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The study of dinosaurs has been experiencing a remarkable renaissance over the past few decades. Scientific understanding of dinosaur anatomy, biology, and evolution has advanced to such a degree that paleontologists often know more about 100-million-year-old dinosaurs than many species of living organisms. This book provides a contemporary review of dinosaur science intended for students, researchers, and dinosaur enthusiasts. It reviews the latest knowledge on dinosaur anatomy and phylogeny, how dinosaurs functioned as living animals, and the grand narrative of dinosaur evolution across the Mesozoic. A particular focus is on the fossil evidence and explicit methods that allow paleontologists to study dinosaurs in rigorous detail. Scientific knowledge of dinosaur biology and evolution is shifting fast, and this book aims to summarize current understanding of dinosaur science in a technical, but accessible, style, supplemented with vivid photographs and illustrations.
The Topics in Paleobiology Series is published in collaboration with the Palaeontological Association, and is edited by Professor Mike Benton, University of Bristol.
Books in the series provide a summary of the current state of knowledge, a trusted route into the primary literature, and will act as pointers for future directions for research. As well as volumes on individual groups, the series will also deal with topics that have a cross-cutting relevance, such as the evolution of significant ecosystems, particular key times and events in the history of life, climate change, and the application of a new techniques such as molecular palaeontology.
The books are written by leading international experts and will be pitched at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers in both the paleontological and biological sciences.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: http: //www.wiley.com/go/brusatte/dinosaurpaleobiology.
The book summarizes about 40 years of the author 's research on sedimentary geology in an epicontinental (shelf) sea during the Late Jurassic in northern Switzerland. It presents a synopsis of the interplay of varying paleoclimate, of sea level variations, of varying water depth, of sea floor topography, of vertical and lateral facies changes, of processes of sedimentation like aggradation and progradation, of compaction, of the great regional differences in rates of sedimentation and in isostatic equilibration of the lithosphere under load, and of concomitant synsedimentary tectonics. Regional variation in isostatic adjustment of the lithosphere to the increasing load of sediments is analyzed by means of time correlations based on a detailed biochronology of ammonites in combination with mineral stratigraphy using the comparatively stable clay mineral kaolinite, and with sequence stratigraphy.
"We are buried beneath mountains of fast-accumulating data. In such circumstances, this book, rather than adding to the data load, aims to offer real understanding." -James Lovelock Human beings are extraordinary creatures. Intelligent, agile, and curious, we have adapted and invented our way to becoming the most important species on the planet. So great is the extent of our influence, that many speak of a new geological era, the Anthropocene, an age defined by human-induced change to the blue and green globe we call home. Our lofty status comes with responsibility as much as possibility: How should we approach our present and future? What knowledge should we carry with us? Conceived by James Lovelock, inventor of the Gaia theory, this illustrated essay collection brings together an all-star lineup of thinkers and scientists to offer essential understanding about who we are, how we live, and where we might be going. Much as the Gaia theory considers our Earth as an integrated whole of living systems, The Earth and I encourages holistic understanding. Across 12 chapters, we take in both the intricate details and immense structures of our species and our planet, from our ever-expanding universe to our minuscule but mighty cells. We see stellar explosions and the layers of life beneath our feet, delve into the neuroscience of decision-making, get to grips with our climate, and contemplate our increasing intimacy with technology. The book's world-class contributors include quantum physicist Lisa Randall, Astronomer Royal Martin Rees, Pulitzer Prize-winning biologist Edward O. Wilson, and Nobel Prize-winning neuroscientist Eric Kandel. With lively illustrations from British artist Jack Hudson, the result is an inspiration for curious minds young and old, and a trusted tool kit for an informed and enlightened future.
The risks posed by climate change and its effect on climate extremes are an increasingly pressing societal problem. This book provides an accessible overview of the statistical analysis methods which can be used to investigate climate extremes and analyse potential risk. The statistical analysis methods are illustrated with case studies on extremes in the three major climate variables: temperature, precipitation, and wind speed. The book also provides datasets and access to appropriate analysis software, allowing the reader to replicate the case study calculations. Providing the necessary tools to analyse climate risk, this book is invaluable for students and researchers working in the climate sciences, as well as risk analysts interested in climate extremes.
