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Offering all aspects of humidity measurement and instrumentation, this work includes rudiments and theory, common applications, advantages and limitations of frequently-used sensors and techniques, and guidelines for installation, maintenance and calibration. The disk is intended for easy conversions of humidity parameters and units.
Longlisted for the Highland Book Prize 2019 The rocks of northern Scotland tell of turbulent events involving continental collisions that unleashed cataclysmic forces, creating a chain of mountains, the remnants of which we see today on both sides of the Atlantic. Geologists from Victorian times onwards have studied the area, and some of the most important geological phenomena have been established and described from the rocks that built these stunning landscapes. In this book, Alan McKirdy makes sense of the many and varied episodes that shaped the familiar landscape we see today. He highlights a number of fascinating geological features, including the Old Red Sandstones of Cromarty and the Black Isle, which carry the secrets of life during 'the Age of Fishes', and the thin sliver of fossil-bearing strata which hugs the coast from Golspie to beyond Helmsdale that dates back to Jurassic times and which records the time when dinosaurs roamed the Earth.
This text focuses particularly on the growing interest in
hydrodynamic principles of the study of underground waters, new
methods of eco-based hydrogeodynamic analysis, and the estimation
of the quantity of infiltration water transfer. The author also
discusses aspects of mass transfer by subsurface water flow in the
light of molecular kinetics, and examines a new apporach to
investigating the slow movements of groundwater at the deep zones
of the hydrolithosphere.
Observational and numerical modelling studies of the hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and light extinction were undertaken in the marine environment around Cape Bolinao in the Lingayen Gulf (NW Philippines). This text reports on the results of these studies, and offers conclusions.
The risks posed by climate change and its effect on climate extremes are an increasingly pressing societal problem. This book provides an accessible overview of the statistical analysis methods which can be used to investigate climate extremes and analyse potential risk. The statistical analysis methods are illustrated with case studies on extremes in the three major climate variables: temperature, precipitation, and wind speed. The book also provides datasets and access to appropriate analysis software, allowing the reader to replicate the case study calculations. Providing the necessary tools to analyse climate risk, this book is invaluable for students and researchers working in the climate sciences, as well as risk analysts interested in climate extremes.
Borehole geophysics is frequently applied in hydrogeological environmental investigations where, for example, sites must be evaluated to determine the distribution of contaminants. It is a cost-effective method for obtaining information during several phases of such investigations.
There is a growing crisis in our oceans as rates of infectious disease outbreaks are on the rise. Marine epidemics have the potential to cause a mass die-off of wildlife from the bottom to the top of the food chain, impacting the health of ocean ecosystems as well as lives on land. Fueled by sewage dumping, unregulated aquaculture, and drifting plastic in warming seas, ocean outbreaks are sentinels of impending global environmental disaster. Ocean Outbreak follows renowned scientist Drew Harvell and her colleagues as they investigate how four iconic marine animals-corals, abalone, salmon, and starfish-have been devastated by disease. Based on over twenty years of research, this firsthand account of the sometimes creeping, sometimes exploding impact of disease on our ocean's biodiversity ends with a hopeful message. Through policy changes and the implementation of innovative solutions from nature, we can reduce major outbreaks, save some ocean ecosystems, and protect our fragile environment.
The ideal textbook for non-science majors, this lively and engaging introduction encourages students to ask questions, assess data critically and think like a scientist. Building on the success of the previous editions, Dinosaurs has been reorganised and extensively rewritten in response to instructor and student feedback. It continues to make science accessible and relevant through its clear explanations and extensive illustrations. Updated to reflect recent fossil discoveries and to include new taxa, the text guides students through the dinosaur groups, emphasising scientific concepts rather than presenting endless facts. It is grounded in the common language of modern evolutionary biology - phylogenetic systematics - so that students examine dinosaurs as professional paleontologists do. The key emerging theme of feathered dinosaurs, and the many implications of feathers, have been integrated throughout the book, highlighted by the inclusion of stunning new photographs in this beautifully illustrated text, now in full colour throughout.
