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Coined barely two decades ago, the Anthropocene has become one of the most influential and controversial terms in environmental policy. Yet it remains an ambivalent and contested formulation, giving rise to a multitude of unexpected, and often uncomfortable, conversations. This book traces in detail a broad variety of such 'Anthropocene encounters': in science, philosophy and literary fiction. It asks what it means to 'think green' in a time when nature no longer offers a stable backdrop to political analysis. Do familiar political categories and concepts, such as democracy, justice, power and time, hold when confronted with a world radically transformed by humans? The book responds by inviting more radical political thought, plural forms of engagement, and extended ethical commitments, making it a fascinating and timely volume for graduate students and researchers working in earth system governance, environmental politics and studies of the Anthropocene. This is one of a series of publications associated with the Earth System Governance Project. For more publications, see www.cambridge.org/earth-system-governance.
This new edition of Soil Erosion Research Methods retains the themes and layout of the first edition. However, most chapters have been revised and some additional chapters have been added. There are new chapters on modeling wind and water erosion. Extensive revisions and updating have been done in chapters dealing with assessment of erosivity and erodibility, erosion, crop productivity, measuring sediment yield from river basins and field plot techniques. There is extensive updating of current statistics on the global magnitude of soil erosion by water and wind and on denudation rates. Several new authors have made significant improvements in revising and updating available information.
Natural Decadal Climate Variability: Societal Impacts is an important work for understanding the natural decadal climate variability (DCV), a phenomenon which has made long lasting impacts on civilizations, especially on water availability and agriculture. This book comprehensively covers multiyear to decadal variations in instrument measured precipitation and temperature, water availability and river flows, crop production, agricultural irrigation, inland water-borne transportation, hydroelectricity generation, and fish and crustacean captures since the 1960s. A longer term perspective is provided with the use of multi-century data on dry and wet epochs based on tree ring information, and corroborating evidence from other literature. This valuable work will benefit climate scientists, meteorologists, hydrologists, agronomists, water transportation planners, resource economists, policymakers, professors, and graduate students and anyone else who has an interest in learning how natural climate phenomena has influenced societies for at least the past 1000 years.
Weather and climate are not the same. Weather is what occurs outdoors on a daily basis and is unpredictable from one week to the next, whereas climate follows a stable pattern that is developed over centuries. The planet is divided into climate zones-tropical, temperate and polar-based on temperature differences with distance from the equator where the sun is most intense and temperature affects humidity, precipitation, cloudiness and wind. To understand what drives our climate, scientists study the atmosphere, the oceans, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. 30-Second Climate is an immediately accessible guide to the 50 key factors affecting Earth's climate, past, present and future, each explained in half a minute. From atmospheric circulation to zero carbon, this is the quickest way to know your planet.
Written for introductory geomorphology courses this textbook offers an integrative, applications-centred approach to the study of the Earth's dynamic surface. Bierman and Montgomery draw from the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to help students get a basic understanding of Earth surface processes and the evolution of topography over short and long timescales. The authors also hone in on practical applications, showing how scientists are using geomorphological research to tackle critical societal issues (natural disaster response, safer infrastructure, protecting species, and more). Exceptionally concise and community vetted, each chapter is focused specifically on key concepts and underlying principles rather than regional or local examples. The book's philosophy emerged from a National Academy of Sciences workshop on the future of the textbook and the table of contents was determined by over 60 geomorphologists gathered to identify core concepts and areas of common interest that future geomorphologists need to know.
In 2011, there were fourteen natural calamities that each destroyed over a billion dollars worth of property in the United States alone. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy ravaged the East Coast and major earthquakes struck in Italy, the Philippines, Iran, and Afghanistan. In the first half of 2013, the awful drumbeat continued a monster supertornado struck Moore, Oklahoma; a powerful earthquake shook Sichuan, China; a cyclone ravaged Queensland, Australia; massive floods inundated Jakarta, Indonesia; and the largest wildfire ever engulfed a large part of Colorado.
Despite these events, we still behave as if natural disasters are outliers. Why else would we continue to build new communities near active volcanoes, on tectonically active faults, on flood plains, and in areas routinely lashed by vicious storms?
