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This updated and enhanced seventh edition of ESSENTIALS OF METEOROLOGY is written by the most widely read and authoritative author in introductory meteorology-Donald Ahrens. Ahrens's ability to explain relatively complicated ideas in a student-friendly, manageable fashion allows even non-science students to visualize the principles of meteorology. The text's clear and inviting narrative is supplemented by numerous pedagogical features that encourage observing, calculating, and synthesizing information. New critical thinking questions linked to key figures and concept animation boxes point to online animations and appendices allowing students to immediately apply the text material to the world around them-and understand the underlying meteorological principles.
Bleeters come and bleeters go, they never, never stay - if it's not raining now more rain is on the way. It's widely reported that Eskimos have over 50 words for snow. Given the equivalent ubiquity of rain in Britain's northern climes, it is not surprising that Scots have coined just as many (and possibly many more) expressions for the many different types of precipitation that fall from our skies. In this book Ron Butlin introduces 50 of the most colourful Scottish words for rain in humorous and memorable verse, imaginatively accompanied with illustrations by Tim Kirby.
We not only live in the air, we live because of it. At ground level air transforms miraculously; it wraps our planet in a blanket of warmth, while the outer layer of our atmosphere soaks up violent flares from the sun. In this fascinating celebration of the Earth's fragile atmosphere, Gabrielle Walker traces a journey of groundbreaking scientific discovery from the first experiments in the Renaissance to recent findings in space.
Icebergs are a prime example of an environmental phenomenon that brings together multiple disciplines in the polar sciences, from the physics of calving and melting to the geology of their solid deposits and sea floor interactions. Icebergs are also increasingly seen to play key roles in past and present climate change. This book gives a comprehensive, multidisciplinary view of icebergs and their interaction with the Earth system, from the physical and biological interaction with the ocean and climate, to how iceberg detritus informs us about past Earth history. Societal and cultural aspects of icebergs are also examined, in terms of the risks and opportunities posed by icebergs in the modern world, as well as how these might develop in the future. With extensive illustrations and key links to online resources, Icebergs is a valuable reference for academic researchers and graduate students studying oceanography, cryospheric science, climatology and environmental science.
This volume contains peer-reviewed papers from the Third World Landslide Forum organized by the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) in June 2014. The complete collection of papers from the Forumis published in three full-color volumes and one mono-color volume. "
This book explores the sustainability aspect of organic and conventional farming systems, which is commonly categorized into three sub-aspects: social, environmental and economic. The social structure of a given area, organic friendly technologies, soil properties, crop diversification and income are the elements chosen for comparison, and are analyzed using descriptive and statistical methods. In addition, the book assesses the current status of the local organic market in Nepal and field experiments involving the use of various organic means to achieve better production for selected vegetables. Determining the benefits and/or challenges of organic and conventional farming is important to determining the most viable type of farming in the long term, but can be greatly impacted by a given area's specific characteristics (social, environmental, political, etc.), which is why this study focuses on a specific location: the Chitwan district of Nepal, where group conversion to organic farming has existed alongside conventional farming for years. This book offers a useful guide for both practitioners and academic researchers who are interested in organic farming and food security, particularly in developing countries.
The third edition of Radiogenic Isotope Geology examines revolutionary changes in geochemical thinking that have occurred over the past fifteen years. Extinct-nuclide studies on meteorites have called into question fundamental geochemical models of the Earth, while new dating methods have challenged conventional views of Earth history. At the same time, the problem of global warming has raised new questions about the causes of past and present climate change. In the new edition, these and other recent issues are evaluated in their scholarly and historical context, so readers can understand the development of current ideas. Controversial theories, new analytical techniques, classic papers, and illustrative case studies all come under scrutiny in this book, providing an accessible introduction for students and critical commentary for researchers.
Waves and flows are pervasive on and within Earth. This book presents a unified physical and mathematical approach to waves and flows in the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, volcanoes and the mantle, emphasizing the common physical principles and mathematical methods that apply to a variety of phenomena and disciplines. It is organized into seven parts: introductory material; kinematics, dynamics and rheology; waves in non-rotating fluids; waves in rotating fluids; non-rotating flows; rotating flows; and silicate flows. The chapters are supplemented by 47 'fundaments', containing knowledge that is fundamental to the material presented in the main text, organized into seven appendices: mathematics; dimensions and units; kinematics; dynamics; thermodynamics; waves; and flows. This book is an ideal reference for graduate students and researchers seeking an introduction to the mathematics of waves and flows in the Earth system, and will serve as a supplementary textbook for a number of courses in geophysical fluid dynamics.
"Since I first read, and then taught, Helmreich's extraordinary
essay on alien kinship and the biopolitics of gene transfer in
marine biology and biotechnology in 2003, I have been swimming
eagerly in his alien oceans, waiting for this book, eager to feast.