With the global population expected to reach nine billion by 2050, our capacity to provide enough food, water and energy relies on our understanding and management of the complex interdependencies in the climate-energy-water nexus. This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date analysis of the interdependencies between these sectors and the knock-on consequences of those interactions for other sectors, such as food production and biodiversity conservation. The interdisciplinary nature of the book across the three sectors of climate, energy and water means that it will be valuable for advanced students, researchers and policymakers across a broad range of fields, including environmental/energy/water/climate policy, environmental economics, climate science, hydrology, ecology and geography.
The past half century has seen an evolution in thinking from 'flood control' to 'flood risk management', recognizing that risk results from both hazard and vulnerability. Rather than rely only on engineering structures to reduce flood magnitude or extent, recent policies emphasize avoiding construction in flood-prone areas (or moving people from floodplains), reducing impacts on exposed populations through early warning systems, and insurance to aid in recovery. Implementing this new approach faces many challenges but also offers opportunities for synergies, as described in this book for a range of large floodplain rivers and smaller urban streams across North America and Europe. This book is unique in presenting the voices of those on the front lines of implementing a new paradigm in flood risk management, each river with a unique set of challenges and opportunities derived from its specific geography as well as differences in governance between the American and European contexts.
This book presents a beautifully illustrated overview of the most prominent landscapes of South Africa and the distinctive landforms associated with them. It describes the processes, origins and the environmental significance of those landscapes, including their relationships to human activity of the past and present. The sites described in this book include, amongst others, the Blyde River Canyon, Augrabies Falls, Kruger National Park, Kalahari desert landscapes, the Great Escarpment, Sterkfontein caves and karst system, Table Mountain, Cape winelands, coastal dunes, rocky coasts, Boer War battlefield sites, and Vredefort impact structure. Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa provides a new perspective on South Africa's scenic landscapes by considering their diversity, long and short term histories, and importance for geoconservation and geotourism. This book will be relevant to those interested in the geology, physical geography and history of South Africa, climate change and landscape tourism.
Provides a country-by-country review of the world's weather, guiding you through local seasons and advising you on what clothes to take, when best to go, and when you should definitely stay away.
A detailed study of the jaw elements of Polychaete worms Silurian Paulinitid Polychaetes from Gotland is Number 25 in the Fossils and Strata series of monographs and memoirs in palaeontology and biostratigraphy. The author studied the preserved jaw elements of the Paulinitidae family of Polychaetes. Examined materials were from the Silurian sections on the Island of Gotland, Sweden. The study was based on specimens taken from over 700 samples. This study documentation, along with others in the Fossils and Strata series, features taxonomic descriptions.
Lakes and reservoirs hold about 90% of the world's surface fresh water, but overuse, water withdrawal and pollution of these bodies puts some one billion people at risk. The Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs reviews the physical, chemical and ecological characteristics of lakes and reservoirs, and describes their uses and environmental state trends in different parts of the world. Superbly illustrated throughout, it includes some 200 entries in a range of topics, including acidification, artificialisation, canals, climate change effects, dams, dew ponds, drainage, eutrofication, evaporation, fisheries, hydro-electric power, nutrients, organic pollution, paleolimnology, reservoir capacities and depths, sedimentation, water resources and more.
