective on the science and management of global coastal resources. This important volume comprises five main sections. Part I reviews basic scientific concepts and underpinning knowledge of the processes at work in this dynamic environment. Part II considers how the natural variability of coastal zone environments has been unsustainably exacerbated by development and exploitation of such resources. Parts III and IV focus upon the various aspects of the management response options that could or have been deployed both in developed and developing countries. Finally, Part V examines the management issues that surround regional seas and their, often international, resource regions.
As the growth of the world's population requires the continued search for residential space, the urbanization of natural lands is an inevitable process, but that process does not have to be one that is accomplished without regard for environmental quality. This book presents the unique perspective of naturbanization, the urbanization of protected and highly valued natural spaces that are geographically removed from current urban centers. It discusses the search and selection of new residential spaces, economic planning and policy in such areas, environmentally sensitive construction, and public investment in infrastructure to make the areas more accessible and habitable.
Specifically, the book analyzes naturbanization as it is occurring in National Parks located along the European Union borders. Recent declarations have made the parks more accessible to development and consequently they are serving as models for ways to reach workable solutions and encourage the sort of economic development that will satisfy both developers and environmentalists
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