A multi-sited and deeply sounded ethnography of ocean
microbiologists and their subvisible critters, "Alien Ocean" dunks
the reader in seas of blue-green capital and rampant globalizing
viral traders in gene currency. Tangled in sentiment and science,
salty microbial webs infuse dreadful and promising figures of
aliens and familiars. In this rich study of microbial oceanography
we meet the extremeophiles of a mortal earth--an earth better named
ocean, where deep-sea dwelling, heat-loving archaea are dredged to
tell stories of unlikely kin, extraordinary technology, planktonic
globalizers, and Hawaiian indigenous activists. This is a book
about networks of loves and disciplines that is hard to put
In December 2016, the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists moved their iconic "Doomsday Clock" thirty seconds forward to two and a half minutes to midnight, the latest it has been set since 1952, the year of the first United States hydrogen bomb test. But a group of scientists-geologists, engineers, and physicists-has been fighting to turn back the clock. Since the dawn of the Cold War, they have advocated a halt to nuclear testing, their work culminating in the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, which still awaits ratification from China, Iran, North Korea-and the United States. The backbone of the treaty is every nation's ability to independently monitor the nuclear activity of the others. The noted seismologist Lynn R. Sykes, one of the central figures in the development of the science and technology used in monitoring, has dedicated his career to halting nuclear testing. In Silencing the Bomb, he tells the inside story behind scientists' quest for disarmament. Called upon time and again to testify before Congress and to inform the public, Sykes and his colleagues were, for much of the Cold War, among the only people on earth able to say with certainty when and where a bomb was tested and how large it was. Methods of measuring earthquakes, researchers realized, could also detect underground nuclear explosions. When politicians on both sides of the Iron Curtain attempted to sidestep disarmament or test ban treaties, Sykes was able to deploy the nascent science of plate tectonics to reveal the truth. Seismologists' discoveries helped bring about treaties limiting nuclear testing, but it was their activism that played a key role in the quest for peace. Full of intrigue, international politics, and hard science used for the global good, Silencing the Bomb is a timely and necessary chronicle of one scientist's efforts to keep the clock from striking midnight.
The series is designed to meet the needs of students and lecturers of the National Certificate Vocational. To facilitate students' learning, the following features are used in the series: Content is written in easy-to-understand language, key terms are carefully explained, using everyday English, case studies show how to apply the theory in the work environment, the study skills sections help students make the most of their learning in class and prepare for the exams, there are many practice activities and questions with model answers at the back of the title, checklists assist students to make sure that they have covered all the skills and content in each chapter, and summaries at the end of each chapter are useful for exam revision. Lecturers using the series can teach with confidence because content is comprehensive, up-to-date, and meets all the curriculum requirements for the subject, outcomes and assessment standards are clearly identified, and assessment tasks and activities are aligned to the outcomes and assessment standards. Prescribing lecturers have access to comprehensive lecturer support material on CD including model answers to assessments in the textbook, additional assessments with model answers, rubrics for assessments, and general reference material on teaching outcomes-based education. The series is available for all programmes, all fundamental and compulsory subjects, and all elective and optional subjects.
This book focuses on scientific and technological aspects of groundwater-resources assessment and surveillance. It describes relevant risks and investigates selected techniques for the monitoring and mitigation of the individuated threats to groundwater quality. The authors discuss the concepts of groundwater-resources protection and offer examples of both geogenic and anthropogenic degradation of groundwater quality, such as heavy metals from mining activities and natural water-rock interactions, as well as risk of contamination due to geological CO2 storage practices etc. The volume also covers non-invasive monitoring techniques and briefly addresses innovative sensor technologies for the online assessment of water quality. Furthermore, the role played by geochemical techniques, the potential of environmental isotopes and the support provided by physical modelling are highlighted. The chapters guide the reader through various viewpoints, according to the diverse disciplines involved, without aiming to be exhaustive, but instead picking representative topics for their relevance in the context of groundwater protection and control. This book will be of interest to advanced students, researchers, policy-makers and stakeholders at various levels.