This volume contains peer-reviewed papers from the Fourth World Landslide Forum organized by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL), the Global Promotion Committee of the International Programme on Landslides (IPL), University of Ljubljana (UL) and Geological Survey of Slovenia in Ljubljana, Slovenia from May 29 to June 2,. The complete collection of papers from the Forum is published in five full-color volumes. This second volume contains the following: * Two keynote lectures * Landslide Field Recognition and Identification: Remote Sensing Techniques, Field Techniques * Landslide Investigation: Field Investigations, Laboratory Testing * Landslide Modeling: Landslide Mechanics, Simulation Models * Landslide Hazard Risk Assessment and Prediction: Landslide Inventories and Susceptibility, Hazard Mapping Methods, Damage Potential Prof. Matjaz Mikos is the Forum Chair of the Fourth World Landslide Forum. He is the Vice President of International Consortium on Landslides and President of the Slovenian National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction. Prof. Binod Tiwari is the Coordinator of the Volume 2 of the Fourth World Landslide Forum. He is a Board member of the International Consortium on Landslides and an Executive Editor of the International Journal "Landslides". He is the Chair-Elect of the Engineering Division of the US Council of Undergraduate Research, Award Committee Chair of the American Society of Civil Engineering, Geo-Institute's Committee on Embankments, Slopes, and Dams Committee. Prof. Yueping Yin is the President of the International Consortium on Landslides and the Chairman of the Committee of Geo-Hazards Prevention of China, and the Chief Geologist of Geo-Hazard Emergency Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources, P.R. China. Prof. Kyoji Sassa is the Founding President of the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL). He is Executive Director of ICL and the Editor-in-Chief of International Journal"Landslides" since its foundation in 2004. IPL (International Programme on Landslides) is a programme of the ICL. The programme is managed by the IPL Global Promotion Committee including ICL and ICL supporting organizations, UNESCO, WMO, FAO, UNISDR, UNU, ICSU, WFEO, IUGS and IUGG. The IPL contributes to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction and the ISDR-ICL Sendai Partnerships 2015-2025.
This work addresses the whole range of problems relating to the application of satellite technology to studies of regional seas and sea phenomona - the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshia Current - and coastal zones. It argues that to emphasize global applications is to fail to take into account fundamental idiosyncracies specific to the regional perspective. In addition, it describes implementation techniques - data gathering; in situ data assurance, algorithms for parameter retrieval; data storage; and data output.; The book contains satellite imagery and incorporates case studies from areas such as the Baltic and the Black Sea.
Increases in populations have created an increasing demand for food crops while increases in demand for biofuels have created an increase in demand for fuel crops. What has not increased is the amount of croplands and their productivity. These and many other factors such as decreasing water resources in a changing climate have created a crisis like situation in global food security. Decision makers in these situations need accurate information based on science. Remote Sensing of Global Croplands for Food Security provides a comprehensive knowledge base in use of satellite sensor-based maps and statistics that can be used to develop strategies for croplands (irrigated and rainfed) and their water use for food security. Over 50 Multi-disciplinary Global Experts Give Insight and Provide Practical Approaches Emphasizing practical mapping technologies based on advanced remote sensing data and methods, this book provides approaches for estimating irrigated and rainfed cropland areas and their water use on a national, continental, or global basis. Written by 50+ leading experts working at the forefront of this critical area, it offers case studies from a variety of continents highlighting the subtle requirements of each. In a very practical way it demonstrates the experience, utility, and models for determining water resources used and resulting yields of irrigated and rainfed croplands. The authors discuss: (a) innovative methods used for mapping croplands, (b) approaches adopted to collect cropland data in different countries by traditional and non-traditional means, (c) accuracies, uncertainties, and errors involved in producing cropland products, (d) surface energy balance models used to assess crop water use, and (e) extensive results and outcomes pertaining to global croplands and their water use. Develop Strategies for an Enhanced Green Revolution and an Accelerated Blue Revolution Linking croplands to water use and food security, the book provides a global perspective on this sensitive issue. It gives insight into the extent of cropland usage, their spatial distribution, their cropping intensities, and their water use patterns. The editors collect the experience, methods, models, and results that show the way forward and help in decision-making on water resources and food security. All of this is required for developing strategies for an enhanced green revolution and for an accelerated blue revolution.