A famous historian once observed that civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. In the pages of this unique book, leading geologist Susan W. Kieffer provides a primer on most types of natural disasters: earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, landslides, hurricanes, cyclones, and tornadoes. By taking us behind the scenes of the underlying geology that causes them, she shows why natural disasters are more common than we realize, and that their impact on us will increase as our growing population crowds us into ever more vulnerable areas.
Kieffer describes how natural disasters result from changes in state in a geologic system, much as when water turns to steam. By understanding what causes these changes of state, we can begin to understand the dynamics of natural disasters.
In the book s concluding chapter, Kieffer outlines how we might better prepare for, and in some cases prevent, future disasters. She also calls for the creation of an organization, something akin to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention but focused on pending natural disasters."
At a time when the evidence is stronger than ever that human activity is the primary cause for global climate change, Ruddiman's breakthrough text returns in a thoroughly updated new edition. It offers a clear, engaging, objective portrait of the current state of climate science, including compelling recent findings on anthropogenic global warming and important advances in understanding past climates.
THE CHANGING EARTH: EXPLORING GEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, Seventh Edition, is a member of a rare breed of texts written specifically for courses covering both physical and historical geology. Three interrelated themes (plate tectonics, organic evolution, and geologic time) help students understand that Earth is a complex, integrated, and continually changing system. In the new edition authors James S. Monroe and Reed Wicander integrate new content emphasizing the economic impacts of geology. Topics such as fracking, nuclear waste, and the threat of earthquakes are covered in new Geo-Impact boxes that stress real-world applications. Lauded for their clear writing style, the authors go beyond simply explaining geology and its processes; rather, they place that knowledge within the context of human experience by consistently emphasizing relevance, resources, and the environment. New Global Geosciences Watch activities help students learn how to use an extensive database of articles on geology that are updated several times a day and are available exclusively for users of this book.
A compilation of papers describing the geology, engineering properties and the hazards and design issues associated with the substrata of Melbourne and its surrounds. It includes the area from Geelong to Bacchus Marsch to the Dandenongs and Mornington Peninsula.
Based on more than twenty years of research and lecturing, Jordi Vila-Guerau de Arellano and his team's textbook provides an excellent introduction to the interactions between the atmosphere and the land for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and a reference text for researchers in atmospheric physics and chemistry, hydrology, and plant physiology. The combination of the book, which provides the essential theoretical concepts, and the associated interactive Chemistry Land-surface Atmosphere Soil Slab (CLASS) software, which provides hands-on practical exercises and allows students to design their own numerical experiments, will prove invaluable for learning about many aspects of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. This book has a modular and flexible structure, allowing instructors to accommodate it to their own learning-outcome needs.
Groundwater is integral to many human and environmental systems but there are significant challenges in dealing with the impact of anthropogenic activities on groundwater systems. These challenges need innovative solutions. This book contains a wide range of content, from a discussion of the Australian regulatory framework for unconventional hydrocarbons, the extraction of which have the potential to significantly impact groundwater systems, to the best way to apply numerical models to help solve complex, real world problems. The impact of urbanisation on groundwater systems in the developing world is also discussed, at both a local scale in Nigeria and at a world scale. The use of innovative tools such as managed aquifer recharge, a critical tool in solving the groundwater challenges of the 21st century, is also discussed. The framework used to manage the legacy of agricultural contamination in Denmark, covering investigation to regulation and remediation, is also presented, focussing on how the many challenges in implantation were solved. This book is targeted at professional hydrogeologists, experts in governance, law and policy as well as other professionals that need to incorporate an understanding of groundwater. The book will also appeal to politicians, resource managers, regulators and others interested in sustainable water supply.