In Abundant Earth, Eileen Crist not only documents the rising tide of biodiversity loss, but also lays out the drivers of this wholesale destruction and how we can push past them. Looking beyond the familiar litany of causes--a large and growing human population, rising livestock numbers, expanding economies and international trade, and spreading infrastructures and incursions upon wildlands--she asks the key question: if we know human expansionism is to blame for this ecological crisis, why are we not taking the needed steps to halt our expansionism? Crist argues that to do so would require a two-pronged approach. Scaling down calls upon us to lower the global human population while working within a human-rights framework, to deindustrialize food production, and to localize economies and contract global trade. Pulling back calls upon us to free, restore, reconnect, and rewild vast terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, the pervasive worldview of human supremacy--the conviction that humans are superior to all other life-forms and entitled to use these life-forms and their habitats--normalizes and promotes humanity's ongoing expansion, undermining our ability to enact these linked strategies and preempt the mounting suffering and dislocation of both humans and nonhumans. Abundant Earth urges us to confront the reality that humanity will not advance by entrenching its domination over the biosphere. On the contrary, we will stagnate in the identity of nature-colonizer and decline into conflict as we vie for natural resources. Instead, we must chart another course, choosing to live in fellowship within the vibrant ecologies of our wild and domestic cohorts, and enfolding human inhabitation within the rich expanse of a biodiverse, living planet.
Divided into two parts, the first four chapters of Comets and their Origin refer to comets and their formation in general, describing cometary missions, comet remote observations, astrochemistry, artificial comets, and the chirality phenomenon. The second part covers the cometary ROSETTA mission, its launch, journey, scientific objectives, and instrumentations, as well as the landing scenario on a cometary nucleus. Along the way, the author presents general questions concerning the origin of terrestrial water and the molecular beginnings of life on Earth, as well as how the instruments used on a space mission like ROSETTA can help answer them. The text concludes with a chapter on what scientists expect from the ROSETTA mission and how its data will influence our life on Earth. As a result, the author elucidates highly topical and fascinating knowledge to scientists and students of various scientific backgrounds, allowing them to work with ROSETTA's data.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are recognized as one of the greatest threats to crop production throughout the world. Estimated annual crop losses of $8 billion in the United States and $78 billion worldwide are attributed to plant parasitic nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes not only cause damage individually but form disease-complexes with other microorganisms thereby increasing crop loss. Nematode diseases of crops are difficult to control because of their insidious nature and lack of specific diagnostic symptoms which closely resemble those caused by other plant pathogens and abiotic diseases. Future developments of sustainable management systems for preventing major economical agricultural losses due to nematodes is focused on strategies that limit production costs, enhance crop yields, and protect the environment. This book presents a first compendium and overview for nematode problems and their management across North America. Each chapter provides essential information on the occurrence and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes, their major crop hosts, impact on crop production and sustainable management strategies for each region of the continent including, Canada, Mexico and all states of the USA. For each region, a thematic overview of changes in crop production affected by plant parasitic nematodes and their management strategies over time will provide invaluable information on the important role of plant parasitic nematodes in sustainable agriculture.
A fully revised replacement for the classic 1923 Assynt Special Sheet, incorporating the wealth of research work carried out in the area since the original map was published. Includes cross-sections, annotated photographs, and a diagram showing the main structures.
Climate scientists have determined that recent global temperature increases are due in large part to increased greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. Even if mitigation of these gases begins immediately, there is every reason to believe that climate change will continue to occur. Every region in the world ought to forecast, as the contributors do in this study of California (a region of broad variation and high population), how it will be affected by climate change and how it might best adapt. Models are used to estimate potential physical and biological impacts, efficient adaptations, and residual damages from climate change. The contributors cover a broad array of climate change impacts on affected market sectors (including water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, timber, and energy demand) as well as ecosystems and biodiversity. An integrated hydrologic-agriculture model is developed to explore how the region would adapt to changes in water flows. Interactions between climate impacts and population and economic growth, urbanization, and technological change are also explored. For example, the study examines how both climate change and projected land development affect the region's terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. The level of geographical detail, along with the broad applicability of the modeling, methodology, and conclusions, make this a unique and valuable reference for environmental economists, scientists, planners, and policymakers.
This volume contains the lecture notes of the Short Course on Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations (Faculty of Mathematics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 2-4 July 2011). The course was organized in recognition of Prof. Eleuterio Toro's contribution to education and training on numerical methods for partial differential equations and was organized prior to the International Conference on Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations: Theory and Applications, which honours Professor Toro in the month of his 65th birthday. These lecture notes on selected topics in numerical methods for hyperbolic equations are from renowned academics in both theoretical and applied fields, and include contributions on: -- Nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws -- First order schemes for the Euler equations -- High-order accuracy: monotonicity and non-linear methods -- High-order schemes for multidimensional hyperbolic problems -- A numerical method for the simulation of turbulent mixing and its basis in mathematical theory Lectures on Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations is intended primarily for research students and post-doctoral research fellows.Some background knowledge on the basics of the theoretical aspects of the partial differential equations, their physical meaning and discretization methods is assumed. The Short Course you are organizing not only matches perfectly well the problems I am trying to address in my PhD but also provides a unique opportunity to look at these challenges from the point of view of world class leaders in the field of hyperbolic equations. (A. Warzynski, University of Leeds, UK)
What mysteries lurk in the depths of a glass of water? What makes the wispy clouds of vapour rising from your cup of hot coffee? Or the puffy white clouds hovering in the sky? Why do bubbles in your fizzy drinks get bigger the longer you wait? What keeps Jelly's water from oozing out? Why does your tongue stick to something frozen? Professor Pollack takes us on a fantastic voyage through water, showing us a hidden universe teeming with physical activity, providing cogent explanations to many of waters long-held secrets. In conversational prose, Pollack exposes where some scientists may have gone wrong, and instead lays a simple foundation for understanding how changes of water structure underlie most energetic transitions of form and motion on Earth. This seminal work, peppered with whimsical illustrations and simple diagrams invites us to open our eyes and re-experience our natural world, to take nothing for granted, and to reawaken our childhood dream of having things make sense.
