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This book introduces the new discipline of urban oceanography, providing a deeper understanding of the physics of the coastal ocean in an urban setting. The authors explore how the coastal ocean impacts with the humans who live, work and play along its shores; and in turn how human activities impact the health and dynamics of the coastal ocean. Fundamental topics covered include: the governing dynamical equations; tidal and circulation processes; variation of salinity and freshwater fluxes; watershed pollutants; observing systems; and climate change. Bridging the gaps between the fields of engineering, physical and social sciences, economics, and policy, this book is for anyone who wishes to learn about the physics, chemistry, and biology of coastal waters. It will support an introductory course on urban oceanography at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level, and will also prove invaluable as a reference text for researchers, professionals, coastal urban planners, and environmental engineers.
Since the advent of agriculture approximately 12,000 years ago, human activity has created a unique set of ecosystems. However, the recent development of world markets, rapid technological advances, and other changes to farming practices have led to hugely increased pressures on farm habitats and organisms. Global human populations are rising and diets are becoming ever more complicated, leading to unrelenting requirements for increased levels of food production. Natural biotopes are becoming increasingly fragmented as agricultural activities expand around them. "Agroecosystems" now occur from the tropics to subarctic environments and comprise systems as varied as annual crops, perennial grasslands, orchards, and agroforestry systems. They presently cover almost 40% of the terrestrial land surface and significantly shape landscapes at a global scale. This key addition to the OUP Biology of Habitats Series provides a novel perspective on agroecosystems, summarising our current understanding of the basic and applied aspects of these important and complex habitats, whilst focusing on environmental concerns in the context of global change. The Biology of Agroecosystemsis is for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in agroecology, farmland ecology, conservation, and agriculture as well as the many professional ecologists, conservation biologists, and land managers requiring a concise overview of agroecology.
Australopithecines, dinosaurs, trilobites--such fossils conjure up images of lost worlds filled with vanished organisms. But in the full history of life, ancient animals, even the trilobites, form only the half-billion-year tip of a nearly four-billion-year iceberg. Andrew Knoll explores the deep history of life from its origins on a young planet to the incredible Cambrian explosion, presenting a compelling new explanation for the emergence of biological novelty. The very latest discoveries in paleontology--many of them made by the author and his students--are integrated with emerging insights from molecular biology and earth system science to forge a broad understanding of how the biological diversity that surrounds us came to be. Moving from Siberia to Namibia to the Bahamas, Knoll shows how life and environment have evolved together through Earth's history. Innovations in biology have helped shape our air and oceans, and, just as surely, environmental change has influenced the course of evolution, repeatedly closing off opportunities for some species while opening avenues for others. Readers go into the field to confront fossils, enter the lab to discern the inner workings of cells, and alight on Mars to ask how our terrestrial experience can guide exploration for life beyond our planet. Along the way, Knoll brings us up-to-date on some of science's hottest questions, from the oldest fossils and claims of life beyond the Earth to the hypothesis of global glaciation and Knoll's own unifying concept of "permissive ecology." In laying bare Earth's deepest biological roots, Life on a Young Planet helps us understand our own place in the universe--and our responsibility as stewards of a world four billion years in the making. In a new preface, Knoll describes how the field has broadened and deepened in the decade since the book's original publication.
Earth's present-day environments are the outcome of a 4.5 billion year period of evolution reflecting the interaction of global-scale geological and biological processes punctuated by several extraordinary events and episodes that perturbed the entire Earth system. One of the earliest and arguably greatest of these events was a substantial increase (orders of magnitude) in the atmospheric oxygen abundance, sometimes referred to as the Great Oxidation Event. Volume 1: The Palaeoproterozoic of Fennoscandia as Context for the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia - Drilling Earth Project describes the implementation of the FAR-DEEP drilling project in Arctic Russia. It summarises the knowledge of more than 50 years of largely Russian-led fieldwork, information hitherto virtually unavailable in the west, and provides geological description of drilling areas with an overwhelming illustration of rocks by high-quality, representative photographs. The volume offers a comprehensive review and rich photo-illustration of palaeotectonic, palaeogeographic and magmatic evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield in the early Palaeoproterozoic, and link the evolution of the shield to the emergence of an aerobic Earth system. The volume unfolds the event-based Fennoscandian chronostratigraphy and discusses the chronology of the Palaeoproterozoic global events as the base for a new subdivision of Palaeoproterozoic time. Welcome to the illustrative journey through one of the most exciting periods of planet Earth!
