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This issue contains 16 papers, presenting work on tsunami hazards, earthquakes, and related computational infrastructure. The integration of multihazard simulations and remotely sensed observations is providing enormous benefits to earthquake and tsunami research. Earthquakes cause damage, but also generate tsunamis, which create additional damage. Remotely sensed observations coupled with geologic field measurements and simulations contribute to our understanding of earthquake processes, which is necessary for mitigating loss of life and property from these damaging events. This book focuses on assimilation of remotely sensed observations to advance multihazards simulation. This capability provides a powerful virtual laboratory to probe earthquake behavior and the earthquake cycle. Hence, it offers a new opportunity to gain understanding of the earthquake nucleation process, precursory phenomena, and space-time seismicity patterns needed for breakthrough advances in earthquake forecasting and hazard quantification.
This extensively updated new edition of the widely acclaimed
"Treatise on Geochemistry" has increased its coverage beyond the
wide range of geochemical subject areas in the first edition, with
five new volumes which include: the history of the atmosphere,
geochemistry of mineral deposits, archaeology and anthropology,
organic geochemistry and analytical geochemistry. In addition, the
original Volume 1 on "Meteorites, Comets, and Planets" was expanded
into two separate volumes dealing with meteorites and planets,
respectively. These additions increased the number of volumes in
the Treatise from 9 to 15 with the index/appendices volume
remaining as the last volume (Volume 16). Each of the original
volumes was scrutinized by the appropriate volume editors, with
respect to necessary revisions as well as additions and deletions.
As a result, 27% were republished without major changes, 66% were
revised and 126 new chapters were added.
Six new volumes added and 66% updated from 1st edition. The Editors of this work have taken every measure to include the many suggestions received from readers and ensure comprehensiveness of coverage and added value in this 2nd edition.
The esteemed Board of Volume Editors and Editors-in-Chief worked cohesively to ensure a uniform and consistent approach to the content, which is an amazing accomplishment for a 15-volume work (16 volumes including index volume)
"Basin Analysis" is an advanced undergraduate and postgraduate text aimed at understanding sedimentary basins as geodynamic entities. The rationale of the book is that knowledge of the basic principles of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the lithosphere, the dynamics of the mantle, and the functioning of sediment routing systems provides a sound background for studying sedimentary basins, and is a pre-requisite for the exploitation of resources contained in their sedimentary rocks. The third edition incorporates new developments in the burgeoning field of basin analysis while retaining the successful structure and overall philosophy of the first two editions.
The text is divided into 4 parts that establish the geodynamical environment for sedimentary basins and the physical state of the lithosphere, followed by a coverage of the mechanics of basin formation, an integrated analysis of the controls on the basin-fill and its burial and thermal history, and concludes with an application of basin analysis principles in petroleum play assessment, including a discussion of unconventional hydrocarbon plays. The text is richly supplemented by Appendices providing mathematical derivations of a wide range of processes affecting the formation of basins and their sedimentary fills. Many of these Appendices include practical exercises that give the reader hands-on experience of quantitative solutions to important basin analysis processes.
Now in full colour and a larger format, this third edition is a comprehensive update and expansion of the previous editions, and represents a rigorous yet accessible guide to problem solving in this most integrative of geoscientific disciplines.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/allen/basinanalysis.
For much of history, soil has played a major, and often central, role in the lives of humans. Entire societies have risen, and collapsed, through the management or mismanagement of soil; farmers and gardeners worldwide nurture their soil to provide their plants with water, nutrients, and protection from pests and diseases; major battles have been aborted or stalled by the condition of soil; murder trials have been solved with evidence from the soil; and, for most of us, our ultimate fate is the soil. In this book Richard Bardgett discusses soil and the many, and sometimes surprising, ways that humanity has depended on it throughout history, and still does today. Analysing the role soil plays in our own lives, despite increasing urbanization, and in the biogeochemical cycles that allow the planet to function effectively, Bardgett considers how superior soil management could combat global issues such as climate change, food shortages, and the extinction of species. Looking to the future, Bardgett argues that it is vital for the future of humanity for governments worldwide to halt soil degradation, and to put in place policies for the future sustainable management of soils.
