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First published in 1966 these collected papers, written by the distinguished and visionary climatologist Hubert H. Lamb, describe how climates come about and give a history of climatic changes from the last ice-age to the 1960s.
First published in 1988, this is a reissue of a groundbreaking collection of essays written by Hubert Lamb, one of the world's foremost experts on weather and climate and a uniquely authoritative voice in the history of climatology. Hubert Lamb is able to provide a mature assessment of the effect of weather on people, and vice versa. His is a uniquely authoritative voice in the current debates about today's environment and the prospects for the future.
After a general introduction the book is divided into three parts. The first part consists of a chronological series of portraits of climate and its impact on human affairs and the environment. These extend from the warm climates of the geological past to the current drought in Africa. There are several studies of the last few centuries and, in particular, of the various effects of the so-called ?little Ice Age?. The second part is concerned with the causes and mechanisms of climate and weather changes, including chapters discussing Christmas weather, fronts and volcanoes. In the final part Hubert Lamb looks to the future, and attempts to put into perspective some of the pessimistic forecasts currently available. The text, which is consistently authoritative but always readable, is augmented by numerous maps, diagrams and photographs.
First published between 1966 and 1988, the four volumes in this collection demonstrate the immense breadth and depth of work on climate change by the pioneering English climatologist Hubert Lamb. Detailing everything from the fundamentals of climate and climatology, as well as a history of climatic change from the ice-age to the second half of the twentieth century, through to a consideration of how future climatic trends should be approached, this is a very comprehensive and laudable collection. As one of the first scientists to suggest that climate could change within human experience, and the founder of the ground-breaking Climatic Research Centre at the University of East Anglia, it is hard to overestimate the impact of Professor Lamb's work in establishing the study of climate change as a serious research subject and in developing our understanding of how and why climate change occurs. At a time when climate change and the environment are considered amongst the most important issues facing mankind and its future, this reissue serves as both a timely reminder that this was not always the case and a very welcome acknowledgement of the work of a truly path-breaking scientist.
Shall we take an umbrella… or evacuate the city? The Weather Machine is about a miraculous-but-overlooked invention that helps us through our daily lives – and sometimes saves them – by allowing us to see into the future.
When Superstorm Sandy hit North America, weather scientists had predicted its arrival a full eight days beforehand, saving countless lives and astonishing us with their capability. Their skill is unprecedented in human history and draws on nearly every major invention of the last two centuries: Newtonian physics, telecommunications, spaceflight and super-computing.
In this gripping investigation, Andrew Blum takes us on a global journey to explain this awe-inspiring feat – from satellites circling the Earth, to weather stations far out in the ocean, through some of the most ingenious minds and advanced algorithms at work today. Our destination: the simulated models they have constructed of our planet, which spin faster than time, turning chaos into prediction, offering glimpses of our future with eery precision.
This collaborative invention spans the Earth and relies on continuous co-operation between all nations – a triumph of human ingenuity and diplomacy we too often shrug off as a tool for choosing the right footwear each morning. But in this new era of extreme weather, we may come to rely on its maintenance and survival for our own.
This book provides readers with in-depth insights into the changes in the Pantanal wetland from its formation to the actual and likely future states. It reveals that today's Pantanal is an evolutionary consequence of geological, ecological and, more recently, man-made events taking place at distinct space-time intervals. Topics include geotectonics and sun-earth interactions, which largely dictate the rate of drastic changes that eventually disrupt ecological stability and radically rebuild the regional landscape. Furthermore, the biota-climate system is discussed as a major driver reshaping the ecohydrology functioning of the landscape on an intermediate timescale. Also covered are major changes in the landscape ecohydrology and biodiversity due to recent land-use and climate changes induced by humankind in the Anthropocene. The ability to recognize how those temporal scales impact the Pantanal wetland provides the opportunity for wise management approaches and the sustainable development of the region.
