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The book describes the Ankarana plateau and its cave network in Madagascar, depicting the natural environment of the Plateau as well as the natural processes which created the cave network of more than 100km with many galleries, some are very large and draped with different cave formations and underground rivers are inhabited with crocodiles and giant eels.This place is famous for its surface landscape formed with tsingy, natural needles formed by the weathering of limestone. The Ankarana is surrounded by native Madagascan rain forest inhabited with lemurs and it was a natural shelter for the Ankarana people whose kings were buried in caves. The cave system has been partially explored since the sixties and exploration is still in progress. The book includes several maps (geology, topography, hydrology), the survey of the caves and a brief description of the Ankarana Kingdom.
"Physical Geology: The Science of Earth, 2nd Edition "provides students with a variety of ways to learn the content of physical geology and offer them an opportunity to learn through multiple intelligences. Throughout the text, the challenge of critical thinking and the high-interest of relevant subject matter is used to build on other knowledge. "Physical Geology: The Science of Earth, 2nd Edition "explores all the standard introductory Physical Geology topics using recent research, innovative pedagogy and a stunning art program to show students how they can take geology and apply it to their world as a whole.
Global climate change is a topic of continuously growing interest. As more international treaties come into force, media coverage has increased and many universities are now starting to conduct courses specifically on climate change laws and policies. This textbook provides a survey of the international law on climate change, explaining how significant international agreements have sought to promote compliance with general norms of international law. Benoit Mayer provides an account of the rules agreed upon through lengthy negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and multiple other forums on mitigation, geoengineering, adaptation, loss and damage and international support. The International Law on Climate Change is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students studying climate, environmental or international law. It is supported by a suite of online resources featuring regularly updated lists of complementary materials and weblinks, and annually updated briefs for specific chapters.
Knowledge of the evolutionary history of birds has much improved in recent decades. Fossils from critical time periods are being described at unprecedented rates and modern phylogenetic analyses have provided a framework for the interrelationships of the extant groups. This book gives an overview of the avian fossil record and its paleobiological significance, and it is the only up-to-date textbook that covers both Mesozoic and more modern-type Cenozoic birds in some detail. The reader is introduced to key features of basal avians and the morphological transformations that have occurred in the evolution towards modern birds. An account of the Cenozoic fossil record sheds light on the biogeographic history of the extant avian groups and discusses fossils in the context of current phylogenetic hypotheses. This review of the evolutionary history of birds not only addresses students and established researchers, but it may also be a useful source of information for anyone else with an interest in the evolution of birds and a moderate background in biology and geology.
In 1931, the cluster of craters at Henbury Cattle Station south of Alice Springs in Central Australia was one of the first places on Earth where a group of impact structures could definitely be linked to the fall of iron meteorites. It was also the first place where radial rays and loops of ejected rock material, comparable to those seen around craters on the Moon, were observed. As such it was one of the primary observation sites associated with the science of meteoritics in its infancy. In this work the authors present previously unpublished documents covering early research at the Henbury site, provide an extended data set on the distribution of meteoritic material at Henbury craters, and compare recent discoveries on the mechanics of hypervelocity impacts with evidence collected over 80 years of research at the Henbury meteorite craters. In their conclusion, the authors suggest a new hypothesis for the fragmentation and incident direction of the crater-forming bolide, on the basis of a more complete set of data compared with previous models.
The universe that science reveals to us can seem far outside the comfort zone of the human mind. Subjects near and far open up dizzying vistas, from the infinitesimal to the colossal. Humanity, the unlikely product of uncountable coincidences on unimaginable scales, inhabits a tumultuous universe that extends from our immediate environs to the most distant galaxies and beyond. But when the mind balks at the vertiginous complexity of the universe, science unveils the elegance amid the chaos. In this book, Thomas R. Scott ventures into the known and the unknown to explain our universe and the laws that govern it. The Universe as It Really Is begins with physics and the building blocks of the universe--time, gravity, light, and elementary particles--and chemistry's ability to explain the interactions among them. Scott, with the assistance of James Lawrence Powell, next tours the earth and atmospheric sciences to explain the forces that shape our planet and then takes off for the stars to describe our place in the cosmos. He provides vivid introductions to our collective scientific inheritance, narrating discoveries such as the shape of the atom and the nature of the nucleus or how we use GPS to measure time and what that has to do with relativity. A clear demonstration of the power of scientific reasoning to bring the incomprehensible within our grasp, The Universe as It Really Is gives an engrossing account of just how much we do understand about the world around us.
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of environmental aspects of the Sava River, which is the greatest tributary to the Danube River and the major drainage river system of South Eastern Europe. Hydroelectric power plants, river traffic, intensive agricultural activities, heavy industry and floods have considerable influence on the environment and biota in the basin. Summarizing the results that were gathered in the course of EU, bilateral and national projects, the book highlights the most important stressors and helps readers to better understand the impact of anthropogenic activities on the function of river basins. Topics include: transboundary water cooperation between the riparian countries; climate change projection, including its impact on flood hazards; evaluation of anthropogenic pollution sources; pollution of sediments, metal bioavailability and ecotoxicological and microbiological characterization of the river. The biological part also addresses quality aspects related to wildlife in river aquatic ecosystems (algae, macrophytes, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fish) and riparian ecosystems (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). The general state of biodiversity and pressures caused by invasive aquatic species are also discussed.