First published in 1966 these collected papers, written by the distinguished and visionary climatologist Hubert H. Lamb, describe how climates come about and give a history of climatic changes from the last ice-age to the 1960s.
First published in 1988, this is a reissue of a groundbreaking collection of essays written by Hubert Lamb, one of the world's foremost experts on weather and climate and a uniquely authoritative voice in the history of climatology. Hubert Lamb is able to provide a mature assessment of the effect of weather on people, and vice versa. His is a uniquely authoritative voice in the current debates about today's environment and the prospects for the future.
After a general introduction the book is divided into three parts. The first part consists of a chronological series of portraits of climate and its impact on human affairs and the environment. These extend from the warm climates of the geological past to the current drought in Africa. There are several studies of the last few centuries and, in particular, of the various effects of the so-called ?little Ice Age?. The second part is concerned with the causes and mechanisms of climate and weather changes, including chapters discussing Christmas weather, fronts and volcanoes. In the final part Hubert Lamb looks to the future, and attempts to put into perspective some of the pessimistic forecasts currently available. The text, which is consistently authoritative but always readable, is augmented by numerous maps, diagrams and photographs.
First published between 1966 and 1988, the four volumes in this collection demonstrate the immense breadth and depth of work on climate change by the pioneering English climatologist Hubert Lamb. Detailing everything from the fundamentals of climate and climatology, as well as a history of climatic change from the ice-age to the second half of the twentieth century, through to a consideration of how future climatic trends should be approached, this is a very comprehensive and laudable collection. As one of the first scientists to suggest that climate could change within human experience, and the founder of the ground-breaking Climatic Research Centre at the University of East Anglia, it is hard to overestimate the impact of Professor Lamb's work in establishing the study of climate change as a serious research subject and in developing our understanding of how and why climate change occurs. At a time when climate change and the environment are considered amongst the most important issues facing mankind and its future, this reissue serves as both a timely reminder that this was not always the case and a very welcome acknowledgement of the work of a truly path-breaking scientist.
This book provides readers with in-depth insights into the changes in the Pantanal wetland from its formation to the actual and likely future states. It reveals that today's Pantanal is an evolutionary consequence of geological, ecological and, more recently, man-made events taking place at distinct space-time intervals. Topics include geotectonics and sun-earth interactions, which largely dictate the rate of drastic changes that eventually disrupt ecological stability and radically rebuild the regional landscape. Furthermore, the biota-climate system is discussed as a major driver reshaping the ecohydrology functioning of the landscape on an intermediate timescale. Also covered are major changes in the landscape ecohydrology and biodiversity due to recent land-use and climate changes induced by humankind in the Anthropocene. The ability to recognize how those temporal scales impact the Pantanal wetland provides the opportunity for wise management approaches and the sustainable development of the region.
First published in 1977, the second volume of Climate: Present, Past and Future covers parts 3 and 4 of Professor Hubert Lamb's seminal and pioneering study of climatology. Part 3 provides a survey of evidence of types of climates over the last million years, and of methods of dating that evidence. Through the earlier stages of the Earth's development the book traces what is known of the various geographies presented by the drifting continents and indicates what can be learnt about climatic regimes and the causes of climatic change. From the last ice age to the present our knowledge of the succession of climates is summarized, indicating prevailing temperatures, rainfalls, wind and ocean current patterns where possible.
Part 4 considers events during the fifteen years prior to the book's initial publication, leading on to the problems of estimating the most probable future course of climatic development, and the influence of Man's activities on climate.
Alongside the reissue of volume 1, this Routledge Revival will be essential reading for anyone interested in both the causes and workings of climate and in the history of climatology itself.
First published in 1972, this first volume of Professor Lamb's study of our changing climate deals with the fundamentals of climate and climatology, as well as providing global data on the contemporary climates of the twentieth century.
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