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Vertebrate palaeontology is a lively field, with new discoveries reported every week and not only dinosaurs! This new edition reflects the international scope of vertebrate palaeontology, with a special focus on exciting new finds from China. A key aim is to explain the science. Gone are the days of guesswork. Young researchers use impressive new numerical and imaging methods to explore the tree of life, macroevolution, global change, and functional morphology. The fourth edition is completely revised. The cladistic framework is strengthened, and new functional and developmental spreads are added. Study aids include: key questions, research to be done, and recommendations of further reading and web sites. The book is designed for palaeontology courses in biology and geology departments. It is also aimed at enthusiasts who want to experience the flavour of how the research is done. The book is strongly phylogenetic, and this makes it a source of current data on vertebrate evolution.
This book introduces the new discipline of urban oceanography, providing a deeper understanding of the physics of the coastal ocean in an urban setting. The authors explore how the coastal ocean impacts with the humans who live, work and play along its shores; and in turn how human activities impact the health and dynamics of the coastal ocean. Fundamental topics covered include: the governing dynamical equations; tidal and circulation processes; variation of salinity and freshwater fluxes; watershed pollutants; observing systems; and climate change. Bridging the gaps between the fields of engineering, physical and social sciences, economics, and policy, this book is for anyone who wishes to learn about the physics, chemistry, and biology of coastal waters. It will support an introductory course on urban oceanography at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level, and will also prove invaluable as a reference text for researchers, professionals, coastal urban planners, and environmental engineers.
Understanding basin-fill evolution and the origin of stratal architectures has traditionally been based on studies of outcrops, well and seismic data, studies of and inferences on qualitative geological processes, and to a lesser extent based on quantitative observations of modern and ancient sedimentary environments. Insight gained on the basis of these studies can increasingly be tested and extended through the application of numerical and analogue forward models. Present-day stratigraphic forward modelling follows two principle lines: 1) the deterministic process-based approach, ideally with resolution of the fundamental equations of fluid and sediment motion at all scales, and 2) the stochastic approach. The process-based approach leads to improved understanding of the dynamics (physics) of the system, increasing our predictive power of how systems evolve under various forcing conditions unless the system is highly non-linear and hence difficult or perhaps even impossible to predict. The stochastic approach is more direct, relatively simple, and useful for study of more complicated or less-well understood systems. Process-based models, more than stochastic ones, are directly limited by the diversity of temporal and spatial scales and the very incomplete knowledge of how processes operate and interact on the various scales. The papers included in this book demonstrate how cross-fertilization between traditional field studies and analogue and numerical forward modelling expands our understanding of Earth-surface systems.
Resources tailored to the Cambridge International AS & A Level Marine Science syllabus (9693), for first examination in 2017. Cambridge International AS and A Level Marine Science Teacher's Resource CD-ROM is tailored to the Marine Science syllabus (9693) for first examination in 2017, and is endorsed for teacher support by Cambridge International Examinations. The teacher's resource contains customisable and time-saving teaching guides for each chapter including lesson plans, homework ideas and advice on how to tackle common misunderstandings and misconceptions, as well as additional recommended resources to help students extend and deepen their knowledge.
As governments around the world work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, the trans-disciplinary topic of ocean management is fast being recognized as one of the most important challenges of the twenty-first century. This timely Handbook takes stock of the state of knowledge on ecosystem services derived from coastal and marine areas and offers innovative proposals for the future of this important topic. The Handbook on the Economics and Management of Sustainable Oceans brings together a carefully chosen collection of world-class contributions from ecology, economics and other development sciences. It provides policy-relevant scientific information on key topics such as ecosystem services from marine and coastal ecosystems and the nuances of economic valuation. Detailed chapters also consider relevant legal and sociological response policies for effective management of marine areas for enhanced human well-being. This comprehensive Handbook will be essential reading for advanced students and academics in economics, environment studies and resource management. The contributors also focus on the nexus of science-society and science-policy with the objective of educating decision-makers in governmental agencies, industry and civil society.
