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Sensational images and stories about variations in Earth's climate and their impacts on society are pervasive in the media. The scientific basis for these stories is often not understood by the general public, nor even by those with a scientific background in fields other than climate science. This book is a comprehensive resource that will enable the reader to understand and appreciate the significance of the flood of climate information. It is an excellent non-mathematical resource for learning the fundamentals of climate analysis, as well as a reference for non-climate experts that need to use climate information and data. The focus is on the basics of the climate system, how climate is observed and how the observations are transformed into datasets useful for monitoring the climate. Each chapter contains Discussion Questions. This is an invaluable textbook on climate analysis for advanced students, and a reference textbook for researchers and practitioners.
"Climate Change and Island and Coastal Vulnerability is the outcome of a selection of peer reviewed edited papers presented at the International Workshop on Climate Change and Island Vulnerability (IWCCI) held at Kadmat Island, Lakshadweep, India in October 2010. Marine and coastal biodiversity, sea level rise vulnerability, fisheries, climate change impact on livelihood options, water and sanitation in island ecosystem and mitigation, adaptation and governance are the focal themes. The basic concept conveyed in the book is that biodiversity of islands is to be protected as a natural mechanism to mitigate climate change. Probability recurrence of mass coral bleaching and the management of coral reefs and their future protection are discussed in this book. Marine productivity and climate change for the last ten thousand years in the Arabian Sea have been examined with core records. Green technology is suggested as an important tool for mitigation and adaptation programmes in climate change. Measures taken to project biomass utilisation of islands as an energy source is delineated. Climate change may pose a potential threat on human health. Improved sanitation packages and models that are cost effective and environment-friendly for islands are uniquely presented in this book."
This book examines in detail the health of India's Haora River, which is of vital importance as the lifeline of Agartala, the Capital City of Tripura. From its source in the Baramura Hills, the river debouches onto the rolling plains of Chandrasadhubari. Thousands of people between Chandrasadhubari and the boundary of Bangladesh have settled along the riverbanks and are directly dependent on the river. Since the 1970s the ever-growing population of the Haora River basin has been exerting tremendous pressure on the river. Several anthropogenic activities affect the river, increasing sedimentation and pollution, and are leading the Haora River toward its dying phase. This book presents the problems related to the overall health of the Haora River and discusses some proposals for restoring the ecological balance and geo-political stability of this strategically important part of the country.
This book chronicles the history of climate science and planetary exploration, focusing on our ever-expanding knowledge of Earth's climate, and the parallel research underway on some of our nearest neighbours: Mars, Venus and Titan. From early telescopic observation of clouds and ice caps on planetary bodies in the seventeenth century, to the dawn of the space age and the first robotic planetary explorers, the book presents a comprehensive chronological overview of planetary climate research, right up to the dramatic recent developments in detecting and characterising exoplanets. Meanwhile, the book also documents the discoveries about our own climate on Earth, not only about how it works today, but also how profoundly different it has been in the past. Highly topical and written in an accessible and engaging narrative style, this book provides invaluable historical context for students, researchers, professional scientists, and those with a general interest in planetary climate research.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of the alluvial fan phenomena, including all terminology, morphology, sedimentology, controlling factors, processes and the human impact. It combines the knowledge dispersed widely in existing literature with regional case studies, color figures and photographs. The chapters provide a useful basis to understand alluvial fans and a selection of papers attached to each chapter offers additional, more focused reading. This volume is aimed at engineers, planners and especially students in earth sciences.
Crustal evolution means the resultant changes that the Earth's crust has gone through in its geologic past affected by changes in the mantle-crust system, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere. Metallogeny is the genesis of metallic mineral deposits. Both the terms are used in the book in their conventional sense, but keeping in mind an Indian context. This book is the first of its kind to document in detail the nature, origin and evolution of mineral deposits in India and is contextualized in local, regional and as well as global geology. The uniqueness of the book lies in that it combines both metallogeny and crustal evolution that were hitherto treated as stand-alone topics. The exhaustive chapters in the book carry detailed case studies of the distribution and occurrence of ores. The book would be useful to students of advanced geology, researchers, teachers, planners and global metallogeneticists around the world.
The "Second Edition" of this unique pocket field guide has been thoroughly revised and updated to include advances in physical volcanology, emplacement of magmas and interpreting structures and textures in igneous rocks. The book integrates new field based techniques (AMS and geophysical studies of pluton shape) with new topics on magma mixing and mingling, sill emplacement and magma sediment interaction. Part of the successful Field Guide series, this book includes revised sections on granitic and basaltic rocks and for the first time a new chapter on the engineering properties of igneous rocks.
The "Geological Field Guide Series" is specifically designed for scientists and students to use in the field when information and resources may be more difficult to access.
Many editions have been updated for 2011 and the guides are: Student-friendly in design and costDurableLightweightPocket-sizedReliableConcise
Visit the series homepage at www.wiley.com/go/geologicalfield
For introductory-level, undergraduate courses in natural resource conservation, natural resource management, environmental science, and environmental conservation. This comprehensive text describes the ecological principles, policies, and practices required to create a sustainable future. It emphasizes practical, cost-effective, sustainable solutions to these problems that make sense from social, economic, and environmental perspectives.