To date, research on the economic implications of climate change on fisheries has been both limited and fragmented. The contributors to this volume remedy the lack of attention by investigating the economic consequences of pelagic fish fluctuations in the recent past in order to understand how to adapt and respond to future climate changes. Small pelagic fish constitute approximately 30 per cent of the world's fish catch, have a global distribution, and are characterized by dramatic fluctuations in response to ocean climate. Despite this, countries adjust to changes in fish abundance, regardless of the cause, at variable time scales. These adjustments are often uncoordinated. The contributors address these concerns in chapters that cover a range of topics including: historical fluctuations of Atlanto-Scandian herring, management adaptations to climate regime shifts, differential consequences of pelagic fishery collapses in Southeast Asia, and the globalized nature of fishmeal markets. The case studies are complementary and yet self-standing, highlighting the need for a more coordinated assessment of impacts, and calling for more focused research. Students and scholars of climate change and environmental and resource economics will find this cohesive volume an instructive and enlightening resource. Policymakers and those in the fisheries management community will find the case studies and analyses useful in determining future goals and responses.
This book is dedicated to the formulation and solution of forward and inverse problems related to coupled media, and provides examples of how to solve concrete problems in environmental remote sensing of coupled atmosphere-surface systems. The authors discuss radiative transfer in coupled media such as the atmosphere-ocean system with Lambertian as well non-Lambertian reflecting surfaces at the lower boundary. The spectral range from the ultraviolet to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum is considered, as are multi-spectral as well as hyperspectral remote sensing, while solutions of the forward problem for unpolarized and polarized radiation are discussed in detail.
The main objective of this research is to investigate the governing processes and characteristics that drive morphodynamic evolution in alluvial estuaries by application of a process-based numerical model (Delft3D). It is of utmost importance to understand estuarine processes so that impact of human interference (like dredging and land reclamation) and long-term changes (like sea level rise) can be evaluated. The research addresses a number of cases ranging from an rectangular basins to real estuaries like the Western Scheldt in the Netherlands or San Pablo Bay in California. The more schematized approach allow to study morphodynamic evolution over several millennia under constant forcing and answers more fundamental questions related to conditions of equilibrium and related time scales. The more realistic cases give insight into the skill of the approach in predicting decadal morphodynamic developments. More processes are included to mimic realistic conditions and model results are compared to bathymetric measurements over the last century. The research shows that the modeling approach is good capable of describing stable morphodynamic calculations over a timescale of millennia with patterns similar to patterns observed in reality. Additionally, the approach shows that it is possible to predict decadal morphodynamic developments in real estuaries with significant skill.
Soil fertility is the backbone of agricultural systems and plays a key role in determining food quantity and quality. In recent decades, soil fertility has decreased due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, and nations around the globe are now facing the challenge of increasing food production while sustainably maintaining soil fertility. Written by leading international scientists in the field, this book explores soil fertility management strategies, including agronomic, microbiological and soil-science based strategies. Highlighting the practices that can be incorporated into organic farming and discussing recent advances, it is a valuable resource for researchers wanting to broaden their vision and the scope of their investigations.
The challenge of water scarcity as a result of insufficient seasonal rainfall and dry spell occurrences during cropping seasons is compounded by inefficient agricultural practices by smallholder farmers where insignificant soil and water conservation efforts are applied. The hypothesis of this research is that many of the past research efforts have taken a fragmented approach to deal with the challenges facing subsistence farmers in rainfed systems. The research has been conducted in the semi-arid Makanya catchment of northern Tanzania and has successfully applied different analytical techniques to better understand soil and water interactions at field scale. It has been demonstrated that there is indeed scope to increase crop water productivity provided the local farmers adopt more efficient cultivation techniques. Substantial yield increases occur as a result of diverting runoff and these further improve when other techniques such as ripping, application of manure and cover cropping are introduced. This confirms that no single solution exists to solve the problem of low yields in rainfed farming systems. However, even with these promising results, the research has shown that there is room to further improve the efficiency of crop water use through improvement in research approaches and exploration of better techniques.
Coursing through the Atlantic Ocean is a powerful current with a force 300 times that of the mighty Amazon. Ulanski explores the fascinating science and history of this sea highway known as the Gulf Stream, a watery wilderness that stretches from the Caribbean to the North Atlantic. Spanning both distance and time, Ulanski's investigation reveals how the Gulf Stream affects and is affected by every living thing that encounters it--from tiny planktonic organisms to giant bluefin tuna, from ancient mariners to big-game anglers. He examines the scientific discovery of ocean circulation, the role of ocean currents in the settlement of the New World, and the biological life teeming in the stream.