This volume provides a modern introduction to the soil fauna and their contributions to ecosystem function, the mechanisms that structure soil fauna assemblages from local to global scales, and the potential impacts of global change on soil fauna assemblages and through this ecosystem function. Wanting to be an accessible primer, this book is a high level overview of current knowledge rather than a detailed tome of all existing information, with emphasis being placed on key findings and general patterns. It focuses on the soil fauna but contextualizes these assemblages in relation to the microbial assemblages belowground and the vegetation aboveground. It is clear that our knowledge of soil fauna assemblages is ever increasing, but there is still a lot to discover. Key areas of research are highlighted, with particular reference to the future of soil fauna assemblages.
The work is aimed at the review of hot topics in modern light scattering and radiative transfer. A special attention will be given to the description of the methods of integro-differential radiative transfer equation solution. In particular, the asymptotic radiative transfer and the method of discrete ordinates will be considered. A comprehensive review of light absorption in the terrestrial atmosphere will be given as well. The inverse problem solution will be reviewed as well.
This book documents the rich and spectacular heritage of the Australian continent over the last 4400 million years. Now in its third edition, The Geology of Australia provides a comprehensive overview of Australia's geology, landscapes and Earth resources. Beginning with the Precambrian rocks that hold clues to the origins of life and the development of an oxygenated atmosphere, it goes on to cover the warm seas, volcanism and episodes of mountain building that formed the eastern third of the Australian continent. This illuminating history details the breakup of the supercontinents Rodinia and Gondwana, the times of previous glaciations, the development of climates and landscapes in modern Australia, and the creation of the continental shelves and coastlines. This third edition features two new chapters on geological time and Paleozoic orogenic rock systems and mountain building, and new and updated illustrations and full-colour images.
Recent theoretical developments, acquisitions of large seismic and other data sets, detailed geological studies and novel laboratory experiments offer new opportunities for advancing the understanding of fault zone and earthquake processes. The present and a previous volume provide broad state-of-the-art perspectives on earthquakes and crustal fault zones. Subjects discussed in this volume include imaging of fault zones and the crust, microstructural analyses of fault zone rocks, long paleoseismic record, inferences on stress, stress drops and fault geometries, properties of dynamic ruptures, generation and healing of rock damage, temporal changes of attenuation, postseismic deformation and scaling of earthquake source properties. The volume will be useful to students and professional researchers from Earth Sciences, Material Sciences, Physics and other disciplines, who are interested in properties and processes of earthquakes and faults.
This book provides a snapshot of representative modeling analyses of coastal hypoxia and its effects. Hypoxia refers to conditions in the water column where dissolved oxygen falls below levels that can support most metazoan marine life (i.e., 2 mg O2 l-1). The number of hypoxic zones has been increasing at an exponential rate since the 1960s; there are currently more than 600 documented hypoxic zones in the estuarine and coastal waters worldwide. Hypoxia develops as a synergistic product of many physical and biological factors that affect the balance of dissolved oxygen in seawater, including temperature, solar radiation, wind, freshwater discharge, nutrient supply, and the production and decay of organic matter. A number of modeling approaches have been increasingly used in hypoxia research, along with the more traditional observational and experimental studies. Modeling is necessary because of rapidly changing coastal circulation and stratification patterns that affect hypoxia, the large spatial extent over which hypoxia develops, and limitations on our capabilities to directly measure hypoxia over large spatial and temporal scales. This book consists of 15 chapters that are broadly organized around three main topics: (1) Modeling of the physical controls on hypoxia, (2) Modeling of biogeochemical controls and feedbacks, and, (3) Modeling of the ecological effects of hypoxia. The final chapter is a synthesis chapter that draws generalities from the earlier chapters, highlights strengths and weaknesses of the current state-of-the-art modeling, and offers recommendations on future directions.
Geosequestration involves the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide from major industrial sources, providing a potential solution for reducing the rate of increase of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and mitigating climate change. This volume provides an overview of the major geophysical techniques and analysis methods for monitoring the movement and predictability of carbon dioxide plumes underground. Comprising chapters from eminent researchers, the book is illustrated with practical examples and case studies of active projects and government initiatives, and discusses their successes and remaining challenges. A key case study from Norway demonstrates how governments and other stake-holders could estimate storage capacity and design storage projects that meet the requirements of regulatory authorities. Presenting reasons for embracing geosequestration, technical best practice for carbon management, and outlooks for the future, this volume provides a key reference for academic researchers, industry practitioners and graduate students looking to gain insight into subsurface carbon management.