"Given the sheer scale of the topic under consideration here, Professor Gregory does well to condense it into bite-size pieces for the reader. I recommend this text to all undergraduate students of physical geography and earth sciences, particularly to those in their first and second years... This book is a comprehensive and (crucially) inexpensive text that will provide students with a useful source on geomorphology." - Lynda York, The Geographical Journal "I would highly recommend this to anyone doing geology or geography at university as a 'go to' book for geomorphology and landform." - Sara Falcone, Teaching Earth Science "An excellent source of information for anyone who needs a well-informed, easy to use reference volume to introduce them to the fascinating complexities of the earth's land surface, past, present and future." - Angela Gurnell, Queen Mary, University of London This introductory text details the land surface of the earth in a readable style covering the major issues, key themes and sensitivities of the environments/landscape. Emphasising the major ideas and their development, each chapter includes case studies and details of influential scientists (not necessarily geomorphologists) who have contributed to the progress of understanding. Providing a very clear explanation of the understanding achieved and of the debates that have arisen, the book is comprised of 12 chapters in four sections: Visualising the land surface explains and explores the composition of the land surface and outlines how it has been studied. Dynamics of the land surface considers the dynamics affecting the earth's land surface including its influences, processes and the changes that have occurred. Environments of the land surface looks to understand the land surface in major world regions highlighting differences between the areas. Management of the land surface is an examination of the current and future prospects of the management of the earth's land surface. With pedagogical features including further reading, questions for discussion and a glossary, this original, lively text is authored by one of the leading experts in the field and will be core reading for first and second year undergraduates on all physical geography courses.
The series is designed to meet the needs of students and lecturers of the National Certificate Vocational. To facilitate students' learning, the following features are used in the series: Content is written in easy-to-understand language, key terms are carefully explained, using everyday English, case studies show how to apply the theory in the work environment, the study skills sections help students make the most of their learning in class and prepare for the exams, there are many practice activities and questions with model answers at the back of the title, checklists assist students to make sure that they have covered all the skills and content in each chapter, and summaries at the end of each chapter are useful for exam revision. Lecturers using the series can teach with confidence because content is comprehensive, up-to-date, and meets all the curriculum requirements for the subject, outcomes and assessment standards are clearly identified, and assessment tasks and activities are aligned to the outcomes and assessment standards. Prescribing lecturers have access to comprehensive lecturer support material on CD including model answers to assessments in the textbook, additional assessments with model answers, rubrics for assessments, and general reference material on teaching outcomes-based education. The series is available for all programmes, all fundamental and compulsory subjects, and all elective and optional subjects.
Fish, or lower vertebrates, occupy the basal nodes of the vertebrate phylogeny, and are therefore crucial in interpreting almost every feature of more advanced vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Recent research focuses on combining evolutionary observations - primarily from the fish fossil record - with developmental data from living fishes, in order to better interpret evolutionary history and vertebrate phylogeny. This book highlights the importance of this research in the interpretation of vertebrate evolution, bringing together world-class palaeontologists and biologists to summarise the most interesting, current and cutting-edge topics in fish evolution and development. It will be an invaluable tool for researchers in early vertebrate palaeontology and evolution, and those particularly interested in the interface between evolution and development.
Mesoscale Meteorology in Mid-Latitudes presents the dynamics of mesoscale meteorological phenomena in a highly accessible, student-friendly manner. The book's clear mathematical treatments are complimented by high-quality photographs and illustrations. Comprehensive coverage of subjects including boundary layer mesoscale phenomena, orographic phenomena and deep convection is brought together with the latest developments in the field to provide an invaluable resource for mesoscale meteorology students.
Mesoscale Meteorology in Mid-Latitudes functions as a comprehensive, easy-to-use undergraduate textbook while also providing a useful reference for graduate students, research scientists and weather industry professionals.Illustrated in full colour throughoutCovers the latest developments and research in the fieldComprehensive coverage of deep convection and its initiationUses real life examples of phenomena taken from broad geographical areas to demonstrate the practical aspects of the science
An ancient and long-extinct volcano lies at the heart of Scotland's capital. It roared into life some 350 million years ago and has been a source of fascination since it was first studied in earnest during the Enlightenment by James Hutton, one of the most significant geologists of all time. Many of Hutton's ground-breaking ideas of how the world works were predicated on the rocks and landscapes of his home city and surrounding area. This book is a fascinating exploration into Edinburgh's geological history over millions of years - including the passage of ice during a great freeze that has left an indelible stamp on Edinburgh's cityscape, the use rocks quarried locally from ancient, now long disappeared seas to create the stunning elegance of Edinburgh's New Town, and the coal deposits and oil shale which were exploited from the Industrial Revolution to the present day.