An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes and Earth Structures is
an introduction to seismology and its role in the earth sciences,
and is written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate
The fundamentals of seismic wave propagation are developed using
a physical approach and then applied to show how refraction,
reflection, and teleseismic techniques are used to study the
structure and thus the composition and evolution of the earth. The
book shows how seismic waves are used to study earthquakes and are
integrated with other data to investigate the plate tectonic
processes that cause earthquakes. Figures, examples, problems, and
computer exercises teach students about seismology in a creative
and intuitive manner. Necessary mathematical tools including vector
and tensor analysis, matrix algebra, Fourier analysis, statistics
of errors, signal processing, and data inversion are introduced
with many relevant examples. The text also addresses the
fundamentals of seismometry and applications of seismology to
societal issues. Special attention is paid to help students
visualize connections between different topics and view seismology
as an integrated science.
"An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth
Structure" gives an excellent overview for students of geophysics
and tectonics, and provides a strong foundation for further studies
Still the Gold Standard Resource on Trace Elements and Metals in Soils This highly anticipated fourth edition of the bestselling Trace Elements in Soils and Plants reflects the explosion of research during the past decade regarding the presence and actions of trace elements in the soil-plant environment. The book provides information on the biogeochemistry of these elements and explores how they affect food quality. Incorporating data from over 1500 new resources, this edition includes the most up-to-date information on the relationship of trace elements to topics such as: * Soil natural/background contents * Sorption/desorption processes * Anthropogenic impact and soil phytoremediation * Phytoavailability and functions in plants * Contents of food plants The book discusses the assessment of the natural/background content of trace elements in soil, bioindication of the chemical status of environmental compartments, soil remediation, and hyperaccumulation and phytoextraction of trace metals from the soil. The table of contents reflects the IUPAC's recommendation for numbering element groups, giving the new edition an updated organizational flow. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, Fourth Edition illustrates why trace elements' behavior in soil controls their transfer in the food chain, making this book an invaluable reference for agronomists, soil and plant scientists, nutritionists, and geochemists.
This book is the first to explore the dramatic amplification of global warming underway in cities and the range of actions that individuals and governments can undertake to slow the pace of warming. A core thesis of the book is that the principal strategy currently advocated to mitigate climate change - the reduction of greenhouse gases - will not prove sufficient to measurably slow the rapid pace of warming in urban environments. Brian Stone explains the science of climate change in terms accessible to the non-scientist and with compelling anecdotes drawn from history and current events. The book is an ideal introduction to climate change and cities for students, policy makers and anyone who wishes to gain insight into an issue critical to the future of our cities and the people who live in them.
This is the story of the Peak landscape from its tropical beginnings to its rugged gritty present. Limestone reefs grow in the shallows of tropical seas, taking captive fossilised sea creatures. As the seas shift and coastlines change, sandstones build on the banks of a great river delta. Forests of giant ferns take hold of the land, leaving behind a legacy of coal and bitumen. From the water worn limestone of the White Peak to the wind sculpted sandstones of the Dark Peak, the landscape here is always atmospheric. There are mysterious dry valleys with no sign of running water, caves adorned with sumptuous stalactite chandeliers and the remains of an industrial era built on mineral riches. Paul leads you on a series of fifteen walks which afford spectacular views of the best of the Peak District scenery and reveal evidence of the landscape's intriguing history. In the first half of the book Paul tells the story of the Dark and White Peaks. How limestone reefs grew upon the basement bedrock and the shifting seas deposited layers of sandstone and shale. Tectonic forces buckled and tilted these beds of sedimentary rock to create the rocky edges and tors which characterise the Peak District. The second half of the book details fifteen walks, from easy to challenging, which reveal the geological drama.
Marshak's NEW Guided Learning Explorations on key topics, Smartwork5 activities featuring a variety of engaging question types and exclusive Geotours Google Earth exercises make for a memorable hands-on learning experience. These resources integrate and build on the vibrant, narrative-style visuals from the text. Our robust suite of videos, animations and interactive simulations help students master geologic concepts.