Natural Hazards: Earth Processes as Hazards, Disasters and Catastrophes, Fourth Edition, is an introductory-level survey intended for university and college courses that are concerned with earth processes that have direct, and often sudden and violent, impacts on human society. The text integrates principles of geology, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography, soil science, ecology and solar system astronomy. The book is designed for a course in natural hazards for non-science majors, and a primary goal of the text is to assist instructors in guiding students who may have little background in science to understand physical earth processes as natural hazards and their consequences to society. Natural Hazards uses historical to recent examples of hazards and disasters to explore how and why they happen and what we can do to limit their effects. The text's up-to-date coverage of recent disasters brings a fresh perspective to the material. The Fourth Edition continues our new active learning approach that includes reinforcement of learning objective with a fully updated visual program and pedagogical tools that highlight fundamental concepts of the text. This program will provide an interactive and engaging learning experience for your students. Here's how: Provide a balanced approach to the study of natural hazards: Focus on the basic earth science of hazards as well as roles of human processes and effects on our planet in a broader, more balanced approach to the study of natural hazards. Enhance understanding and comprehension of natural hazards: Newly revised stories and case studies give students a behind the scenes glimpse into how hazards are evaluated from a scientific and human perspective; the stories of real people who survive natural hazards, and the lives and research of professionals who have contributed significantly to the research of hazardous events. Strong pedagogical tools reinforce the text's core features: Chapter structure and design organizes the material into three major sections to help students learn, digest, and review learning objectives.
Coined barely two decades ago, the Anthropocene has become one of the most influential and controversial terms in environmental policy. Yet it remains an ambivalent and contested formulation, giving rise to a multitude of unexpected, and often uncomfortable, conversations. This book traces in detail a broad variety of such 'Anthropocene encounters': in science, philosophy and literary fiction. It asks what it means to 'think green' in a time when nature no longer offers a stable backdrop to political analysis. Do familiar political categories and concepts, such as democracy, justice, power and time, hold when confronted with a world radically transformed by humans? The book responds by inviting more radical political thought, plural forms of engagement, and extended ethical commitments, making it a fascinating and timely volume for graduate students and researchers working in earth system governance, environmental politics and studies of the Anthropocene.
This volume presents a unique compendium of papers assessing the
effects of volcanism on lakes, as recorded by the volcaniclastic
sediments deposited within them. The unifying theme is that the
effects of volcanism on lacustrine sedimentation are diverse and
distinctive, and that volcaniclastic lacustrine sediments hold the
key to understanding a range of processes and events that cannot be
readily addressed by the study of any non-volcanic lakes.
Thirteen papers, with authors from nine countries, examine both
modern and ancient eruption-affected lacustrine deposits. Volcanic
eruptions affect lakes and their deposits in many ways, and these
papers evaluate processes and products of volcanic eruptions within
lakes, of tectonically impounded lakes strongly influenced by
volcanism, of eruption-impounded lakes and of general factors
controlling sedimentation of vitric ash and pumice.
Tephrastratigraphic studies also take advantage of the exceptional
preservation of thin laminae in quiet lakes to precisely date
episodes in the evolution of long-lived lakes and their catchment
areas, and to understand how volcanism affects normal lacustrine
The volume as a whole is an unparalleled source of information
on all aspects of the physical sedimentary results of volcanism in
lacustrine settings, and serves as a complement to other studies
concerned primarily with thermal and geochemical characteristics of
lakes within volcanic craters.
If you are a member of the International Association of Sedimentologists, for purchasing details, please see: http: //www.iasnet.org/publications/details.asp?code=SP30
Campbell's Atlas of Oil and Gas Depletion, Second Edition, is the product of a half-century of critical analysis and updating of data on the status of oil and gas depletion by country, region and the world as a whole. Separate analyses of conventional and non-conventional oil and gas, which are depleting at different rates and costs, show when these critical energy sources peak and decline. The Atlas also summarizes the history and political circumstances of each country to assess the impact on oil and gas production and reserves. It contrasts the First Half of the Oil Age, which saw the rapid expansion of the world economy, allowing the population to grow six-fold, with the Second Half, which will witness a general contraction as these easy, high-density energy supplies dwindle. The transition threatens to be a time of great economic, financial and political tensions. The Atlas, which has been compiled and updated by prominent geologist, former oil company executive, and oil analyst Colin Campbell since the 1960s, addresses the need for a reliable and comprehensive database on a subject essential to governments, industry, academia, and the population as a whole as we attempt to adapt to these critically changing circumstances.
Tornadoes, nature's most violent and unpredictable storms, descend from the clouds nearly one thousand times yearly and have claimed eighteen thousand American lives since 1880. However, the U.S. Weather Bureau--fearing public panic and believing tornadoes were too fleeting for meteorologists to predict--forbade the use of the word "tornado" in forecasts until 1938.