A magisterial exploration of the natural history of the first four thousand million years of life on and in the earth, by one of Britain's most dazzling science writers. What do any of us know about the history of our planet before the arrival of man? Most of us have a dim impression of a swirling mass of dust solidifying to form a volcanic globe, briefly populated by dinosaurs, then by woolly mammoths and finally by our own hairy ancestors. This book, aimed at the curious and intelligent but perhaps mildly uninformed reader, brilliantly dispels such lingering notions forever. At the end of the book we understand the complexity of the history of life on earth, and the complexity of how it has come to be understood, as, perhaps, from no other single volume. The result is enthralling.
Rivers are important agents of change that shape the Earth's surface and evolve through time in response to fluctuations in climate and other environmental conditions. They are fundamental in landscape development, and essential for water supply, irrigation, and transportation. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the geomorphological processes that shape rivers and that produce change in the form of rivers. It explores how the dynamics of rivers are being affected by anthropogenic change, including climate change, dam construction, and modification of rivers for flood control and land drainage. It discusses how concern about environmental degradation of rivers has led to the emergence of management strategies to restore and naturalize these systems, and how river management techniques work best when coordinated with the natural dynamics of rivers. This textbook provides an excellent resource for students, researchers, and professionals in fluvial geomorphology, hydrology, river science, and environmental policy.
The main objective of this research is to investigate the governing processes and characteristics that drive morphodynamic evolution in alluvial estuaries by application of a process-based numerical model (Delft3D). It is of utmost importance to understand estuarine processes so that impact of human interference (like dredging and land reclamation) and long-term changes (like sea level rise) can be evaluated. The research addresses a number of cases ranging from an rectangular basins to real estuaries like the Western Scheldt in the Netherlands or San Pablo Bay in California. The more schematized approach allow to study morphodynamic evolution over several millennia under constant forcing and answers more fundamental questions related to conditions of equilibrium and related time scales. The more realistic cases give insight into the skill of the approach in predicting decadal morphodynamic developments. More processes are included to mimic realistic conditions and model results are compared to bathymetric measurements over the last century. The research shows that the modeling approach is good capable of describing stable morphodynamic calculations over a timescale of millennia with patterns similar to patterns observed in reality. Additionally, the approach shows that it is possible to predict decadal morphodynamic developments in real estuaries with significant skill.
This volume contains peer-reviewed papers from the Third World Landslide Forum organized by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) in June 2014. The complete collection of papers from the Forumis published in three full-color volumes and one mono-color volume. "
Bank filtration (BF) is a natural water treatment process which induces surface water to flow in response to a hydraulic gradient through soil/sediment and into a vertical or horizontal well. It is a relatively cost-effective, robust and sustainable technology. From a historical perspective, BF is first mentioned in the bible, and the process has been recognized as a proven method for drinking water treatment in Europe for more than 100 years. However, the mechanisms of removal of different contaminants during BF are not fully understood. This study showed that BF is an effective multiple objective barrier for removal of different contaminants present in surface water sources including bulk organic matter and organic micropollutants (OMPs) like pharmaceutically active compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds. It was found that biodegradation and adsorption play primary and secondary roles, respectively, in the removal of OMPs during soil passage. Furthermore, using field data from BF sites and chemical properties of OMPs, models were developed to estimate the removal of OMPs during soil passage. It can be concluded that the removal efficiencies of BF for these contaminants can be maximised by proper design and operation of recovery wells taking into consideration source water quality characteristics and local hydrogeological conditions.