Liquid water is essential for the emergence of life at least as we know it on Earth. Written by recognized experts in the field, this volume provides a complete inventory of water throughout the Solar System and a comprehensive overview of the evolution of water from the interstellar medium to the final planetesimals and planets. Through a series of up-to-date review papers, the book describes how water influences the geophysical evolutions of bodies and how it is in turn affected by such evolutions. Processes like atmospheric escape under the effect of stellar irradiation and collisional impacts are discussed in detail, with specific emphasis on the consequences for the budgets of water and volatile elements in general. Specific papers on the emergence of life on Earth and the prospects of habitability on extrasolar planets are included. The papers take an interdisciplinary approach to habitability, addressing it from the perspectives of astronomy, planetary science, geochemistry, geophysics and biology. Comprehensive yet easy to read, this volume serves as an invaluable resource to scholarly, professional and general audiences alike. Originally published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "The Delivery of Water to Protoplanets, Planets and Satellites"
Did the Earth once undergo a super ice age, one that froze the entire planet? A global adventure story and a fascinating account of scientist Paul Hoffman's quest to prove his maverick 'Snowball Earth' theory, this is science writing at its most gripping. In "Snowball Earth", Gabrielle Walker takes us on a thrilling natural history expedition in search of supporting evidence for the audacious theory which argues that the Earth experienced a climatic cataclysm 600 million years ago that froze the entire planet from the poles to the equator. Because the global snowball happened so long ago the ice has now long gone - but it left its traces in rocks around the world and in order to see the evidence, Walker visited such places as Australia, Namibia, South Africa and Death Valley, USA. Part adventure story and part travel book, it's a tale of the ultimate human endeavour to understand our origins.
This volume focuses on small mammal fossils from extinct Asian faunas of about 1 to 7 million years ago in North China. These played a role in the emergence of vertebrate paleontology as a modern science in that country. This second volume of the sub-series Late Cenozoic Yushe Basin, Shanxi Province, China: Geology and Fossil Mammals in the Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology book series deals with a rich microfauna fossil record; megafauna follow in subsequent volumes. This research on Yushe Basin fossils provides a view of changes in northeast Asian terrestrial faunas during the Late Neogene, and therefore is a key to the biochronology for a vast part of the continent. The faunas recovered by the multinational team working in this region represent changes in small mammal communities of the Yushe Basin, revealed on a finer time scale that has not been achieved previously. Detailed systematic studies on small mammal groups proceeded under the care of specialists are outlined in the chapters of this volume. Paleontologists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists will find this book appealing.
This is an invaluable textbook for any introductory survey course on the science and policy of climate change, for both non-science majors and introductory science students. The second edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the most recent science from the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports, and many illustrations include new data. The new edition also reflects advances in the political debate over climate change. Unique amongst textbooks on climate change, it combines an introduction to the science with an introduction to economic and policy issues, and is tightly focused on anthropogenic climate change. It contains the necessary quantitative depth for students to properly understand the science of climate change. It supports students in using algebra to understand simple equations and to solve end-of-chapter problems. Supplementary online resources include a complete set of PowerPoint figures for instructors, solutions to exercises, videos of the author's lectures, and additional computer exercises.
This special publication "Perspectives in Carbonate Geology" is a collection of papers most of which were presented at a symposium to honor the 80th birthday of Bob Ginsburg at the meeting of Geological Society of America in Salt Lake City in 2005. The majority of the papers in this publication are connected with the study of modern carbonate sediments. Bob Ginsburg pioneered the concept of comparative sedimentology - that is using the modern to compare to and relate to and understand the ancient. These studies are concerned with Bob's areas of passion: coral reefs and sea-level; submarine cementation and formation of beach rock; surface sediments on Great Bahama Bank and other platforms; origin of ooids; coastal sediments; formation of stromatolites; impact of storms on sediments; and the formation of dolomite. The remainder of the papers apply the study of modern environments and sedimentary processes to ancient sediments.