This latest Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students, researchers and policy makers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology, atmospheric chemistry and environmental policy.
Plants have profoundly moulded the Earth's climate and the evolutionary trajectory of life. Far from being 'silent witnesses to the passage of time', plants are dynamic components of our world, shaping the environment throughout history as much as that environment has shaped them. In The Emerald Planet, David Beerling puts plants centre stage, revealing the crucial role they have played in driving global changes in the environment, in recording hidden facets of Earth's history, and in helping us to predict its future. His account draws together evidence from fossil plants, from experiments with their living counterparts, and from computer models of the 'Earth System', to illuminate the history of our planet and its biodiversity. This new approach reveals how plummeting carbon dioxide levels removed a barrier to the evolution of the leaf; how plants played a starring role in pushing oxygen levels upwards, allowing spectacular giant insects to thrive in the Carboniferous; and it strengthens fascinating and contentious fossil evidence for an ancient hole in the ozone layer. Along the way, Beerling introduces a lively cast of pioneering scientists from Victorian times onwards whose discoveries provided the crucial background to these and the other puzzles. This understanding of our planet's past sheds a sobering light on our own climate-changing activities, and offers clues to what our climatic and ecological futures might look like. There could be no more important time to take a close look at plants, and to understand the history of the world through the stories they tell. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
Fossils: The Key to the Past is a comprehensive guide to the study and meaning of fossils. This new paperback edition has been fully revised and updated, reflecting advances in our understanding of the fossil record and the significance of new fossil finds. Palaeontologist Richard Fortey explains in accessible language what fossils are, how they form and how to identify them, and how they help us to understand Earth's geological past and the emergence of life.Drawing on all the latest research, including molecular palaeontology, he discusses evolution and extinction, the economic uses of fossils, such as oil and coal, as well as offering practical advice for making a fossil collection. Extensively illustrated in full colour throughout, with photographs from the collections at the Natural History Museum, Fossils: The Key to the Past will appealto all those with an interest in the history of life itself.
Part of a series of monographs and memoirs in palaeontology and biostratigraphy The publication, Paleobiology of the Neoproterozoic Svanbergfjellet Formation, Spitsbergen, is Number 34 in the international Fossils and Strata series.
Water has become one of the most important issues of our time intertwined with global warming and population expansion. The management of water supplies and the conservation of water resources remains one of the most challenging yet exciting issues of our time. Water and wastewater treatment technologies are constantly evolving creating an increasingly sustainable industry that is one of the world's largest and most interdisciplinary sectors, employing chemists, microbiologists, botanists, zoologists as well as engineers, computer specialists and a range of different management professionals. This accessible student textbook introduces the reader to the key concepts of water science and technology by explaining the fundamentals of hydrobiology, aquatic ecosystems, water treatment and supply, wastewater treatment and integrated catchment management. This fourth edition is extensively changed throughout, with new coverage of the effects of climate change, environmental assessment, sustainability and the threat to biodiversity. The text serves as a primer for both undergraduate and graduate students in either science or engineering who have an interested in freshwater biology/hydrobiology or environmental engineering. It is also useful as a unified transitional course for those who want to span the traditional areas of engineering, biology, chemistry, microbiology or business. Professionals and consultants will also find the book a useful reference.
Part of the Fossils and Strata Series from the Scandinavian University Press The publication, Deep-sea Benthic Foraminifera from Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary Strata in the South Atlantic: Taxonomy and Paleoecology, is from an international series on stratigraphy and paleontology
Coastal regions around the world have become increasingly crowded, intensively developed, and severely exploited. Hundreds of millions of people living in these low-lying areas are subject to short-term coastal hazards such as cyclones, hurricanes, and destruction due to El Nino, and are also exposed to the long-term threat of global sea-level rise. These massive concentrations of people expose often-fragile coastal environments to the runoff and pollution from municipal, industrial, and agricultural sources as well as the impacts of resource exploitation and a wide range of other human impacts. Can environmental impacts be reduced or mitigated and can coastal regions adapt to natural hazards? Coasts in Crisis is a comprehensive assessment of the impacts that the human population is having on the coastal zone globally and the diverse ways in which coastal hazards impact human settlement and development. Gary Griggs provides a concise overview of the individual hazards, risks, and issues threatening the coastal zone.
