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The second edition of Julien's textbook presents an analysis of rivers from mountain streams to river estuaries. The book is rooted in fundamental principles to promote sound engineering practice. State-of-the-art methods are presented to underline theory and engineering applications. River mechanics blends the dual concepts of water conveyance and sediment transport. Like the first edition, this textbook contains ample details on river equilibrium, river dynamics, bank stabilization, and river engineering. Complementary chapters also cover the physical and mathematical modeling of rivers. As well as being completely updated throughout, three new chapters have been added on watershed dynamics, hillslope stability, and stream restoration. Throughout the text, hundreds of examples, exercises, problems, and case studies assist the reader in learning the essential concepts of river engineering. The textbook is very well illustrated to enhance advanced student learning, while researchers and practitioners will find the book to be an invaluable reference.
The text is designed for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate-level courses in hydrology, groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and civil engineering. This best selling text gives students a balanced examination of all facets of hydrogeology. The text stresses the application of mathematics to problem solving rather than derivation of theory. It provides a balance between physical and chemical hydrogeology. Numerous case studies cultivate student understanding of the occurrence and movement of ground water in a variety of geologic settings.
"This is, for my money, the best single-source primer on the state of climate change." (New York Magazine) "The right book at the right time: accessible, comprehensive, unflinching, humane." (The Daily Beast) "A must-read." (The Guardian) The essential primer on what will be the defining issue of our time, CLIMATE CHANGE: What Everyone Needs to Know (R) is a clear-eyed overview of the science, conflicts, and implications of our warming planet. From Joseph Romm, Chief Science Advisor for National Geographic's Years of Living Dangerously series and one of Rolling Stone's "100 people who are changing America," CLIMATE CHANGE offers user-friendly, scientifically rigorous answers to the most difficult (and commonly politicized) questions surrounding what climatologist Lonnie Thompson has deemed "a clear and present danger to civilization." Questions about climate change addressed in this guide include: * How will climate change affect day-to-day life in the coming decades? * What are the implications of owning coastal property in the age of climate change? * Is retirement to South Florida (or the U.S. Southwest, or even Southern Europe) safe? * What are the implications of the United States' withdrawal from the Paris climate treaty? * What does Donald Trump's presidency mean for climate action in the United States and around the globe? * Are efforts to combat climate change making a difference? As the global response to climate change continues to evolve, CLIMATE CHANGE: What Everyone Needs to Know (R) offers smart, unblemished answers to the most difficult questions in an area dogged by misunderstanding and politicization.
The ocean is opaque to electromagnetic radiation and transparent to low frequency sound, so acoustical methodologies are an important tool for sensing the undersea world. Stochastic sound-speed fluctuations in the ocean, such as those caused by internal waves, result in a progressive randomisation of acoustic signals as they traverse the ocean environment. This signal randomisation imposes a limit to the effectiveness of ocean acoustic remote sensing, navigation and communication. Sound Propagation through the Stochastic Ocean provides a comprehensive treatment of developments in the field of statistical ocean acoustics over the last 35 years. This will be of fundamental interest to oceanographers, marine biologists, geophysicists, engineers, applied mathematicians, and physicists. Key discoveries in topics such as internal waves, ray chaos, Feynman path integrals, and mode transport theory are addressed with illustrations from ocean observations. The topics are presented at an approachable level for advanced students and seasoned researchers alike.
This lively introduction to geologic fracture mechanics provides a consistent treatment of all common geologic structural discontinuities. It explores the formation, growth and interpretation of fractures and deformation bands, from theoretical, field and lab-based perspectives, bridging the gap between a general textbook treatment and the more advanced research literature. It allows the reader to acquire basic tools to interpret discontinuity origins, geometries, patterns and implications using many of the leading and contemporary concepts known to specialists in the field. Problem sets are provided at the end of each chapter, and worked examples are included within each chapter to illustrate topics and enable self-study. With all common geologic structures including joints, hydrofractures, faults, stylolites and deformation bands being discussed from a fresh perspective, it will be a useful reference for advanced students, researchers and industry practitioners interested in structural geology, neotectonics, rock mechanics, planetary geology, and reservoir geomechanics.