A major objective of this monograph is to identify the impact of thermal environment on urban center district. It provides in-depth evaluation and research on the correlation between urban spatial morphology indicator and urban thermal environment. In addition, the distribution characteristics of thermal environment and urban morphology units sample are also evaluated intensively. Furthermore, it analyses from three aspects of urban planning, architecture and landscape respectively and includes 35 concrete measures that could be brought into practice on reducing negative impact of urban thermal environment. Through 500 vivid figures, graphs and diagrams it illustrates the relationship between urban morphology and urban thermal environment. The analysis software employed by the author includes Ecotect, ENVI-met and Ray-man. It intertwines the quantitative research of both thermal environment and urban morphology through in-depth analysis and urban microclimate simulation. It makes a valuable contribution for the research on urban environment and urban morphology.
Approximately 70% of the surface of Earth is the bottom of the seafloor and about 80% of the seafloor is the deep seafloor (at deeper than 200m below the sea-surface). This book discusses the deep sea. It provides topics on the biodiversity, human dimension and ecological significance of the deep sea, including the metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis discoveries; the biodiversity and life-history strategies of deep sea megafauna in the Mediterranean Sea; and prokaryotes in metal deposits on the deep seafloor.
A comprehensive and scholary history of prehistoric and early Cardiganshire. This volume is illustrated with maps, line-drawings and photographic plates. It begins with the geography of the county, its flora and fauna, and traces the slow emergence of Man in prehistoric times. It reconstructs, from evidence much of which has only been recently discovered, the extent and nature of the Roman Occupation, and finaly the slow emergence of the kingdom of Ceredigion, the nature of its economic and social organization and political structures. The coming of Christianity, the settlements of the Saints and their priceless heritage, are also explored. The volume ends with the coming of the Normans. This is the first volume to appear in the County History which is being prepared by the Cardiganshire County Historical Society. The completed history will consist of three scholarly volumes designed to present the history of the ancient county from the beginning to the present day. Volume 2: "Medieval and Early Modern Cardiganshire", edited by Professor J. Beverley Smith and Volume 3: "Cardiganshire in Modern Times", edited by Professor Ieuan Gwynedd Jones and Professor Geraint H. Jenkins are in preparation and will follow at regular intervals.
The line-scan images collected in this book represent the most accurate optical record of Antarctic ice cores ever presented, providing an invaluable resource for glaciologists and climate modellers, as well as a fascinating compilation of ice core images for Antarctica enthusiasts. Global warming and the Earth's past climate are the two main reasons for extracting deep ice cores from Antarctica. Indeed, dust particles, aerosols and other climatic traces deposited on the snow surface, as well as the air trapped in bubbles by compacted snow, produce chronologically ordered strata, making the ice from Antarctica the most accurate and valuable archive of the Earth's climate over the last million years. In addition, the layered structure produced by these strata, when revealed by appropriate methods, provides indispensable information concerning the flow and mechanical stability of the Antarctic ice sheet, allowing us to assess the current and future impact of global warming on the melting of polar ice caps with much greater precision.
Explore the latest research in anthropological genetics and understand the genome's role in cultural and social development A Companion to Anthropological Genetics illustrates the role of genetic analysis in advancing the modern study of human origins, populations, evolution, and diversity. Broad in scope, this essential reference work establishes and explores the relationship between genetic research and the major questions of anthropological study. Through contributions by leading researchers, this collection explores molecular genetics and evolutionary mechanisms in the context of macro- and microevolution, paleontology, phylogeny, diet, and disease, with detailed explanations of quantitative methods, including coalescent and approximate Bayesian computation. With an emphasis on contextualizing new and developing genetic research within anthropological frameworks, this text offers critical perspective on the conditions of molecular evolution that accompany cultural and social transformation, while also addressing critical disciplinary questions, such as the ethical issues surrounding ancestry testing and community-based genetic research. Acts as an essential reference on the contributions of genetic science to the field of anthropology Features new work by leading researchers of the field Explores the evolution of immunity, including the genetics and epigenetics of pathogens, chronic illness, and disease resistance Provides in-depth examination of mutation and dietary adaptation, including AMY1, lactase persistence, and sensory polymorphisms Explains essential quantitative and phylogenetic methods for aligning genomic analysis with evolution and migration time scales Offering thorough coverage on leading questions and developing research, A Companion to Anthropological Genetics is a comprehensive resource for students and scholars.