"Today, over two billion people in developing countries live without any electricity. They lead lives of misery, walking miles every day for water and firewood, just to survive. What if there was an existing, viable technology, that when developed to its highest potential could increase everyone's standard of living, cut fossil fuel demand and the resultant pollution" said Peter Meisen, President, Global Energy Network Institute in 1997. Even though energy is available, technology was not matured enough to tap this energy in the nineties. Now, with the advancement of drilling technology, extracting heat from hot rocks has become a reality. Very soon when CO2 replaces the circulation fluid to extract heat from granites then both fossil fuel based and renewable energy sources will coexists balancing the CO2 emissions and providing energy, food and water security to the rich and the poor countries. Red Sea rift represents the youngest spreading ridges in the world with a vast amount of heat energy stored on either side. The Red Sea is surrounded by countries with a weak economy. Developing a geothermal energy based economy in countries like Eritrea, Djibouti and Ethiopia will provide food and water security to these countries while for other countries, geothermal energy will help in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Although geothermal energy sources are available in all the countries since the opening of the Red Sea, millions of years ago, this was not brought to the light. Oil importing countries became highly dependent on the oil rich countries to sustain their economy and growth and thus remained poor. This book unfolds the huge energy source, hydrothermal and EGS, for the benefit of the poor countries to reduce poverty and lift the socio economic status of these countries. The book deals with i) future energy demand, ii) CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel based power plants, iii) black carbon emissions associated biomass energy source and iv) strategies to reduce CO2 emissions by using geothermal energy as energy source mix in all the countries-oil exporting and oil importing countries- around the Red Sea. The amount of energy available from hot granites in all the countries is well documented. EGS being the future energy source for mankind, this book will form the basis for future research by young scientists and academicians. Availability of fresh water is a matter of concern for all countries. The only way to satisfy the thirst of a growing population, to meet drinking water demand and food security, is to depend on seawater. A large volume of CO2 is being emitted from desalination plants supported by fossil fuel based energy sources. This book describes the advantages of using geothermal energy sources for the desalination process to meet the growing water and food demand of the countries around the Red Sea. Oil rich countries, using its geothermal resources, can now reduce food imports and become self sufficient in food production. This book gives hope for millions of children living in the underdeveloped countries around the Red Sea to satisfy their hunger and live a decent life with a continuous source of electricity, water and food available. This book ends with a note on the economic benefits of geothermal energy vs other renewables. With the signing of the GGA (Global Geothermal Alliance) by several countries during the December 2015 CoP 21 summit in Paris, policy makers and administrators will work together in implementing the necessary infrastructure and support to develop this clean energy source.
Regional Geology Guides provide a broad view and interpretation of the geology of a region.
Long regarded as an empty and inhospitable environment, the deep ocean is rapidly emerging as an ecological hot spot with a remarkable diversity of biological life. Yet, the world's oceans are currently on a dangerous trajectory of decline, threatened by acidification, oil and gas drilling, overfishing, and, in the long term, deep-sea mining, bioprospecting, and geo-engineering. In The Geopolitics of Deep Oceans, noted environmental sociologist John Hannigan examines the past, present and future of our planet's 'final frontier'. The author argues that our understanding of the deep - its definition, boundaries, value, ownership, health and future state - depends on whether we see it first and foremost as a resource cornucopia, a political chessboard, a shared commons, or a unique and threatened ecology. He concludes by locating a new storyline that imagines the oceans as a canary-in-the-mineshaft for gauging the impact of global climate change. The Geopolitics of Deep Oceans is a unique introduction to the geography, law, politics and sociology of the sub-surface ocean. It will appeal to anyone seriously concerned about the present state and future fate of the largest single habitat for life on our planet.
Wild Law weaves politics, legal theory, quantum physics and ancient wisdom into a fascinating and inspiring story about how to rediscover a viable role for the human species within the Earth community.
This title has been seminal in inspiring the global movement to recognise rights for Nature - a movement destined to shape the 21st Century as significantly as the human rights movements shaped the 20th Century. Wild Law reveals how the governance systems of contemporary civilisations legitimise and promote the disastrous exploitation and destruction of Earth and why an Earth-centred approach is essential to address climate change and the accelerating degradation of the ecological systems on which we depend. Cormac Cullinan explains how to begin transforming industrialized societies to ensure that the pursuit of human wellbeing enhances the beauty, health and diversity of Earth instead of diminishing it.
This edition includes a new preface, postscript and the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth proclaimed on 22nd April 2010 by the People's World Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth.
Over the last two decades the complex network paradigm has proven to be a fruitful tool for the investigation of complex systems in many areas of science; for example, the Internet, neural networks and social networks. This book provides an overview of applications of network theory to climate variability, such as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation and the Indian Monsoon, presenting recent important results obtained with these techniques and showing their potential for further development and research. The book is aimed at researchers and graduate students in climate science. A basic background in physics and mathematics is required. Several of the methodologies presented here will also be valuable to a broader audience of those interested in network science, for example, from biomedicine, ecology and economics.
