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This book shares essential insights on evaporites and their effects on dams and reservoirs. The intensity of the solution and suffusion process in evaporites (gypsum and salt) is much greater than the solution of carbonates, and evaporites are particularly vulnerable at dam and reservoir sites. Moreover, the presence of evaporites in the vicinity of dams or reservoirs often leads to serious problems: numerous dams in countries around the world (e.g. China, Germany, Iran, Iraq, Peru, Russia, Spain, the Unites States, and Venezuela) have been affected by evaporite dissolution problems. Several of these dams were seriously endangered or ultimately abandoned, even though the best available engineering prevention and remediation practices were applied. Conventional geotechnical methods based on treating the underground (e.g. grout curtains) or surface (e.g. protective blankets) were not successful. This book presents and analyzes revealing case studies in this regard. To improve geotechnical remediation in connection with preventing seepage from reservoirs situated in evaporites, particularly in gypsum, it puts forward a new chemical solution that, after painstaking laboratory testing, was successfully applied in the field.
The culmination of more than a decade of fieldwork and related study, this unique book uses analyses of perimortem taphonomy in Ice Age Siberia to propose a new hypothesis for the peopling of the New World. The authors present evidence based on examinations of more than 9000 pieces of human and carnivore bone from 30 late Pleistocene archaeological and palaeontological sites, including cave and open locations, which span more than 2000 miles from the Ob River in the West to the Sea of Japan in the East. The observed bone damage signatures suggest that the conventional prehistory of Siberia needs revision and, in particular, that cave hyenas had a significant influence on the lives of Ice Age Siberians. The findings are supported by more than 250 photographs, which illustrate the bone damage described and provide a valuable insight into the context and landscape of the fieldwork for those unfamiliar with Siberia.
As governments around the world work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, the trans-disciplinary topic of ocean management is fast being recognized as one of the most important challenges of the twenty-first century. This timely Handbook takes stock of the state of knowledge on ecosystem services derived from coastal and marine areas and offers innovative proposals for the future of this important topic. The Handbook on the Economics and Management of Sustainable Oceans brings together a carefully chosen collection of world-class contributions from ecology, economics and other development sciences. It provides policy-relevant scientific information on key topics such as ecosystem services from marine and coastal ecosystems and the nuances of economic valuation. Detailed chapters also consider relevant legal and sociological response policies for effective management of marine areas for enhanced human well-being. This comprehensive Handbook will be essential reading for advanced students and academics in economics, environment studies and resource management. The contributors also focus on the nexus of science-society and science-policy with the objective of educating decision-makers in governmental agencies, industry and civil society.
Allow yourself to be taken back into deep geologic time when strange creatures roamed the Earth and Western North America looked completely unlike the modern landscape. Volcanic islands stretched from Mexico to Alaska, most of the Pacific Rim didn't exist yet, at least not as widespread dry land; terranes drifted from across the Pacific to dock on Western Americas' shores creating mountains and more volcanic activity. Landscapes were transposed north or south by thousands of kilometers along huge fault systems. Follow these events through paleogeographic maps that look like satellite views of ancient Earth. Accompanying text takes the reader into the science behind these maps and the geologic history that they portray. The maps and text unfold the complex geologic history of the region as never seen before.
Towns and villages are sometimes viewed as minor, even quaint, spots, whereas this book boldly reconceptualizes these places as important dynamic environmental 'hotspots'. Multitudes of towns and villages with nearly half the world's population characterize perhaps half the global land surface. The book's pages feature ecological patterns, processes, and change, as well as human dimensions, both within towns and in strong connections and effects on surrounding agricultural land, forest land, and arid land. Towns, small to large, and villages are examined with spatial and cultural lenses. Ecological dimensions - water, soil and air systems, together with habitats, plants, wildlife and biodiversity - are highlighted. A concluding section presents concepts for making better towns and better land. From a pioneer in both landscape ecology and urban ecology, this highly international town ecology book opens an important frontier for researchers, students, professors, and professionals including environmental, town, and conservation planners.