A newly revised and fully updated edition of the market-leading introduction to paleontology Designed for students and anyone else with an interest in the history of life on our planet, the new edition of this classic text describes the biological evolution of Earth's organisms, and reconstructs their adaptations and the ecology and environments in which they functioned. Cowen's History of Life, 6th Edition includes major updates, including substantial rewrites to chapters on the origins of eukaryotes, the Cambrian explosion, the terrestrialization of plants and animals, the Triassic recovery of life, the origin of birds, the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, and human evolution. It also features new chapters on plants, soils and transformation of the land; the Mesozoic marine revolution; and the evolution of oceans and climates. Beginning with the origin of the Earth and the earliest life on earth, the book goes on to offer insightful contributions covering: the evolution of Metazoans; the early vertebrates; life of vertebrates on land; and early amniotes and thermoregulation. The book also looks at: dinosaur diversity, as well as their demise; early mammals; the rise of modern mammals; the Neogene Savannas; primates; life in the ice ages; and more. Covers the breadth of the subject in a concise yet specific way for undergrads with no academic background in the topic Reorganizes all chapters to reflect the geological series of events, enabling a new focus on big events Updated with three brand new chapters and numerous revised ones Put together by a new editorial team internationally recognized as the global leaders in paleontology Filled with illustrations and photographs throughout Includes diagrams to show internal structures of organisms, cladograms, time scales and events, and paleogeographic maps Supplemented with a dedicated website that explores additional enriching information and discussion, and which features images for use in visual presentations Cowen's History of Life, 6th Edition is an ideal book for undergraduate students taking courses in introductory paleontology, as well those on global change and earth systems.
This is the first undergraduate textbook to fully integrate results from geophysics, geochemistry, and petrology to describe the structure, composition, and dynamic processes that operate throughout the solid Earth. It presents an Earth system science approach to studies of the Earth's interior and develops a global view of solid Earth cycles to explain geodynamic and plate tectonic processes. This book initially explores the formation and evolution of the early Earth, then considers the operative forces for plate tectonic movements at the Earth's surface, and finally discusses global cycles within the deep Earth and their effect on the surface environment. Interactions between the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere, and their influence at and beneath the Earth's surface are examined in detail. This textbook thus provides a concise yet extensive coverage of the solid Earth. Written for intermediate undergraduates, it includes a wealth of features to support student learning at this level.
This book has grown from Intermediate Technology's field experiences with micro-hydro installations and covers operation and maintenance, commissioning, electrical power, induction generators, electronic controllers, management, and energy surveys.
How did one of the world's preeminent marine conservation scientists fall in love with coral reefs? We first meet Callum as a young student who had never been abroad, spending a summer helping to map the unknown reefs of Saudi Arabia. From that moment, when Callum first cleared his goggles, he never looked back. He went on to survey Sharm al-Sheikh, and from there he would dive into the deep in the name of research all over the world, from Australia's imperiled Great Barrier Reef to the hardier reefs of the Caribbean. Reef Life is filled with astonishing stories of adventure and the natural world, which are by turns lyrical and laced with a wonderful wry humor. Callum illuminates the science of our oceans and reefs and his book, combined with the stunning photographs from Alex Mustard, will also commit readers to support Callum's goal to preserve 10 percent of the world's oceans.
How will future climates be different from today's world-and what consequences will changes in climate have for societies and their development strategies? This book is a primer on the essential science for grasping the workings of climate change and climate prediction. It is accessible for readers with little to no background in science, with an emphasis on the needs of those studying sustainable development. John C. Mutter gives a just-the-facts overview of how the climate system functions and what we know about why changes occur. He recounts the evolution of climatology from the earliest discoveries about Earth's climate to present-day predictive capabilities, and clearly presents the scientific basis of fundamental topics such as climate zones, ocean-atmosphere dynamics, and the long-term cycles from glacial to interglacial periods. Mutter also details the mechanisms of climate change and the ways in which human activity affects global climate. He explains the science behind some known consequences of rising temperatures, such as sea level rise, hurricane behavior, and climate variability. The primer discusses how climate predictions are made and examines the sources of uncertainty in forecasting. Climate Change Science is a straightforward and easy-to-read treatment of the fundamental science needed to comprehend one of today's most important issues.
This book deals with recent advances in our understanding and prediction of tropical cyclogenesis, intensification and movement as well as landfall processes like heavy rainfall, gale wind and storm surge based on the latest observational and numerical weather prediction (NWP) modeling platforms. It also includes tropical cyclone (TC) management issues like early warning systems, recent high impact TC events, disaster preparedness, assessment of risk and vulnerability including construction, archiving and retrieval of the best tracking and historical data sets, policy decision etc., in view of recent findings on climate change aspects and their impact on TC activity. The chapters are authored by leading experts, both from research and operational environments.
This book is relevant to cyclone forecasters and researchers, managers, policy makers, graduate and undergraduate students. It intends to stimulate thinking and hence further research in the field of TCs and climate change, especially over the Indian Ocean region and provides high-quality reference materials for all the users mentioned above for the management of TCs over this region.