Advanced imaging spectral technology and hyperspectral analysis techniques for multiple applications are the key features of the book. This book will present in one volume complete solutions from concepts, fundamentals, and methods of acquisition of hyperspectral data to analyses and applications of the data in a very coherent manner. It will help readers to fully understand basic theories of HRS, how to utilize various field spectrometers and bioinstruments, the importance of radiometric correction and atmospheric correction, the use of analysis, tools and software, and determine what to do with HRS technology and data.
What mysteries lurk in the depths of a glass of water? What makes the wispy clouds of vapour rising from your cup of hot coffee? Or the puffy white clouds hovering in the sky? Why do bubbles in your fizzy drinks get bigger the longer you wait? What keeps Jelly's water from oozing out? Why does your tongue stick to something frozen? Professor Pollack takes us on a fantastic voyage through water, showing us a hidden universe teeming with physical activity, providing cogent explanations to many of waters long-held secrets. In conversational prose, Pollack exposes where some scientists may have gone wrong, and instead lays a simple foundation for understanding how changes of water structure underlie most energetic transitions of form and motion on Earth. This seminal work, peppered with whimsical illustrations and simple diagrams invites us to open our eyes and re-experience our natural world, to take nothing for granted, and to reawaken our childhood dream of having things make sense.
In the follow up to Darwin's Lost World, Martin Brasier introduces the quest for the missing history of life and the cell. Through a series of journeys it emerges that the modern plant cell is one of the most deeply puzzling and unlikely steps in the whole history of life. Decoding this puzzle is a great adventure that has mainly taken place over the last half century. Brasier puts the big questions into context through lively descriptions of his explorations around the world, from the Caribbean Sea and the Egyptian pyramids, to the shores of the great lakes in Canada, and to the reefs and deserts of Australia. Covering the period from 1 to 2 billion years ago - a period he once dubbed 'the boring billion' - he demonstrates how it in fact involved great evolutionary potential with the formation of the complex (eukaryotic) cell. Without this cell there would be nothing on Earth today except bacteria, and the formation of this cell was a fundamental turning point in the history of life on Earth. Weaving together several threads, Brasier emphasizes the importance of single-celled forms to marine ecosystems; symbiosis and coral reefs; and the architecture and beauty of single-celled Foraminifera and what they tell us about evolution. From a master storyteller comes a vivid description of the earliest biological forms and a set of fascinating tales of travels and research.
Gravity and magnetic methods can be directly related to physical properties of rocks, i.e. the density and the susceptibility, and are very useful to field geologists and geophysicists in the mapping and identification of various rock types. They are also used for the detection of minerals with large contrast in density and susceptibility compared to country rock.
This reference volume consists of two parts: The first part describes the basic principles and methodology of the gravity and the magnetic methods of geophysical exploration with global examples. It deals with geological studies and gravity & magnetic methods; geodynamic studies (plate tectonics, crustal structures, plume tectonics); resource exploration (geological mapping, hydrocarbon, mineral and groundwater exploration); environmental studies (seismotectonics, engineering sites, climate changes, mining geophysics, volcanoes and volcanic activity, landslides, impact craters) and different modes of surveying. The second part is dedicated to the Indian Continent and deals with the application of geological data, integrated with other geophysical and geological information. It discusses geodynamics and seismotectonics with respect to the Indian Plate zone, including the Indian Ocean, Himalaya, Tibet and Archean- Proterozoic Cratons and Mobile Belts. It also presents ways for integrated exploration for hydrocarbons, minerals, groundwater and a number of environmental issues relevant in engineering and archaeology.
The accessible style of this unique work will benefit researchers, professionals, advanced students and interested readers in Geophysics, Geology, Economic Geology, Geological Engigeering, Geography, Mineralogy and related disciplines.