This volume offers a comprehensive review of the chemical, biological and hydromorphological quality of the Danube. The first part examines the chemical pollution of surface waters, focusing on organic compounds (with special emphasis given to EU WFD priority substances and Danube River Basin specific pollutants), heavy metals and nutrients. Attention is also given to pollution of groundwater and drinking water resources by hazardous substances and to radioactivity in the Danube. The second part highlights the biology and hydromorphology of the Danube. It focuses on benthic macroinvertebrates, phytobenthos, macrophytes, fish, phytoplankton as well as microbiology, with chapters dedicated to gaps and uncertainties in the ecological status assessment and to invasive alien species. Further chapters dealing with the hydromorphology, sediment management and isotope hydrology complete the overall picture of the status of the Danube.
This book details the experiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterranean watershed - the Catalan River Basin District - following the launch of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Experts in rivers, reservoirs, lakes, wetlands and estuaries present 13 chapters defining tools for water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. The content of this and the companion volume Experiences from Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part II) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA and several Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challenges provided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a useful guide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European as well as Non-European river basins.
Laki is Iceland's largest volcano. Its eruption in 1783 is one of history's great, untold natural disasters. Spewing out sun-blocking ash and then a poisonous fog for eight long months, the effects of the eruption lingered across the world for years. It caused the deaths of people as far away as the Nile and created catastrophic conditions throughout Europe. Island on Fire is the story not only of a single eruption but the people whose lives it changed, the dawn of modern volcanology, as well as the history and potential of other super-volcanoes like Laki around the world. And perhaps most pertinently, in the wake of the eruption of another Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajokull, which closed European air space in 2010, acclaimed science writers Witze and Kanipe look at what might transpire should Laki erupt again in our lifetime.
Informative travel companions about roadside terrain and geology with photos, diagrams, and glossary.
This guide to scoring crown and root traits in human dentitions substantially builds on a seminal 1991 work by Turner, Nichol, and Scott. It provides detailed descriptions and multiple illustrations of each crown and root trait to help guide researchers to make consistent observations on trait expression, greatly reducing observer error. The book also reflects exciting new developments driven by technology that have significant ramifications for dental anthropology, particularly the recent development of a web-based application that computes the probability that an individual belongs to a particular genogeographic grouping based on combinations of crown and root traits; as such, the utility of these variables is expanded to forensic anthropology. This book is ideal for researchers and graduate students in the fields of dental, physical, and forensic anthropology and will serve as a methodological guide for many years to come.
The role of hydrothermal fluids during the crystallization of layered intrusions and the ore deposits they contain has long been debated. This book summarizes the evidence for fluid-crystal-liquid (hydromagmatic) interactions and their importance for the understanding of the formation of platinum-group deposits in layered intrusions. It discusses the composition of igneous fluids in mafic magmatic systems, the generation and movement of these fluids in layered intrusions, their impact in altering the mineralogy and composition of the originally precipitated assemblages, and their role in the transport of the platinum-group elements (PGE). Using examples from the Bushveld complex of South Africa and other intrusions, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the hydromagmatic model for the origin of various features of layered intrusions. It is a useful reference for academic researchers and professional geologists working on economic mineral exploration, layered igneous intrusions, and hydrothermal metallogenesis.