Scanning the Skies traces the history of today's tornado warning system, a unique program that integrates federal, state, and local governments, privately controlled broadcast media, and individuals. Bradford examines the ways in which the tornado warning system has grown from meager beginnings into a program that protects millions of Americans each year. Although no tornado forecasting program existed before WWII, the needs of the military prompted the development of a severe weather warning system in tornado prone areas. Bradford traces the post-war creation of the Air Force centralized tornado forecasting program and its civilian counterpart at the Weather Bureau. Improvements in communication, especially the increasing popularity of television, allowed the Bureau to expand its warning system further.
This book highlights the modern tornado watch system and explains how advancements during the latter half of the twentieth-century--such as computerized data collection and processing systems, Doppler radar, state-of-the-art television weather centers, and an extensive public education program--have resulted in the drastic reduction of tornado fatalities.
The aim of the book is to present original and though-provoking essays in human paleontology and prehistory, which are at the forefront of human evolutionary research, in honor of Professor Yoel Rak (a leading scholar in paleoanthropology). The volume presents a collection of original papers contributed by many of Yoel's friends and colleagues from all over the globe. Contributions from experts around the globe fall roughly into three broad categories: Reflections on some of the broad theoretical questions of evolution, and especially about human evolution; the early hominins, with special emphasis on Australopithecus afarensis and Paranthropus; and the Neanderthals, that contentious group of our closest extinct relatives. Within and across these categories, nearly every paper addresses combinations of methodological, analytical and theoretical questions that are pertinent to the whole human evolutionary time span. This book will appeal most to scholars and advanced students in paleoanthropology, human paleontology and prehistoric archaeology.
This modern introduction to seismic data processing in both exploration and global geophysics demonstrates practical applications through real data and tutorial examples. The underlying physics and mathematics of the various seismic analysis methods are presented, giving students an appreciation of their limitations and potential for creating models of the sub-surface. Designed for a one-semester course, this textbook discusses key techniques within the context of the world's ever increasing need for petroleum and mineral resources - equipping upper undergraduate and graduate students with the tools they need for a career in industry. Examples presented throughout the text allow students to compare different methods and can be demonstrated using the instructor's software of choice. Exercises at the end of sections enable students to check their understanding and put the theory into practice and are complemented by solutions for instructors and additional case study examples online to complete the learning package.
Geological Formation Names of China (1866 2000) is the only
catalogue on stratigraphic nomenclature for China in the world to
keep two writing types (Wade-Giles Romanization and Chinese
Phonetic Alphabet) so as to provide convenience for domestic and
overseas readers. The catalogue is intended for specialists and
graduates in Geosciences and Stratigraphy. Shouxin Zhang (1927
2006) was stratigrapher and research professor at the Institute of
Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Clays are increasingly becoming a major problem in the mining, extraction and value-adding processes for a wide range of commodity raw materials. Clays can impact negatively on virtually every unit process within the mining and minerals processing sector, having long-term environmental implications that go well beyond the lifetime of the mining operation. This book is the first to compile, explain and evaluate the effects of clays in the mineral processing value chain, from mining to minerals processing, and finally, tailings disposal. Focusing on topics from the chemistry and rheology of clays to their detection and dissolution behaviour, this book provides comprehensive coverage of the effects on processes such as settling, preg-robing, flotation and comminution. It is an excellent reference for professional mineralogists and geologists, industrial engineers, and researchers interested in clays and clay minerals.
Meteorology can seem like a black-art with the meteorologist producing forecasts that somehow seem to contradict what you are reading from the charts. The Sailor's Book of the Weather takes the confusion out of the forecasts and helps you answer, 'Why is that happening?' The Sailor's Book of the Weather introduces the key principles that influence the weather and gives the sailor the tools to forecast from observations and make the most of available information. Wind, clouds and knowledge of weather patterns and local conditions all contain ample hints to allow the informed forecaster to accurately predict the weather. Illustrated with charts and over 100 photographs, this book is a must on every boat and essential reading whether you are on the water in land, on the coast or venturing further afield.* Gives sailors the knowledge required to make informed decisions and predictions* Written in straightforward language with the science explained for the lay man* Includes dozens of illustrations to explain concepts and photographs to show weather systems in action* An appendix provides practice charts for the reader to develop their skills* Describes prevailing weather patterns in northern and southern hemispheres
Selected as a Book of the Year by The Times and The Economist China's history is an epic tapestry of courtly philosophies, warring factions and imperial intrigue. Yet, over five thousand years, one ancient element has so dramatically shaped the country's fate that it remains the key to unlocking China's story. That element is water. In The Water Kingdom Philip Ball takes us on a grand tour of China's defining element, from the rice terraces and towering karts of its battle-worn waterways, to the vast engineering projects that have struggled to contain water's wrath. What surfaces is the secret history of a people and a nation, drawn from its deep reverence for nature's most dynamic force.