Volcanoes & Earthquakes features the earth sciences at their most spectacular. It reveals the massive internal forces that create and change the Earth's surface, with dramatic and sometimes beautiful consequences. The authors explain what fuels the power of volcanoes and earthquakes and explore how the gradual shifting of tectonic plates has transformed the Earth over its four and a half thousand million year existence. Written in a jargon-free style and fully illustrated with photographs, diagrams and maps, this is a cutting-edge introduction to earthquakes, volcanoes and plate tectonics, incorporating all the latest research developments.Chiara Maria Petrone is a Research Leader in Petrology and Volcanology in the Earth Sciences Department of the Natural History Museum, London. Roberto Scandone is a Research Associate at the Vesuvius Observatory, National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Naples. Alex Whittaker is a Senior Lecturer in Tectonics in the Department of Earth Science and Engineering at Imperial College, London.
Opening with recent advances in both the theoretical and physical models for wave-seabed-structure interactions, this book provides an updated look at the mathematics behind the interactions between sea, soil and man-made structures. The main models are broken down into key equations, and their strengths and challenges are discussed. These models are then placed in context with industry-relevant examples, in both two and three dimensions. From seabed instability around offshore wind turbines, to soil conditions in response to the laying of submarine pipelines, this book takes a comprehensive look at a variety of wave-seabed-structure interactions. With important implications for the future of offshore infrastructure, this is an ideal resource for industry workers, undergraduate students, and researchers.
"Image Analysis in Earth Sciences" is a graduate level textbook for researchers and students interested in the quantitative microstructure and texture analysis of earth materials. Methods of analysis and applications are introduced using carefully worked examples. The input images are typically derived from earth materials, acquired at a wide range of scales, through digital photography, light and electron microscopy. The book focuses on image acquisition, pre- and post-processing, on the extraction of objects (segmentation), the analysis of volumes and grain size distributions, on shape fabric analysis (particle and surface fabrics) and the analysis of the frequency domain (FFT and ACF). The last chapters are dedicated to the analysis of crystallographic fabrics and orientation imaging. Throughout the book the free software "Image SXM" is used."
Uranium Deposits of the World, in three volumes, comprises an unprecedented compilation of data and descriptions of the uranium regions in Asia, USA, Latin America and Europe structured by countries. With this third, the Europe volume, Uranium Deposits of the World presents the most extensive data collection of the set. It covers about 140 uranium regions in more than 20 European countries with nearly 1000 mentioned uranium deposits. Each country and region receives an analytical overview followed by the geologically- and economically-relevant synopsis of the individual regions and fields. The presentations are structured in three major sections: (a) location and magnitude of uranium regions, districts, and deposits, (b) principal features of regions and districts, and (c) detailed characteristics of selected ore fields and deposits. This includes sections on geology, alteration, mineralization, shape and dimensions of deposits, isotopes data, ore control and recognition criteria, and metallogenesis. Beside the main European uranium regions, for example in the Czech Republic, Eastern Germany, France, the Iberian Peninsula or Ukraine, also small regions an districts to the point of singular occurrences of interest are considered. This by far the most comprehensive presentation of European uranium geology and mining would not be possible without the author's access to extensive information covering the countries of the former Eastern Bloc states, which was partly not previously available. Abundantly illustrated with information-laden maps and charts throughout, this reference work is an indispensable tool for geologists, mining companies, government agencies, and others with an interest in European key natural resources. A great help for the reader's orientation are the substantial bibliography of uranium-related publications and the indices, latter containing about 3900 entries in the geographical part alone. The three volumes of Uranium Deposits of the World are available as a set or individually. Also accessible (as a set and separate volumes) as an eReference on SpringerLink.com. The originally planned fourth volume with Australia, Oceania, and Africa will not be published after the author suddenly deceased.
Chondrules are spherical silicate grains which formed from protoplanetary disk material, and as such provide an important record of the conditions of the Solar System in pre-planetary times. Chondrules are a major constituent in chondritic meteorites, however despite being recognised for over 200 years, their origins remain enigmatic. This comprehensive review describes state-of-the-art research into chondrules, bringing together leading cosmochemists and astrophysicists to review the properties of chondrules and their possible formation mechanisms based on careful observations of their chemistry, mineralogy, petrology and isotopic composition. Current and upcoming space missions returning material from chondritic asteroids and cometary bodies has invigorated research in this field, leading to new models and observations, and providing new insight into the conditions and timescales of the solar protoplanetary disk. Presenting the most recent advances, this book is an invaluable reference for researchers and graduate students interested in meteorites, asteroids, planetary accretion and solar system dynamics.