The proposal that the impact of humanity on the planet has left a distinct footprint, even on the scale of geological time, has recently gained much ground. Global climate change, shifting global cycles of the weather, widespread pollution, radioactive fallout, plastic accumulation, species invasions, the mass extinction of species - these are just some of the many indicators that we will leave a lasting record in rock, the scientific basis for recognizing new time intervals in Earth's history. The Anthropocene, as the proposed new epoch has been named, is regularly in the news. Even with such robust evidence, the proposal to formally recognize our current time as the Anthropocene remains controversial both inside and outside the scholarly world, kindling intense debates. The reason is clear. The Anthropocene represents far more than just another interval of geologic time. Instead, the Anthropocene has emerged as a powerful new narrative, a concept through which age-old questions about the meaning of nature and even the nature of humanity are being revisited and radically revised. This Very Short Introduction explains the science behind the Anthropocene and the many proposals about when to mark its beginning: the nuclear tests of the 1950s? The beginnings of agriculture? The origins of humans as a species? Erle Ellis considers the many ways that the Anthropocene's "evolving paradigm" is reshaping the sciences, stimulating the humanities, and foregrounding the politics of life on a planet transformed by humans. The Anthropocene remains a work in progress. Is this the story of an unprecedented planetary disaster? Or of newfound wisdom and redemption? Ellis offers an insightful discussion of our role in shaping the planet, and how this will influence our future on many fronts. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Ever increasing urbanization is impacting both the quantity and quality of urban water resources. These urban water resources and components of the water cycle are likely to be affected severely. To minimize the consequences on world water resources, the development of sustainable water resources management strategies is inevitable. An integrated urban water resources management strategy is the key to maintain sustainable water resources. A preliminary understanding of physio-chemical processes and analysis methodologies involved in each and every component of the urban water cycle is necessary. In the past these components have been investigated and published individually. With the view to aiding the development of integrated urban water resources management strategies, this book endeavors to present and explain the major urban water cycle components from a single holistic platform. The book presents the introduction, analysis and design methods of a wide range of urban water components i.e., rainfall, flood, drainage, water supply and waste water with the additions of sustainability practices in most of the components. Current "Hydrology" and "Hydraulics" books do not incorporate sustainability features and practices, while there are many books on general "Sustainability" without integrating sustainability concepts into typical engineering designs. The book starts with components and classifications of world water resources, then basic and detailed components of the hydrologic cycle, climate change and its impacts on hydrologic cycle, rainfall patterns and measurements, rainfall losses, derivations of design rainfalls, streamflow measurements, flood frequency analysis and probabilistic flood estimations, deterministic flood estimations, unit hydrograph, flood modelling, commercial modelling tools and use of Geographical Information System (GIS) for flood modelling, principles of open channel hydraulics, critical flow and flow classification indices, open channel flow profiles, uniform flow in open channel and open channel design, estimation of future population and domestic water demand, design of water supply systems, sustainable water supply system, water treatments, wastewater quantification, wastewater treatments, sustainable and decentralized wastewater treatment, stormwater drainage and urban drainage analysis, water footprint and water-energy nexus, features of water conservation, harvesting and recycling, components of sustainable urban design, stormwater treatment and integrated water management.
Statistical downscaling and bias correction are becoming standard tools in climate impact studies. This book provides a comprehensive reference to widely-used approaches, and additionally covers the relevant user context and technical background, as well as a synthesis and guidelines for practitioners. It presents the main approaches including statistical downscaling, bias correction and weather generators, along with their underlying assumptions, skill and limitations. Relevant background information on user needs and observational and climate model uncertainties is complemented by concise introductions to the most important concepts in statistical and dynamical modelling. A substantial part is dedicated to the evaluation of regional climate projections and their value in different user contexts. Detailed guidelines for the application of downscaling and the use of downscaled information in practice complete the volume. Its modular approach makes the book accessible for developers and practitioners, graduate students and experienced researchers, as well as impact modellers and decision makers.
The book is an overview of the diversity of anthropogenic aquifer recharge (AAR) techniques that use aquifers to store and treat water. It focusses on the processes and the hydrogeological and geochemical factors that affect their performance. This book is written from an applied perspective with a focus of taking advantage of global historical experiences, both positive and negative, as a guide to future implementation. Most AAR techniques are now mature technologies in that they have been employed for some time, their scientific background is well understood, and their initial operational challenges and associated solutions have been identified. However, opportunities exist for improved implementation and some recently employed and potential future innovations are presented. AAR which includes managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a very important area of water resources management and there is no recent books that specifically and comprehensively addresses the subject.