Ranging across the 4.6 billion year history of the planet, geology is the subject that encompasses almost all that we see around us, in one way or another, and also much that we cannot see, beneath our feet, and on other planets. The fruits of geology provide most of the materials that give us shelter, and most of the energy that drives our modern lives. Within the study of geology lie some of the clues to the extraordinary impact our species is going to play out on the planet, in centuries and millennia to come. In this Very Short Introduction Jan Zalasiewicz gives a brief introduction to the fascinating field of geology. Describing how the science developed from its early beginnings, he looks at some of the key discoveries that have transformed it, before delving into its various subfields, such as sedimentology, tectonics, and stratigraphy. Analysing the geological foundations of the Earth, Zalasiewicz explains the interlocking studies of tectonics, geophysics, and igneous and metamorphic petrology and geochemistry; and describes how rocks are dated by radiometric dating. Considering the role and importance of geology in the finding and exploitation of resources (including fracking), he also discusses its place in environmental issues, such as foundations for urban structures and sites for landfill, and in tackling issues associated with climate change. Zalasiewicz concludes by discussing the exciting future and frontiers of the field, such as the exploration of the geology of Mars. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Between extremes of climate farther north and south, the 38th North
parallel line marks a temperate, middle latitude where human
societies have thrived since the beginning of civilization. It
divides North and South Korea, passes through Athens and San
Francisco, and bisects Mono Lake in the eastern Sierra Nevada,
where authors David and Janet Carle make their home. Former park
rangers, the authors set out on an around-the-world journey in
search of water-related environmental and cultural intersections
along the 38th parallel. This book is a chronicle of their
adventures as they meet people confronting challenges in water
supply, pollution, wetlands loss, and habitat protection. At the
heart of the narrative are the riveting stories of the passionate
individuals--scientists, educators, and local activists--who are
struggling to preserve some of the world's most amazing, yet
This textbook covers the entire spectrum of topics required to completely understand air pollution. It emphasizes the atmospheric processes governing air pollution (emissions, atmospheric dispersion, chemical transformations, deposition on surfaces and ecosystems). Other areas of focus include air pollutant emission control technologies, health and environmental impacts, regulations and public policies, and interactions between climate change and air pollution. Topics are first presented conceptually, and then in terms of their fundamental aspects. Actual case studies are incorporated throughout to illustrate major air pollution phenomena, such as the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the development of strategies to reduce urban air pollution, mitigate acid rain, and improve atmospheric visibility. Graduate students, researchers, and air quality professionals will find the full coverage of these important matters to be well suited to their needs.
The definitive guide to the belemnites of the island of Bornholm, Denmark Fossils and Strata, Number 44 covers Coniacian and Santonian Belemnite faunas from Bornholm and Santonian to Maastrichtian ammonites from Scania. Starting off with a brief introduction and overview of the geological setting of the island, the book moves quickly into the details. It covers the Arnager limestone formation, the Bavnodde greensand formation, coverage of the Coniacian and Santonian ammonite and inoceramid stratigraphy, an overview of palaeobiogeography and evolutionary trends, systematic palaeontology, and related topics.
Part of the Fossils and Strata Series from the Scandinavian University Press The publication, Postcranial Anatomy and Habits of Asian Multituberculate Mammals, is a contribution to an international series on stratigraphy and paleontology. One of the authors, Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska, headed Polish-Mongolian paleontological expeditions in the Gobi Desert.
Earth's climate has undergone dramatic changes over the geologic timescale. At one extreme, Earth has been glaciated from the poles to the equator for periods that may have lasted millions of years. At another, temperatures were once so warm that the Canadian Arctic was heavily forested and large dinosaurs lived on Antarctica. Paleoclimatology is the study of such changes and their causes. Studying Earth's long-term climate history gives scientists vital clues about anthropogenic global warming and how climate is affected by human endeavor.
In this book, Michael Bender, an internationally recognized authority on paleoclimate, provides a concise, comprehensive, and sophisticated introduction to the subject. After briefly describing the major periods in Earth history to provide geologic context, he discusses controls on climate and how the record of past climate is determined. The heart of the book then proceeds chronologically, introducing the history of climate changes over millions of years--its patterns and major transitions, and why average global temperature has varied so much. The book ends with a discussion of the Holocene (the past 10,000 years) and by putting manmade climate change in the context of paleoclimate.
The most up-to-date overview on the subject, "Paleoclimate" provides an ideal introduction to undergraduates, nonspecialist scientists, and general readers with a scientific background.
"Sedimentary Environments" has been one of the most distinguished and influential textbooks in the earth sciences published in the last twenty years. The two earlier editions won universal praise and became classic works. Since the publication of the second edition, knowledge and understanding of the importance of external controls on sedimentary environments has blossomed.This edition therefore places greater emphasis on sequence stratigraphy, architectural elements and allocyclic controls while retaining an extensive coverage of environments and the processes that operate within them. This should ensure that this edition sets a further benchmark in sedimentary geology. '...required reading for the professional geologist along with any serious graduate or senior undergraduate student.' - "Journal of Sedimentary Petrology". 'Every sedimentologist who practices the study of facies and environments should have this edition on his or her shelf.' - "Sedimentary Geology". 'It is a must for university libraries as it forms an excellent basis for the subject.' - "Earth Science Review".
Informative travel companions about roadside terrain and geology with photos, diagrams, and glossary.
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