Over the past decade the sediments of many rivers, lakes, and estuaries have been contaminated by inorganic and organic materials. Contaminants from sediments, under certain conditions, can be released into overlying waters. Thus, sediments may be an important source of contaminants to waters in which littoral and atmospheric contaminants have been reduced or eliminated. Often found in aquatic sediments, metals are exposed to many reactions, such as sorption and precipitation, and are greatly influenced by the redox conditions in the sediment. The reactions - usually over a period of time - reflect biotic processing as well as chemical transformations. This book describes these important processes. Metal Contaminated Aquatic Sediments outlines advances in environmental chemistry, effective new modeling techniques, applications for biological treatment, and cycling and transport of trace metals in sedimentary environments. Each chapter contains a detailed reference section that draws upon a stunning array of sources. The book includes many figures and tables that illustrate the process under discussion. Features
An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques is unique in the meteorological field as it presents for the first time theories and software of complex dynamical and physical processes required for numerical modeling. It was first prepared as a manual for the training of the World Meteorological Organization's programs at a similar level. This new book updates these exercises and also includes the latest data sets.
Many areas of the world are arid or semi-arid. This text looks at the problems caused by the loss of water stored in lakes and reservoirs for irrigation and domestic use by evaporation during the summer months.
The behaviour of gold in sedimentary, magmatic and postmagmatic processes are studied and 40 gold-bearing minerals including ten which were recently discovered are described. The results are presented of new experimental studies on phase relations in gold-sulphide systems. The solubility & form of gold migration in high-temperature chloride, sulphide and arsenic solutions are determined. Based on the new data, the genesis of gold deposits is studied and a geochemical classification proposed. This book is designed for specialists in the field of gold chemistry, geochemistry and mineralogy and for field geologists surveying and prospecting for gold.
This volume covers such areas in the field of soil salinity and water quality as: origin and distribution of salt-affected soils; management of alkali soils; quality criteria of irrigation water; wastewaters as a source of irrigation; and grasses and trees in the management of salt-affected soils.
Vadose Zone Hydrology describes the elements of the physical
processes most often encountered by hydrogeologists and
ground-water engineers in their vadose zone projects. It
illustrates the application of soil physics to practical problems
relevant to the characterization and monitoring of the vadose zone.
It includes an introduction to physical processes, including basic
flow theory, and provides examples of important field-scale
processes that must be recognizable by hydrogeologists.
Considerable attention is given to the concepts of recharge,
including how it is most accurately evaluated in the vadose zone.
Field and laboratory methods for characterizing hydraulic
properties in the vadose zone are also covered, and case studies
illustrating these methods are provided. New and emerging
technologies for monitoring the vadose zone, particularly for the
purpose of detecting contaminants, are highlighted. In the last
section of the book, additional case studies are presented,
demonstrating applications related to seepage detection, landfill
monitoring, and soil gas investigations.
This Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry. It provides invaluable material for decision makers and stakeholders at international, national and local level, in government, businesses, and NGOs. This volume provides: * An authoritative and unbiased overview of the physical science basis of climate change * A more extensive assessment of changes observed throughout the climate system than ever before * New dedicated chapters on sea-level change, biogeochemical cycles, clouds and aerosols, and regional climate phenomena * Extensive coverage of model projections, both near-term and long-term climate projections * A detailed assessment of climate change observations, modelling, and attribution for every continent * A new comprehensive atlas of global and regional climate projections for 35 regions of the world
Carbon is one of the most important elements of our planet, and ninety percent of it resides inside Earth's interior. This book summarizes ten years of research by scientists involved in the Deep Carbon Observatory, a global community of 1200 scientists. It is a comprehensive guide to carbon inside Earth, including its quantities, movements, forms, origins, changes over time, and impact on planetary processes. Leading experts from a variety of fields, including geoscience, biology, chemistry, and physics, provide exciting new insights into the interconnected nature of the global carbon cycle, and explain why it matters to the past, present, and future of our planet. With end-of-chapter problems, illustrative infographics, full-color images, and access to online models and datasets, it is a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers, and professional scientists interested in carbon cycling and Earth system science. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Management of Problem Soils in Arid Ecosystems examines the challenges of managing soils in arid and semiarid regions. These soils contain low organic matter, are not leached, and accumulate lime, gypsum, and/or soluble salts, requiring special management and practices. This book discusses how to identify problems, reclaim the soils, and then use them efficiently and economically. Water management and desertification in these areas are also discussed. It contains extensive references as well as 40 tables and illustrations.