Providing a balance between principles and practice, this state-of-the-art overview of geophysical methods takes readers from the basic physical phenomena, through the acquisition and processing of data, to the creation of geological models of the subsurface and data interpretation to find hidden mineral deposits. Detailed descriptions of all the commonly used geophysical methods are given, including gravity, magnetic, radiometric, electrical, electromagnetic and seismic methods. Each technique is described in a consistent way and without complex mathematics. Emphasising extraction of maximum geological information from geophysical data, the book also explains petrophysics, data modelling and common interpretation pitfalls. Packed with full-colour figures, also available online, the text is supported by selected examples from around the world, including all the major deposit types. Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in minerals geoscience, this is also a valuable reference for professionals in the mining industry wishing to make greater use of geophysical methods. In 2015, Dentith and Mudge won the ASEG Lindsay Ingall Memorial Award for their combined effort in promoting geophysics to the wider community with the publication of this title.
The Isle of Skye offers a magical combination of wild land and breath-taking natural beauty. Skye's geological history involves some of the most ancient rocks on the planet; a grandstand view as the Highlands of Scotland were formed over 400 million years ago and the development of one of the mightiest volcanoes ever to blow its top. Skye is also known as Scotland's 'dinosaur island', yielding the remains of many species of plant and meat-eating creatures that stalked land some 140 million years ago. Finally, the rocks forged in earlier times were shaped into the familiar hills and glens of today by the passage of ice as a great freeze gripped the land. This book provides key information about the formation of the island and the on-going processes of natural landscape evolution that continue to leave their mark on these spectacular vistas.
This book deals primarily with monitoring, prediction and understanding of Tropical Cyclones (TCs). It was envisioned to serve as a teaching and reference resource at universities and academic institutions for researchers and post-graduate students. It has been designed to provide a broad outlook on recent advances in observations, assimilation and modeling of TCs with detailed and advanced information on genesis, intensification, movement and storm surge prediction. Specifically, it focuses on (i) state-of-the-art observations for advancing TC research, (ii) advances in numerical weather prediction for TCs, (iii) advanced assimilation and vortex initialization techniques, (iv) ocean coupling, (v) current capabilities to predict TCs, and (vi) advanced research in physical and dynamical processes in TCs. The chapters in the book are authored by leading international experts from academic, research and operational environments. The book is also expected to stimulate critical thinking for cyclone forecasters and researchers, managers, policy makers, and graduate and post-graduate students to carry out future research in the field of TCs.
This volume synthesizes the relevant data that is fundamental to our understanding of trace metal biogeochemistry and the ecology of biological communities of deep-sea vent systems. It presents the combined results of biological and geochemical research and analyzes the microdistribution of animals and the spatial structure of vent communities. Careful consideration is given to the export of iron and other trace metals from hydrothermal vents. The environmental conditions to be found in deep-sea hydrothermal community habitats, along with the trace metal behavior in biotope water are characterized and the sources and forms of trace metals taken up by dominant hydrothermal vent animals are discussed. Special attention is paid to the poorly investigated deep biosphere of the sub-seafloor igneous crust. The book is illustrated with a wealth of exceptional deep-sea photos taken by the manned submersible "Mir", and a dedicated chapter focuses on the role of deep manned submersibles in ocean research. The book will be of interest to researchers and students in the fields of oceanography, geochemistry, biology, the environmental sciences and marine ecology.
Water scarcity is increasing all over the world because of
growing population and increasing demands. Countries with limited
water resources are urgently in need for a new approach towards
water management by shifting from the "use and dispose" approach to
the "use, treat and reuse" approach. This book proposes a framework
for the sustainable management of scarce water resources. The
approach is based on the application of Cleaner Production thinking
to water management.
Clays are increasingly becoming a major problem in the mining, extraction and value-adding processes for a wide range of commodity raw materials. Clays can impact negatively on virtually every unit process within the mining and minerals processing sector, having long-term environmental implications that go well beyond the lifetime of the mining operation. This book is the first to compile, explain and evaluate the effects of clays in the mineral processing value chain, from mining to minerals processing, and finally, tailings disposal. Focusing on topics from the chemistry and rheology of clays to their detection and dissolution behaviour, this book provides comprehensive coverage of the effects on processes such as settling, preg-robing, flotation and comminution. It is an excellent reference for professional mineralogists and geologists, industrial engineers, and researchers interested in clays and clay minerals.