Africa is home to more than the Cradle of Humankind. It was the core of the ancient supercontinent Pangaea, and comprises some of the oldest and most extraordinary geology on planet Earth.
This detailed and colourful book features 44 of the continent's most spectacular and interesting 'geosites', from Table Mountain in the south to the eroded necks and plugs of the Hoggar region in Algeria; and from the volcanic islands of the Atlantic Ocean to the continental fragments off the African east coast. Each site is authored by a geologist (or specialist in a related field) with in-depth knowledge about the particular feature or landform: how it formed and developed, its current geological status, ecological impact, and its archaeological and cultural interest.
Supported with many photographs, maps, satellite images and explanatory illustrations, the text is accessible to geologists and lay enthusiasts alike, unpacking the hows and whys of Africa's most intriguing landforms, sites and geological features.
Exploring Earth Science by Reynolds/Johnson is an innovative textbook intended for an introductory college geology course, such as Earth Science. This ground-breaking, visually spectacular book was designed from cognitive and educational research on how students think, learn, and study.Nearly all information in the book is built around 2,600 photographs and stunning illustrations, rather than being in long blocks of text that are not articulated with figures. These annotated illustrations help students visualize geologic processes and concepts, and are suited to the way most instructors already teach. To alleviate cognitive load and help students focus on one important geologic process or concept at a time, the book consists entirely of two-page spreads organized into 20 chapters. Each two-page spread is a self-contained block of information about a specific topic, emphasizing geologic concepts, processes, features, and approaches. These spreads help students learn and organize geologic knowledge in a new and exciting way.Inquiry is embedded throughout the book, modeling how scientists investigate problems. The title of each two-page spread and topic heading is a question intended to get readers to think about the topic and become interested and motivated to explore the two-page spread for answers. Each chapter is a learning cycle, which begins with a visually engaging two-page spread about a compelling geologic issue. Each chapter ends with an Investigation that challenges students with a problem associated with a virtual place. The world-class media, spectacular presentations, and assessments are all tightly articulated with the textbook. This book is designed to encourage students to observe, interpret, think critically, and engage in authentic inquiry, and is highly acclaimed by reviewers, instructors, and students.
The Anthropocene is a major new concept in the Earth sciences and this book examines the effects on geomorphology within this period. Drawing examples from many different global environments, this comprehensive volume demonstrates that human impact on landforms and land-forming processes is profound, due to various driving forces, including: use of fire; extinction of fauna; development of agriculture, urbanisation, and globalisation; and new methods of harnessing energy. The book explores the ways in which future climate change due to anthropogenic causes may further magnify effects on geomorphology, with respect to future hazards such as floods and landslides, the state of the cryosphere, and sea level. The book concludes with a consideration of the ways in which landforms are now being managed and protected. Covering all major aspects of geomorphology, this book is ideal for undergraduate and graduate students studying geomorphology, environmental science and physical geography, and for all researchers of geomorphology.
Based largely on an International Commission on Dynamical Meteorology (ICDM) workshop, this timely volume, written by leading researchers in the field, covers a range of important research issues related to high-impact weather and extreme climate events. Dynamical linkages between these extremes and various atmospheric and ocean phenomena are examined, including Atlantic Multidecadal, North Atlantic, and Madden-Julian Oscillations; Annular Modes; tropical cyclones; and Asian monsoons. This book also examines the predictability of high-impact weather and extreme climate events on multiple time scales. Highlighting recent research and new advances in the field, this book enhances understanding of dynamical and physical processes associated with these events to help managers and policy makers make informed decisions to manage risk and prevent or mitigate disasters. It also provides guidance on future research directions in atmospheric science, meteorology, climate science, and weather forecasting, for experts and young scientists.