The geology of the Cairngorms was created on a timeline that stretches back hundreds of millions of years. Much of the land is underlain by granite that formed deep within the Earth's crust and 'surfaced' as the overlying layers of rock were stripped away by ice, wind and water. The bedrock is hard, and although the area has been heavily glaciated, still boasts 18 Munros, the highest of Scotland's peaks. The area attracts climbers, walkers and assorted adventurers who want to pit themselves against some of the most challenging conditions to be found anywhere in the UK. The plants and animals of the Cairngorms need to be hardy to survive the severe winter conditions. The higher reaches of the mountains are rich in montane vegetation such as lichen-rich heath and other habitats support many rare species.
Campbell's Atlas of Oil and Gas Depletion, Second Edition, is the product of a half-century of critical analysis and updating of data on the status of oil and gas depletion by country, region and the world as a whole. Separate analyses of conventional and non-conventional oil and gas, which are depleting at different rates and costs, show when these critical energy sources peak and decline. The Atlas also summarizes the history and political circumstances of each country to assess the impact on oil and gas production and reserves. It contrasts the First Half of the Oil Age, which saw the rapid expansion of the world economy, allowing the population to grow six-fold, with the Second Half, which will witness a general contraction as these easy, high-density energy supplies dwindle. The transition threatens to be a time of great economic, financial and political tensions. The Atlas, which has been compiled and updated by prominent geologist, former oil company executive, and oil analyst Colin Campbell since the 1960s, addresses the need for a reliable and comprehensive database on a subject essential to governments, industry, academia, and the population as a whole as we attempt to adapt to these critically changing circumstances.
This book is a product of the joint efforts of interdisciplinary academic fields under the integrative framework of human geoscience. Human geoscience is a new genre of geoscience concerned with the natural phenomena that occur on the surface of the Earth and their relations with human activities. It therefore has connections with many fields of geoscience, namely, physical geography, geomorphology, geology, soil science, sedimentology, seismology, volcanology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography, and hydrology. It also has strong links to the humanities, social sciences, agricultural sciences, and engineering related to disaster prevention or mitigation. All these disciplines are important fields for understanding disasters and global environmental problems and for evaluating the associated risks comprehensively, then proposing mitigation strategies.The volume is designed for those who may not necessarily have a geoscience background but have broad scientific interest in understanding the causes, mechanisms, and consequences of geo-disasters and global environmental problems and wish to make the world more sustainable on that basis. The book consists of six parts: I. Introduction, II. Earth Surface Realms, III. Natural Resources and Society, IV. Natural Hazards and Society, V. Global Environmental Problems, and VI. Global Sustainability Programmes and Human Geoscience, which discusses the contribution of this field of science to a new comprehensive framework for global sustainability.
The book provides a valuable guide to the evaluation and understanding of ground and environmental conditions of sites and their surrounds. This is done through a series of annotated block models and supporting photographs of common geological and geomorphological situations around the world, with basic text explanations and information on each principal block diagram and its annotated photographs. Ground conditions depend on the climatic, geological and geomorphological history of the site and its surrounding area. In ground investigation, ground engineering, design and construction, a preliminary study of the local environment (including climate), the landforms and the geomorphological processes creating and modifying the local landscape is thus required, as well as informed detailed knowledge of the soils and geology, their distribution, properties and engineering behaviour. Geomodels in Engineering Geology outlines the world's climatic and morphological zones and the changes such environments bring upon the ground.It deals with fundamental aspects of surface soils and geology in relation to their engineering behavior and guides the way that ground investigation can be developed to provide appropriate information needed for design and construction of a project - augmented by case histories and experience of practical problems.
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