Balanced, broad-based, and up to date, this comprehensive text explores the nature and critical issues of earth resources and the impacts that resource usage has on the earth environment. The authors offer full coverage of all major types of earth resources-energy, metallic, nonmetallic, water, soil. A minimal scientific background is assumed.
"How do the oceans work?" Essentials of Oceanography, Eleventh Edition, takes an interdisciplinary approach to help students answer this question. The latest edition brings together the interrelated spheres that compose Earth's systems as they relate to the oceans: geological, chemical, physical, and biological. Trujillo and Thurman balance rigor and accessibility, combining in-depth discussions of oceanographic concepts with highly visual and interactive study aids to demystify the science for the non-science student. This unique combination has made Essentials of Oceanography the best-selling brief book-and one of the best-sellers overall-in oceanography.
Thanks to a mounting interest in climate change and severe weather phenomena, meteorology courses are increasingly popular among today's students - particularly in general education versions of the course, where rapid advances in visualization tools and technologies like GIS have greatly expanded the teacher's toolkit. The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology remains the standard introduction in its field, reinforcing basic concepts with everyday, easy-to-grasp examples. This revision retains the hallmarks professors have come to expect from Tarbuck and Lutgens: a friendly, largely non-technical narrative, timely coverage of recent atmospheric events, and carefully crafted artwork by leading science illustrator Dennis Tasa. The Twelfth Edition maintains a student-friendly approach while evolving to address various course challenges and trends. Current digital visualization and assessment tools are now available on MyMeteorologyLab, a new resource that both encourages student self-study and enables instructors to manage their courses online, with customizable assessments for students. Each chapter in this revision is organized by a new active learning path to help guide and engage non-science majors. A greater focus on popular and increasingly important Severe & Hazardous Weather applications, new critical visual analysis Eye on the Atmosphere features, as well as new discussions of the real-world career opportunities of meteorology with Professional Profile essays, make the science both relevant and exciting.
Water justice is becoming an ever-more pressing issue in times of increasing water-based inequalities and discrimination. Megacities, mining, forestry, industry and agribusiness claim an increasingly large share of available surface and groundwater reserves. Water grabbing and pollution generate poverty and endanger ecosystems' sustainability. Beyond large, visible injustices, the book also unfolds the many 'hidden' water world injustices, subtly masked as 'rational', 'equitable' and 'democratic'. It features critical conceptual approaches, including analysis of environmental, social, cultural and legal issues surrounding the distribution and management of water. Illustrated with case studies of historic and contemporary water injustices and contestations around the world, the book lays new ground for challenging current water governance forms and unequal power structures. It also provides inspiration for building alternative water realities. With contributions from renowned scholars, this is an indispensable book for students, researchers and policymakers interested in water governance, environmental policy and law, and political geography.
This student-oriented text is written in a casual, jargon-free style to present a modern introduction to mineralogy. It emphasizes real-world applications and the history and human side of mineralogy. This book approaches the subject by explaining the larger, understandable topics first, and then explaining why the "little things" are important for understanding the larger picture.
In December 2016, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists moved their iconic "Doomsday Clock" thirty seconds forward to two and a half minutes to midnight, the latest it has been set since 1952, the year of the first United States hydrogen bomb test. But a group of scientists-geologists, engineers, and physicists-has been fighting to turn back the clock. Since the dawn of the Cold War, they have advocated a halt to nuclear testing, their work culminating in the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, which still awaits ratification from China, Iran, North Korea-and the United States. The backbone of the treaty is every nation's ability to independently monitor the nuclear activity of the others. The noted seismologist Lynn R. Sykes, one of the central figures in the development of the science and technology used in monitoring, has dedicated his career to halting nuclear testing. In Silencing the Bomb, he tells the inside story behind scientists' quest for disarmament. Called upon time and again to testify before Congress and to inform the public, Sykes and his colleagues were, for much of the Cold War, among the only people on earth able to say with certainty when and where a bomb was tested and how large it was. Methods of measuring earthquakes, researchers realized, could also detect underground nuclear explosions. When politicians on both sides of the Iron Curtain attempted to sidestep disarmament or test ban treaties, Sykes was able to deploy the nascent science of plate tectonics to reveal the truth. Seismologists' discoveries helped bring about treaties limiting nuclear testing, but it was their activism that played a key role in the quest for peace. Full of intrigue, international politics, and hard science used for the global good, Silencing the Bomb is a timely and necessary chronicle of one scientist's efforts to keep the clock from striking midnight.
The second revised edition of the Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, provides both students and professionals with an up-to-date reference work on this important and highly varied area of research. There are lots of new articles, and many of the articles that appeared in the first edition have been updated to reflect advances in knowledge since 2006, when the original articles were written. The second edition will contain about 375 articles, written by leading experts around the world. This major reference work is richly illustrated with more than 3,000 illustrations, most of them in colour.