In an age of unprecedented exploration and innovation, our oceans remain largely unknown, and endlessly fascinating: full of mystery, danger, beauty, and inspiration. Bill Streever-a longtime deep-sea diver himself-has masterfully woven together the science and history of Earth's last remaining frontier: the sea. In Oceans Deep celebrates the daring pioneers who tested the limits of what the human body can endure under water: free divers able to reach 300 feet on a single breath; engineers and scientists who uncovered the secrets of decompression; teenagers who built their own diving gear from discarded boilers and garden hoses in the 1930s; saturation divers who lived under water for weeks at a time in the 1960s; and the trailblazing men who voluntarily breathed experimental gases at pressures sufficient to trigger insanity.Tracing both the little-known history and exciting future of how we travel and study the depths, Streever's captivating journey includes seventeenth-century leather-hulled submarines, their nuclear-powered descendants, a workshop where luxury submersibles are built for billionaire clients, and robots capable of roving unsupervised between continents, revolutionizing access to the ocean. In this far-flung trip to the wild, night-dark place of shipwrecks, trapped submariners, oil wells, innovative technologies, and people willing to risk their lives while challenging the deep, we discover all the adventures our seas have to offer-and why they are in such dire need of conservation.
Southern California is sandwiched between two tectonic plates with an ever-shifting boundary. Over the last several million years, movements of these plates have dramatically reshuffled the Earth's crust to create rugged landscapes and seascapes riven with active faults. Movement along these faults triggers earthquakes and tsunamis, pushes up mountains, and lifts sections of coastline. Over geologic time, beaches come and go, coastal bluffs retreat, and the sea rises and falls. Nothing about Southern California's coast is stable. Surf, Sand, and Stone tells the scientific story of the Southern California coast: its mountains, islands, beaches, bluffs, surfing waves, earthquakes, and related phenomena. It takes readers from San Diego to Santa Barbara, revealing the evidence for how the coast's features came to be and how they are continually changing. With a compelling narrative and clear illustrations, Surf, Sand, and Stone outlines how the coast will be altered in the future and how we can best prepare for it.
This textbook provides an intuitive yet mathematically rigorous introduction to the thermodynamics and thermal physics of planetary processes. It demonstrates how the workings of planetary bodies can be understood in depth by reducing them to fundamental physics and chemistry. The book is based on two courses taught by the author for many years at the University of Georgia. It includes 'Guided Exercise' boxes; end-of-chapter problems (worked solutions provided online); and software boxes (Maple code provided online). As well as being an ideal textbook on planetary thermodynamics for advanced students in the Earth and planetary sciences, it also provides an innovative and quantitative complement to more traditional courses in geological thermodynamics, petrology, chemical oceanography and planetary science. In addition to its use as a textbook, it is also of great interest to researchers looking for a 'one stop' source of concepts and techniques that they can apply to their research problems.
'Coal' and 'China' to some extent have become synonymous. China is by far the largest user of coal in the world. In 2016, coal production in China amounted to 3.21 billion tons, about half of the total global coal production. Coal consumption accounts for more than 65% of primary energy consumption in China. The Chinese coal industry greatly contributes to the economic development in China, the second largest economy in the world. However, periodically, ubiquitous images of smog blanketing major Chinese cities are viewed all over the world. Coal combustion is one of the important contributors to smog, which is considered to be a major environmental and human health problem for China and other countries. News stories also highlight the periodic coal mine disasters that kill hundreds of Chinese coal miners annually. The need to address these and other human health, environmental, and mine safety issues and to maximize resource recovery and use justifies a vigorous coal research effort. This book brings together experts on almost every aspect of coal geology, coal production, composition and use of the coal and its by-products, and coal's environmental and human health impacts. The chapters in this book were originally published in a special issue of the International Geology Review.
This textbook covers the entire spectrum of topics required to completely understand air pollution. It emphasizes the atmospheric processes governing air pollution (emissions, atmospheric dispersion, chemical transformations, deposition on surfaces and ecosystems). Other areas of focus include air pollutant emission control technologies, health and environmental impacts, regulations and public policies, and interactions between climate change and air pollution. Topics are first presented conceptually, and then in terms of their fundamental aspects. Actual case studies are incorporated throughout to illustrate major air pollution phenomena, such as the dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the development of strategies to reduce urban air pollution, mitigate acid rain, and improve atmospheric visibility. Graduate students, researchers, and air quality professionals will find the full coverage of these important matters to be well suited to their needs.
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