This book provides a new look at the climatic history of the last 2.6 million years during the ice age, a time of extreme climatic fluctuations that have not yet ended. This period also coincides with important phases of human development from Neanderthals to modern humans, both of whom existed side by side during the last cold stage of the ice age. The ice age has seen dramatic expansions of glaciers and ice sheets, although this has been interspersed with relatively short warmer intervals like the one we live in today. The book focuses on the changing state of these glaciers and the effects of associated climate changes on a wide variety of environments (including mountains, rivers, deserts, oceans and seas) and also plants and animals. For example, at times the Sahara was green and colonized by humans, and Lake Chad covered 350,000 km2 larger than the United Kingdom. What happened during the ice age can only be reconstructed from the traces that are left in the ground. The work of the geoscientist is similar to that of a detective who has to reconstruct the sequence of events from circumstantial evidence. The book draws on the specialisms and experience of the authors who are experts on the glacial history of the Earth. Readership: Undergraduate and postgraduate students studying the Quaternary, researchers, and anyone interested in climate change, environmental change and geology. The book provides a rich collection of illustrations and photographs to help the readers at all levels visualise the dramatic consequences of glacier expansions during the Ice Age.
The study of dinosaurs has been experiencing a remarkable renaissance over the past few decades. Scientific understanding of dinosaur anatomy, biology, and evolution has advanced to such a degree that paleontologists often know more about 100-million-year-old dinosaurs than many species of living organisms. This book provides a contemporary review of dinosaur science intended for students, researchers, and dinosaur enthusiasts. It reviews the latest knowledge on dinosaur anatomy and phylogeny, how dinosaurs functioned as living animals, and the grand narrative of dinosaur evolution across the Mesozoic. A particular focus is on the fossil evidence and explicit methods that allow paleontologists to study dinosaurs in rigorous detail. Scientific knowledge of dinosaur biology and evolution is shifting fast, and this book aims to summarize current understanding of dinosaur science in a technical, but accessible, style, supplemented with vivid photographs and illustrations.
The Topics in Paleobiology Series is published in collaboration with the Palaeontological Association, and is edited by Professor Mike Benton, University of Bristol.
Books in the series provide a summary of the current state of knowledge, a trusted route into the primary literature, and will act as pointers for future directions for research. As well as volumes on individual groups, the series will also deal with topics that have a cross-cutting relevance, such as the evolution of significant ecosystems, particular key times and events in the history of life, climate change, and the application of a new techniques such as molecular palaeontology.
The books are written by leading international experts and will be pitched at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers in both the paleontological and biological sciences.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: http: //www.wiley.com/go/brusatte/dinosaurpaleobiology.
Physical Geology, 16th edition, is the latest refinement of a classic introductory text that has helped countless students learn basic physical geology concepts for over 25 years. Students taking introductory physical geology to fulfill a science elective, as well as those contemplating a career in geology, will appreciate the accessible writing style and depth of coverage in Physical Geology. Hundreds of carefully rendered illustrations and accompanying photographs correlate perfectly with the chapter descriptions to help readers quickly grasp new geologic concepts. Numerous chapter learning tools and a website further assist students in their study of physical geology.
Aiming to improve work efficiency in such areas as tillage in agriculture, earth-moving in civil engineering, and tunnel-making in sea-bed operations, this work offers an introduction to Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis of soil-machine systems. It explains the advantage of FEM's numerical approach over traditional analytical and empirical methods of dealing with complex factors from nonlinear mechanical behaviour to geometric configurations.
Exploring Geology by Reynolds/Johnson is an innovative textbook intended for an introductory college geology course, such as Physical Geology. This ground-breaking, visually spectacular book was designed from cognitive and educational research on how students think, learn, and study.Nearly all information in the book is built around 2,600 photographs and stunning illustrations, rather than being in long blocks of text that are not articulated with figures. These annotated illustrations help students visualize geologic processes and concepts, and are suited to the way most instructors already teach. To alleviate cognitive load and help students focus on one important geologic process or concept at a time, the book consists entirely of two-page spreads organized into 19 chapters. Each two-page spread is a self-contained block of information about a specific topic, emphasizing geologic concepts, processes, features, and approaches. These spreads help students learn and organize geologic knowledge in a new and exciting way.Inquiry is embedded throughout the book, modeling how geologists investigate problems. The title of each two-page spread and topic heading is a question intended to get readers to think about the topic and become interested and motivated to explore the two-page spread for answers. Each chapter is a learning cycle, which begins with a visually engaging two-page spread about a compelling geologic issue. Each chapter ends with an Investigation that challenges students with a problem associated with a virtual place. The world-class media, spectacular presentations, and assessments are all tightly articulated with the textbook. This book is designed to encourage students to observe, interpret, think critically, and engage in authentic inquiry, and is highly acclaimed by reviewers, instructors, and students.