This volume provides an overview of (1) the physical and chemical foundations of dating methods and (2) the applications of dating methods in the geological sciences, biology, and archaeology, in almost 200 articles from over 200 international authors. It will serve as the most comprehensive treatise on widely accepted dating methods in the earth sciences and related fields. No other volume has a similar scope, in terms of methods and applications and particularly time range. Dating methods are used to determine the timing and rate of various processes, such as sedimentation (terrestrial and marine), tectonics, volcanism, geomorphological change, cooling rates, crystallization, fluid flow, glaciation, climate change and evolution. The volume includes applications in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings, the burgeoning field of molecular-clock dating and topics in the intersection of earth sciences with forensics. The content covers a broad range of techniques and applications. All major accepted dating techniques are included, as well as all major datable materials.
Geography is getting stranger. Out there, fleets of new islands are under construction and micro-nations are struggling into the light. As new borders and boundaries ebb and flow with increasing speed, it feels as if our old maps are being discarded, redrawn or torn up. Alastair Bonnett uncovers the stories of thirty-nine extraordinary places, each of which challenges us to re-imagine the world around us. From emerging islands, disruptive enclaves and bold utopian visions to uncanny ruins, ghostly tunnels and hidden landscapes - these are destinations that lie beyond ordinary coordinates. A follow on from the critically acclaimed Off the Map, this is a timely and fascinating discussion of place, ownership and ideas of state.
Waterford's guide to Weather is the perfect, pocket-sized folding guide to clouds, storms and weather patterns. A must-have reference guide for novice meteorologists, this indispensable guide teaches how to observe clouds and anticipate weather changes. Created and printed in the USA, this guide was updated in 2012 with a new cover design and updated information. Also highlights weather phenomena ranging from hurricanes to the Aurora Borealis. Laminated for durability, this handy guide is a great source of portable information and ideal for field use by novices and experts alike.
The monograph offers a comprehensive discussion of the role of evaporites in hydrocarbon generation and trapping, and new information on low temperature and high temperature ores. It also provides a wealth of information on exploitable salts, in a comprehensive volume has been assembled and organized to provide quick access to relevant information on all matters related to evaporites and associated brines. In addition, there are summaries of evaporite karst hazards, exploitative methods and problems that can arise in dealing with evaporites in conventional and solution mining. This second edition has been revised and extended, with three new chapters focusing on ore minerals in different temperature settings and a chapter on meta-evaporites. Written by a field specialist in research and exploration, the book presents a comprehensive overview of the realms of low- and high-temperature evaporite evolution. It is aimed at earth science professionals, sedimentologists, oil and gas explorers, mining geologists as well as environmental geologists.
This book offers a new perspective on those El Ninos that grow to extraordinary magnitudes, putting forward the claim that these "super El Ninos" should be grouped into an isolated cluster. All known super El Ninos exhibit pronounced features that are seldom seen in regular El Ninos. Super El Nino events, which are marked by a highly deterministic life cycle, will dominate the Earth's climate for several years. This study identifies the pre-conditions and a booster mechanism that lead to the runaway growth of super El Ninos, which is featured by the intense interaction between the anomalous circulation in middle/high latitudes and the ENSO source area. The study not only sheds new light on the fundamental mechanism of the ENSO but also contributes to improving its extended predictability.
Insights on current research and recent developments in understanding global savanna systems Increasingly recognized as synonymous with tropical grassy biomes, savannas are found in tropical and sub-tropical climates as well as warm, temperate regions of North America. Savanna Woody Plants and Large Herbivores examines the interactions between woody plants and browsing mammals in global savannas--focusing primarily on the C4 grassy ecosystems with woody components that constitute the majority of global savannas--and discusses contemporary savanna management models and applications. This much-needed addition to current research examines topics including the varying behavior of browsing mammals, the response to browsing by woody species, and the factors that inhibit forage intake. Contributions from an international team of active researchers and experts compare and contrast different savanna ecosystems, offering a global perspective on savanna functioning, the roles of soil and climate in resource availability and organism interaction, and the possible impacts of climate change across global savannas. Fills a gap in literature on savanna management issues, including biodiversity conservation and animal production Applies concepts developed in other biomes to future savanna research Complements contemporary books on savanna or large herbivore ecology Focuses on the woody component of savanna ecosystems and large herbivore interactions in savannas Compares tree-mammal systems of savannas and other eco-systems of temperate and boreal regions Provides numerous case studies of plant-mammal interactions from various savanna ecosystems Savanna Woody Plants and Large Herbivores is a valuable addition to those in fields such as ecology, wildlife and conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science.
The Anthropocene is a major new concept in the Earth sciences and this book examines the effects on geomorphology within this period. Drawing examples from many different global environments, this comprehensive volume demonstrates that human impact on landforms and land-forming processes is profound, due to various driving forces, including: use of fire; extinction of fauna; development of agriculture, urbanisation, and globalisation; and new methods of harnessing energy. The book explores the ways in which future climate change due to anthropogenic causes may further magnify effects on geomorphology, with respect to future hazards such as floods and landslides, the state of the cryosphere, and sea level. The book concludes with a consideration of the ways in which landforms are now being managed and protected. Covering all major aspects of geomorphology, this book is ideal for undergraduate and graduate students studying geomorphology, environmental science and physical geography, and for all researchers of geomorphology.
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