Examining in detail at least one amazing site for all fifty states, Albert Dickas clearly explains the geologic forces behind each one's origin in "101 Geologic Sites You've Gotta See." Dickas discusses not only iconic landforms such as Devil's Tower in Wyoming but also locales that are often overlooked yet have fascinating stories. Consider the Reelfoot scarp in Tennessee: to the casual observer it is nothing more than a slight rise in a farm field. Yet this subtle slope represents a rift formed during an 1812 earthquake that forced the mighty Mississippi Island, which actually caps an 8.5-mile-high column of salt. Amply illustrated with full-color photographs and illustrations and written in clear yet playful prose, 101 Geologic Sites You've Gotta See will entertain and inform amateur and seasoned geology buffs whether from an armchair or in the field.
Until now no overview of the Quaternary deposits of northeastern Europe has been available. This book fills the gap. It presents the state of research on Quaternary stratigraphy and geology, with emphasis on glacial deposits, discusses the general scientific ideas and gives an overview of the methods of investigation, some of which have rarely been applied elsewhere. It has become apparent that the region covered has many environmental problems, and a proper understanding of the Quaternary deposits is a basic requirement for dealing with them. The same is true for civil engineering. In the formerly glaciated areas almost all construction sites for roads and houses will encounter glacial deposits. This volume provides an authoritative and fascinating overview for anyone planning to venture into this field. In its 53 regional chapters the book covers Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, the Czech Republic and eastern Germany. From the text it becomes clear that not all the stratigraphical schemes are yet fully compatible or comprehensible. There can be no doubt, however, that the east was subjected to very extensive ice advances during the earlier Pleistocene. Also, in contrast to western Europe, there was a significant Early Weichselian ice advance, although not as extensive as the last, Late Weichselian event. The book is illustrated by 421 figures and 74 colour plates (mostly photographs). There are 23 tables, a detailed index and a list of over 1000 references, providing a unique collection of northeastern European geoscience literature, much of which has so far escaped the attention of western scientists. The volume, composed of contributions by 60 scientists, completes the trilogy on glacial deposits of northern Europe. Together with its two companion volumes, the Glacial deposits in North-West Europe and the Glacial Deposits in Great Britain and Ireland, it represents an invaluable source of information for the geoscientist, the advanced student or the amateur.
Geosphere-biosphere interaction of certain elements and compounds is a major factor in global environmental change. This guide to the role of geographical monitoring in ecosystem modelling contains papers presented at the International Geographical Union Seminar on monitoring geosystems.
In 1931, the cluster of craters at Henbury Cattle Station south of Alice Springs in Central Australia was one of the first places on Earth where a group of impact structures could definitely be linked to the fall of iron meteorites. It was also the first place where radial rays and loops of ejected rock material, comparable to those seen around craters on the Moon, were observed. As such it was one of the primary observation sites associated with the science of meteoritics in its infancy. In this work the authors present previously unpublished documents covering early research at the Henbury site, provide an extended data set on the distribution of meteoritic material at Henbury craters, and compare recent discoveries on the mechanics of hypervelocity impacts with evidence collected over 80 years of research at the Henbury meteorite craters. In their conclusion, the authors suggest a new hypothesis for the fragmentation and incident direction of the crater-forming bolide, on the basis of a more complete set of data compared with previous models.
This volume contains peer-reviewed papers from the Third World Landslide Forum organized by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) in June 2014. The complete collection of papers from the Forumis published in three full-color volumes and one mono-color volume. "
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