This book shares essential insights on evaporites and their effects on dams and reservoirs. The intensity of the solution and suffusion process in evaporites (gypsum and salt) is much greater than the solution of carbonates, and evaporites are particularly vulnerable at dam and reservoir sites. Moreover, the presence of evaporites in the vicinity of dams or reservoirs often leads to serious problems: numerous dams in countries around the world (e.g. China, Germany, Iran, Iraq, Peru, Russia, Spain, the Unites States, and Venezuela) have been affected by evaporite dissolution problems. Several of these dams were seriously endangered or ultimately abandoned, even though the best available engineering prevention and remediation practices were applied. Conventional geotechnical methods based on treating the underground (e.g. grout curtains) or surface (e.g. protective blankets) were not successful. This book presents and analyzes revealing case studies in this regard. To improve geotechnical remediation in connection with preventing seepage from reservoirs situated in evaporites, particularly in gypsum, it puts forward a new chemical solution that, after painstaking laboratory testing, was successfully applied in the field.
The culmination of more than a decade of fieldwork and related study, this unique book uses analyses of perimortem taphonomy in Ice Age Siberia to propose a new hypothesis for the peopling of the New World. The authors present evidence based on examinations of more than 9000 pieces of human and carnivore bone from 30 late Pleistocene archaeological and palaeontological sites, including cave and open locations, which span more than 2000 miles from the Ob River in the West to the Sea of Japan in the East. The observed bone damage signatures suggest that the conventional prehistory of Siberia needs revision and, in particular, that cave hyenas had a significant influence on the lives of Ice Age Siberians. The findings are supported by more than 250 photographs, which illustrate the bone damage described and provide a valuable insight into the context and landscape of the fieldwork for those unfamiliar with Siberia.
Allow yourself to be taken back into deep geologic time when strange creatures roamed the Earth and Western North America looked completely unlike the modern landscape. Volcanic islands stretched from Mexico to Alaska, most of the Pacific Rim didn't exist yet, at least not as widespread dry land; terranes drifted from across the Pacific to dock on Western Americas' shores creating mountains and more volcanic activity. Landscapes were transposed north or south by thousands of kilometers along huge fault systems. Follow these events through paleogeographic maps that look like satellite views of ancient Earth. Accompanying text takes the reader into the science behind these maps and the geologic history that they portray. The maps and text unfold the complex geologic history of the region as never seen before.
Laki is Iceland's largest volcano. Its eruption in 1783 is one of history's great, untold natural disasters. Spewing out sun-blocking ash and then a poisonous fog for eight long months, the effects of the eruption lingered across the world for years. It caused the deaths of people as far away as the Nile and created catastrophic conditions throughout Europe. Island on Fire is the story not only of a single eruption but the people whose lives it changed, the dawn of modern volcanology, as well as the history and potential of other super-volcanoes like Laki around the world. And perhaps most pertinently, in the wake of the eruption of another Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajokull, which closed European air space in 2010, acclaimed science writers Witze and Kanipe look at what might transpire should Laki erupt again in our lifetime.
This book details the experiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterranean watershed - the Catalan River Basin District - following the launch of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Experts in rivers, reservoirs, lakes, wetlands and estuaries present 13 chapters defining tools for water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. The content of this and the companion volume Experiences from Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part II) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA and several Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challenges provided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a useful guide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European as well as Non-European river basins.
This volume offers a comprehensive review of the chemical, biological and hydromorphological quality of the Danube. The first part examines the chemical pollution of surface waters, focusing on organic compounds (with special emphasis given to EU WFD priority substances and Danube River Basin specific pollutants), heavy metals and nutrients. Attention is also given to pollution of groundwater and drinking water resources by hazardous substances and to radioactivity in the Danube. The second part highlights the biology and hydromorphology of the Danube. It focuses on benthic macroinvertebrates, phytobenthos, macrophytes, fish, phytoplankton as well as microbiology, with chapters dedicated to gaps and uncertainties in the ecological status assessment and to invasive alien species. Further chapters dealing with the hydromorphology, sediment management and isotope hydrology complete the overall picture of the status of the Danube.
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