Ice Journey is the biography of Vietnam veteran Dave Morgan, whose long career in meteorology culminated with a life-changing expedition to Antarctica. Like many of his fellow soldiers, Dave tried to present a "normal" face to the world while battling Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. It was a debilitating struggle that ultimately sparked a personal obsession to escape the bonds of average Australian society. In his early fifties, Dave turned to the seclusion and hardship of Antarctic research where postings to Macquarie Island, Davis Station and a prized position at Casey Station, finally forced him to face his fears, deal with his PTSD and come to terms with his experiences as a soldier in Vietnam. Dave carries his deeply buried demons from the jungles of Vietnam to the icy peaks of Antarctica; his journey to the ice fulfilling a lifelong dream while making him feel safe for the first time in 30 years. His experiences as an expeditioner on the starkly beautiful, harsh and inhospitable 'ice' was at once intoxicating and isolating, providing the catalyst for Dave to finally face his fears. It is an emotional journey that transports the reader from the terror of a young soldier fighting far away from home to exhilaration on the ice far from the rest of the world. It is a story filled with vivid landscapes and humour before a shocking final twist that ends his final posting in heartwrenching fashion. While the ghosts of Vietnam still exist inside Dave, Ice Journey is an invitation to share in his experiences and the dream that helped him stop running and begin to heal. "Living in Antarctica was peaceful, and so different. I could've lived there quite happily for the next 20 years. Though harsh and dangerous, I felt safer down there than I ever will here." Dave Morgan
Written primarily for serving and trainee deck officers, those studying for certificates of competency in merchant shipping and fishermen, Reeds Maritime Meteorology analyses the elements and forces which contribute to maritime meteorology and the principles which govern them. Updated to include the latest developments in the use of satellite technology in forecasting, Navtext and the ramifications of GMDSS, the book examines:
* cloud formation and development
* precipitation and thunderstorms
* atmospheric pressure and wind
* ocean currents and swell
* tropical revolving storms
* the development and distribution of sea ice
* weather routeing
* passage planning
* the management and care of cargo in heavy weather
This revised edition covers significant developments in the variety of forecasts available for the seafarer, coverage of global warming and weather routing options, as well as updates throughout in line with technological advancements and research discoveries, and updates to the exam questions at the end of each chapter.
This book has grown from Intermediate Technology's field experiences with micro-hydro installations and covers operation and maintenance, commissioning, electrical power, induction generators, electronic controllers, management, and energy surveys.
This book introduces a framework of tsunami modelling from generation to propagation, aimed at application to the new observation started in Japan after the devastating tsunami of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. About 150 seismic and tsunami sensors were deployed in a wide region off the Pacific coast of eastern Japan in order to catch tsunami generation inside the focal area, which makes a clear departure from conventional observations that detect tsunamis far from the source region. In order to exploit the full potential of this new observation system, it is not enough to model tsunami generation simply by static sea-bottom deformation caused by an earthquake. This book explains dynamic tsunami generation and sea-bottom deformation by kinematic earthquake faulting, in which seismic and acoustic waves are also included in addition to static sea-bottom deformation. It then systematically derives basic tsunami equations from the fundamental equations of motions. The author also illustrates the details of numerical schemes and their applications to tsunami records, making sound linkages among these topics to naturally understand how a tsunami is physically or mathematically described. This book will be a comprehensive guide for graduate students and young researchers to start their research activities smoothly.
Part of the Fossils and Strata Monograph Series from the Scandinavian University Press The published study, Orthacean and Strophomenid Brachiopods from the Lower Silurian of the Central Oslo Region, is part of an international series on stratigraphy and paleontology.
The vital interconnections that rivers share with the land, the sky, and us Rivers are essential to every aspect of civilization, from brewing beer to building computers, yet how many of us understand how they work? Where the River Flows takes you on a journey along our planet (TM)s waterways, providing a scientist (TM)s reflections on the profound interrelationships that rivers have with landscapes, ecosystems, and societies. Drawing on examples ranging from backyard creeks to evocative rivers like the Mississippi, Yangtze, Thames, and Congo, Sean Fleming looks at rivers through the lens of physics, using abundant graphics and intuitive analogies to explore surprising connections between watershed hydrology and the world around us. He explains how river flows fluctuate like stock markets, what oedigital rainbows tell us about climate change and its effects on water, how building virtual watersheds in silicon may help avoid water wars, and more. Along the way, you (TM)ll see what communications theory, fractals, artificial life, and other exciting scientific ideas reveal about the life of rivers.
Many ideas and concepts about natural hazards have been developed in Australasia, but these are often overlooked in books written from a Northern Hemisphere perspective. Natural Hazards in Australasia is the first textbook that considers Australasian natural hazards, their triggering mechanisms and the physical and social environments in which they occur. James Goff and Chris de Freitas lead an expert author team from around Australia and New Zealand to introduce readers to the natural hazards of the Australasian region, including floods, drought, tropical cyclones, volcanic and seismic hazards, tsunamis, landslides and bushfires. This book explores the interactions not only between one hazard and another, but also between humans and natural hazards. Key pedagogical features for students include learning objectives, regional case studies, summaries, chapter glossaries, end-of-chapter review and discussion questions, and further reading and resources. The full colour text is enhanced by a rich array of illustrations, photographs and maps.