Recent other publications of the International Association of Sedimentologists
40 Analogue and Numerical Modelling of Sedimentary Systems
39 Glacial Sedimentary Processes and Products
38 Sedimentary Processes, Environments and Basins
37 Continental Margin Sedimentation
36 Braided Rivers
35 Fluvial Sedimentology VII
4 Sandstone Diagenesis: Recent and Ancient
Please see inside the book for the full list of IAS publications
Cover design by Code 5 Design
For information, news, and content about Wiley-Blackwell books and journals in Earth Sciences please visit www.earthpages.com
This IAS Special Publication #27 contains 17 of the papers
presented at the IAS International Workshop on Reefs and Carbonate
platforms in the Pacific and Indian oceans held in Sydney (July
1995). This is the first book to summarize the current state of
knowledge about reefs and carbonate platforms in these oceans,
where there is a great diversity of carbonate systems in various
tectonic settings. Papers concern both processes operating in reefs
and carbonate platforms and case histories (platform and oceanic
reef case histories). Case histories range from the Lower
Cretaceous to modern reefs and most fossil carbonate platforms
concern outcomes from recent ODP legs in the Pacific. The book
covers a broad spectrum of disciplines related to carbonate
geology: sedimentology, geochemistry, geophysics, reef ecology and
If you are a member of the International Association of Sedimentologists, for purchasing details, please see: http: //www.iasnet.org/publications/details.asp?code=SP25
Agriculture is currently facing multi-faceted threats in the form of unpredictable weather variability, frequent droughts and scarcity of irrigation water, together with the degradation of soil resources and declining environmental health. These stresses result in the modification of plant physiology to impart greater resilience to changing abiotic and biotic environments, but only at the cost of declining plant productivity. In light of these facts, assessing the status of natural resource bases, and understanding the mechanisms of soil-plant-environment interactions so as to devise adaptation and mitigation approaches, represent great and imminent challenges for all of us. In this context, it is essential to understand the potential applications of modern tools, existing coping mechanisms and their integration, as this will allow us to develop suitable advanced mitigation strategies. From a broader perspective, the book deals with crop-environment interaction in the context of changing climatic conditions. To do so, it addresses four major aspects: Understanding the mechanism of carbon dynamics in the soil-plant-environment continuum; greenhouse gas fluxes in agricultural systems; and soil properties influenced by climate change and carbon sequestration processes. Mitigation and management of the photo-thermal environment to improve crop productivity; soil health under variable climate; reducing agro-ecosystem evapotranspiration losses through biophysical controls; and heat stress in field crops and its management. Studying the impact of climate change on biotic environments; insect-pest interactions; manifestations of disease; and adaptation strategies for island agro-ecosystems. Innovative approaches to assess stress impacts in crops, such as crop modeling, remote sensing, spectral stress indices etc. The book presents a collection of contributions from authoritative experts in their respective fields. Offering young researchers new perspectives and future research directions, it represents a valuable guide for graduate students and academics alike.
Recent hydrometeorological extreme events have highlighted the increased exposure and vulnerability of societies and the need to strengthen the knowledge-base of related policies. Current research is focused on improving forecasting, prediction and early warning capabilities in order to improve the assessment of vulnerability and risks linked to extreme climatic events. Hydrometeorological Hazards: Interfacing science and policy is the first volume of a series which will gather scientific and policy-related knowledge related to climate-related extreme events. Invited authors are internationally recognized experts in their respective fields. This volume reflects the most recent advances in science and policy within this field and takes a multidisciplinary approach. The book provides the reader with a state-of-the art account on flash floods, droughts, storms, and a comprehensive discussion focused on the cost of natural hazards, resilience and adaptation. This book will be an invaluable reference for advanced undergraduates taking courses with a focus on natural hazards including climate-related extreme events. The book will also be of interest to postgraduates, researchers and policy makers in this field looking for an overview of the subject.
The Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) is one of the most widely used analysis packages for regional and teleseismic seismic data. For the first time, this book provides users at introductory and advanced levels with a complete guide to SAC. It leads new users of SAC through the steps of learning basic commands, describes the SAC processing philosophy, and presents its macro language in full, supported throughout with example inputs and outputs from SAC. For more experienced practitioners, the book describes SAC's many hidden features, including advanced graphics aspects, its file structure, how to write independent programs to access and create files, and much more. Tutorial exercises engage users with newly acquired skills, providing data and code to implement the standard methods of teleseismic shear-wave splitting and receiver function analysis. Methodical and authoritative, this is a key resource for researchers and graduate students in global seismology, earthquake seismology and geophysics.
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