In their rapid colonization of soil exposed by fires, floods, and grazing animals, weeds resemble the human specialists we label Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs). Weeds are the first responders when disasters occur in nature. They occupy bare soil and prevent erosion by wind and water. In extreme cases such as a landslide, weeds are essential to the healing processes that replace the lost soil. Like a Band-Aid on a skinned knee, weeds protect the land while it recovers. Besides protecting the soil after disaster, weeds provide food for wildlife, and some of them provide food and medicine for people. Able to withstand harsh conditions, weeds will proliferate as global warming and other human impacts intensify. Thus, nature's EMTs will increase while all other plants decline. The book provides a succinct definition of weeds according to their form and function in ecosystem processes. The narrative uses a representative set of weed species from a desert location to illustrate the full range of weed characteristics.
This book presents the most comprehensive and systematic description currently available of both classical and novel theories of cloud processes, providing a much-needed link between cloud theory, observation, experimental results, and cloud modeling. This volume shows why and how modern models serve as a major tool of investigation of cloud processes responsible for atmospheric phenomena, including climate change. It systematically describes classical as well as recent advancements in cloud physics, including cloud-aerosol interaction; collisions of particles in turbulent clouds; and the formation of multiphase cloud particles. As the first of its kind to serve as a practical guide for using state-of-the-art numerical cloud models, major emphasis is placed on explaining how microphysical processes are treated in modern numerical cloud resolving models. The book will be a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and numerical model designers in cloud physics, atmospheric science, meteorology, and environmental science.
Offshore drilling and constructions require exact knowledge of the geophysical properties of the seabed and sub-seabed, as unexpected objects can slow down or halt projects. This book presents the state-of-the-art in acoustic exploration of the seabed and sub-seabed, from initial designs in the 1980s to commercial contracting and operation of the Acoustic Corer (TM) in the last decade. The Acoustic Corer (TM) is a high-definition commercial acoustic sub-bottom imaging system, producing an "acoustic core" within which sub-seabed sedimentary characteristics and discrete buried objects larger than 0.5 m can be identified and mapped. It makes use of the innovative JYG-cross design, inspired by seismic reflection and uses Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) multi-angle scattering in and within the seabed to deliver unprecedented imagery. This book was written by the inventor of these concepts, a known specialist in seabed acoustics, with help from an experienced academic and author. It is intended first and foremost as a "how-to" guide for offshore industries looking at techniques to make the installation of different types of structures safe and efficient.
This book introduces the new discipline of urban oceanography, providing a deeper understanding of the physics of the coastal ocean in an urban setting. The authors explore how the coastal ocean impacts with the humans who live, work and play along its shores; and in turn how human activities impact the health and dynamics of the coastal ocean. Fundamental topics covered include: the governing dynamical equations; tidal and circulation processes; variation of salinity and freshwater fluxes; watershed pollutants; observing systems; and climate change. Bridging the gaps between the fields of engineering, physical and social sciences, economics, and policy, this book is for anyone who wishes to learn about the physics, chemistry, and biology of coastal waters. It will support an introductory course on urban oceanography at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level, and will also prove invaluable as a reference text for researchers, professionals, coastal urban planners, and environmental engineers.
This book introduces the geological concept of the "windfield-source-basin system," based on integrated modern and ancient sedimentology studies. It identifies wind field as a main sedimentation-controlling factor that combines with provenance and basin dynamics to determine the formation and distribution of depositional systems. Using the unary properties of facies, sedimentary models and the duality properties of source-to-sink approaches, the concept of a "wind-source-basin system" introduces the "sedimentary system trinity": wind field, provenance and basin properties. "Wind-source-basin systems" provide more plausible genetic interpretations of depositional systems (including both continental and marine facies, and clastic and carbonate systems), as well as more comprehensive and precise predictions of depositional systems (hydrocarbon reservoirs) in unknown regions. Further, the book proposes a series of methods on paleowind field reconstruction, which fill the gaps in paleo-atmospheric field studies in paleoclimatology, and shows that allocating relationships among source-reservoir-cap in petroliferous basins are limited by the "wind-source-basin system". This trinity system also provides a new perspective on petroleum geology assessment. The book appeals to all those engaged in sedimentology, petroleum geology and climatology studies.
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