This book provides thorough and comprehensive coverage of most of the new and important quantitative methods of data analysis for graduate students and practitioners. In recent years, data analysis methods have exploded alongside advanced computing power, and it is critical to understand such methods to get the most out of data, and to extract signal from noise. The book excels in explaining difficult concepts through simple explanations and detailed explanatory illustrations. Most unique is the focus on confidence limits for power spectra and their proper interpretation, something rare or completely missing in other books. Likewise, there is a thorough discussion of how to assess uncertainty via use of Expectancy, and the easy to apply and understand Bootstrap method. The book is written so that descriptions of each method are as self-contained as possible. Many examples are presented to clarify interpretations, as are user tips in highlighted boxes.
Coined barely two decades ago, the Anthropocene has become one of the most influential and controversial terms in environmental policy. Yet it remains an ambivalent and contested formulation, giving rise to a multitude of unexpected, and often uncomfortable, conversations. This book traces in detail a broad variety of such 'Anthropocene encounters': in science, philosophy and literary fiction. It asks what it means to 'think green' in a time when nature no longer offers a stable backdrop to political analysis. Do familiar political categories and concepts, such as democracy, justice, power and time, hold when confronted with a world radically transformed by humans? The book responds by inviting more radical political thought, plural forms of engagement, and extended ethical commitments, making it a fascinating and timely volume for graduate students and researchers working in earth system governance, environmental politics and studies of the Anthropocene.
This book aims to give an overview on the present state of volcanic lake research, covering topics such as volcano monitoring, the chemistry, dynamics and degassing of acidic crater lakes, mass-energy-chemical-isotopic balance approaches, limnology and degassing of Nyos-type lakes, the impact on the human and natural environment, the eruption products and impact of crater lake breaching eruptions, numerical modeling of gas clouds and lake eruptions, thermo-hydro-mechanical and deformation modeling, CO2 fluxes from lakes, volcanic lakes observed from space, biological activity, continuous monitoring techniques, and some aspects more. We hope to offer an updated manual on volcanic lake research, providing classic research methods, and point towards a more high-tech approach of future volcanic lake research and continuous monitoring.
An idiosyncratic, richly illustrated guide to Britain's rivers, seas and shores, for everyone who loves the water and the natural world - a Norwegian Wood for Britain's waters This is a book for those who want to understand better how the waters surrounding us affect our daily lives, how it imperceptibly but crucially shapes our actions, and has shaped our landscape for millenia. It's for anyone who knows and loves our coast, and who wants to understand, discover, surf, or sail it better. Inspired by his own witnessing of the power of the sea through travelling around Britain's coastline in a panel van with his young family, William Thomson tells the story of the cycles of the sea. He combines a lyrical, passionate narrative with graphically beautiful renderings of the main forms of water which affect Britain: Rip, Rapids, Swell, Stream, Tide, Wave, Whirlpool, Tsunami. The Book of Tides is a book for all of us who feel the pull of the sea and the tug of the tide.
This Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry. It provides invaluable material for decision makers and stakeholders at international, national and local level, in government, businesses, and NGOs. This volume provides: * An authoritative and unbiased overview of the physical science basis of climate change * A more extensive assessment of changes observed throughout the climate system than ever before * New dedicated chapters on sea-level change, biogeochemical cycles, clouds and aerosols, and regional climate phenomena * Extensive coverage of model projections, both near-term and long-term climate projections * A detailed assessment of climate change observations, modelling, and attribution for every continent * A new comprehensive atlas of global and regional climate projections for 35 regions of the world
The book describes the Ankarana plateau and its cave network in Madagascar, depicting the natural environment of the Plateau as well as the natural processes which created the cave network of more than 100km with many galleries, some are very large and draped with different cave formations and underground rivers are inhabited with crocodiles and giant eels.This place is famous for its surface landscape formed with tsingy, natural needles formed by the weathering of limestone. The Ankarana is surrounded by native Madagascan rain forest inhabited with lemurs and it was a natural shelter for the Ankarana people whose kings were buried in caves. The cave system has been partially explored since the sixties and exploration is still in progress. The book includes several maps (geology, topography, hydrology), the survey of the caves and a brief description of the Ankarana Kingdom.
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