A modern guide to environmental chemistry Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of modern environmental chemistry, discussing the chemistry and interconnections between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. Written by internationally recognized experts, the textbook explores the chemistries of the natural environmental systems and demonstrates how these chemical processes change when anthropogenic emissions are introduced into the whole earth system. This important text: Combines the key areas of environmental chemistry needed to understand the sources, fates, and impacts of contaminants in the environment Describes a range of environmental analytical methodologies Explores the basic environmental effects of energy sources, including nuclear energy Encourages a proactive approach to environmental chemistry, with a focus on preventing future environmental problems Includes study questions at the end of each chapter Written for students of environmental chemistry, environmental science, environmental engineering, geoscience, earth and atmospheric sciences, Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods covers the key aspects and mechanisms of currently identified environmental issues, which can be used to address both current and future environmental problems.
This thesis presents the implementation of fully three-dimensional sediment transport and morphological updating formulations within a proven three-dimensional hydrodynamic flow solver. The thesis briefly discusses the formulations used to model both suspended and bed-load transport of non-cohesive sediment, and describes the implementation of a morphological updating scheme which incorporates novel approaches to morphological acceleration and dry bank erosion. Approaches used to model the three-dimensional effects of waves on coastal hydrodynamics and of three-dimensional currents on waves are also discussed. Results of several validation studies are presented and the model is shown to perform well in a series of simplified theoretical, laboratory, and full scale test cases. Application of the model and acceleration techniques to the complex and dynamic entrance to Willapa Bay, WA, USA is also discussed. Model processes are validated against the results of an extensive field measurement campaign, and diagnostic morphological model simulations are performed for two historical periods of contrasting morphological development. Input reduction and morphological acceleration techniques used to perform 5-year simulations of Willapa Bay are critically analysed and a new generic method to select a representative morphological tide for coastal environments containing significant diurnal tidal energy is presented.
The over-enrichment of surface water bodies with phosphorus compounds can lead to eutrophication resulting in reduced photosynthetic activity, oxygen depletion, production of toxic compounds and, ultimately, loss of plant and animal species. Due to relatively high removal efficiency, economy and environmentally-friendly operation, enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems is a popular technology to control and prevent eutrophication in surface water bodies. EBPR can be implemented by promoting the enrichment of the system with polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO). However, EBPR process may suffer of instability and unreliability experiencing process upsets, deterioration and even failure. Among other factors, the appearance of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO), which compete with PAO, has been hypothesized to be the main cause of deterioration of the EBPR process performance. In this research, the effects of key environmental and operating conditions influencing the PAO-GAO competition were addressed through undertaking different studies at both lab- and full-scale and by applying mathematical modelling. It contributes to get a better understanding about the factors affecting the PAO-GAO competition and, thus, the stability and reliability of the EBPR process in activated sludge systems. The findings obtained in this research may prove useful towards optimization of full-scale EBPR plants.
Vast, majestic, and often stunningly beautiful, glaciers lock up some 10% of the world's freshwater. These great bodies of ice play an important part in the Earth system, carving landscapes and influencing climate on regional and hemispheric scales, as well as having a significant impact on global sea level. Throughout time, the Earth has experienced various major glaciations in its deep history, long before the ice ages of the Quaternary, and the observed effects of climate change on glaciers have recently brought them to the forefront of public attention This Very Short Introduction offers an overview of glaciers and ice sheets as systems, considering the role of geomorphology and sedimentology in studying them, and their impacts on our planet in terms of erosional and depositional processes. Looking at our glaciers today, and their ongoing processes, David Evans considers the extent to which we can use this knowledge in reconstructing and interpreting ancient glacial landscapes. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This Routledge Revivals set makes available for the first time
as a collection the first three volumes of The History of the Study
of Landforms or the Development of Geomorphology, the
groundbreaking and definitive study in geomorphology compiled by
Richard J. Chorley, Robert P. Beckinsale and Antony J. Dunn.
Volume 1 (1964) dealt with contributions to the field up to 1890. Volume 2 (1973) dealt with the concepts and seminal contributions of William Morris Davis and Volume 3 (1991) treats historical and regional themes during the 'classic' period of geomorphology, between 1890 and 1950.
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