Meteorology can seem like a black art with the meteorologist producing forecasts that seem to contradict what you are reading from the charts. "The Sailor's Book of the Weather" takes the confusion out of the forecasts and helps you answer, 'Why is that happening?'
"The Sailor's Book of the Weather" introduces key principles that influence the weather and gives the sailor the tools to forecast from observations and make the most of the available information. Wind, clouds and knowledge of weather patterns and local conditions all contain ample hints to allow the informed mariner to accurately predict the weather.
Illustrated with charts and over 100 beautiful photographs, this book is a must for anyone who ventures onto the water, whatever your vessel or experience. It should be carried aboard every boat and is essential reading whether you are on the water, in land, on the coast or venturing further afield.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry. Beginning with a brief overview of nuclear physics and nuclear origins, it then reviews radioactive decay schemes and their use in geochronology. A following chapter covers the closely related techniques such as fission-track and carbon-14 dating. Subsequent chapters cover nucleosynthetic anomalies in meteorites and early solar system chronology and the use of radiogenic isotopes in understanding the evolution of the Earth s mantle, crust, and oceans. Attention then turns to stable isotopes and after reviewing the basic principles involved, the book explores their use in topics as diverse as mantle evolution, archeology and paleontology, ore formation, and, particularly, paleoclimatology. A following chapter explores recent developments including unconventional stable isotopes, mass-independent fractionation, and isotopic clumping . The final chapter reviews the isotopic variation in the noble gases, which result from both radioactive decay and chemical fractionations.
This guide to scoring crown and root traits in human dentitions substantially builds on a seminal 1991 work by Turner, Nichol, and Scott. It provides detailed descriptions and multiple illustrations of each crown and root trait to help guide researchers to make consistent observations on trait expression, greatly reducing observer error. The book also reflects exciting new developments driven by technology that have significant ramifications for dental anthropology, particularly the recent development of a web-based application that computes the probability that an individual belongs to a particular genogeographic grouping based on combinations of crown and root traits; as such, the utility of these variables is expanded to forensic anthropology. This book is ideal for researchers and graduate students in the fields of dental, physical, and forensic anthropology and will serve as a methodological guide for many years to come.
A gripping history of the polar continent, from the great discoveries of the nineteenth century to modern scientific breakthroughs Antarctica, the ice kingdom hosting the South Pole, looms large in the human imagination. The secrets of this vast frozen desert have long tempted explorers, but its brutal climate and glacial shores notoriously resist human intrusion. Land of Wondrous Cold tells a gripping story of the pioneering nineteenth-century voyages, when British, French, and American commanders raced to penetrate Antarctica's glacial rim for unknown lands beyond. These intrepid Victorian explorers-James Ross, Dumont D'Urville, and Charles Wilkes-laid the foundation for our current understanding of Terra Australis Incognita. Today, the white continent poses new challenges, as scientists race to uncover Earth's climate history, which is recorded in the south polar ice and ocean floor, and to monitor the increasing instability of the Antarctic ice cap, which threatens to inundate coastal cities worldwide. Interweaving the breakthrough research of the modern Ocean Drilling Program with the dramatic discovery tales of their Victorian forerunners, Gillen D'Arcy Wood describes Antarctica's role in a planetary drama of plate tectonics, climate change, and species evolution stretching back more than thirty million years. An original, multifaceted portrait of the polar continent emerges, illuminating our profound connection to Antarctica in its past, present, and future incarnations. A deep-time history of monumental scale, Land of Wondrous Cold brings the remotest of worlds within close reach-an Antarctica vital to both planetary history and human fortunes.
Contemporary soil science and conservation methods of effective forestry Forests and the soils that serve as their foundation cover almost a third of the world's land area. Soils influenced by forest cover have different properties than soils cultivated for agricultural use. Ecology and Management of Forest Soils provides a clear and comprehensive overview of the composition, structure, processes, and management of the largest terrestrial ecosystem. From composition and biogeochemistry to dynamics and management, this essential text enables readers to understand the vital components of sustainable, long-term forest soil fertility. The interaction of trees, animals, microbes, and vegetation alter the biology and chemistry of forest soils-these dynamics are also subject to human management, requiring conservationists to be conversant in the philosophy and methods of soil science. Now in its fifth edition, this classic text includes new coverage of uptake of organic nitrogen in forests, 15N retention studies, the effects of N additions on C accumulation, evidence-based examples of the dynamics of soils, and more. Extensive updates and revisions to topics such as spatial implications of megafires, long?term organic matter accumulation, soil characterization, and molecular soil measurement techniques reflect contemporary research and practices in the field. This informative overview of forest soils integrates clear and accurate descriptions of central concepts and logically organized chapters to provide readers with foundational knowledge of major soil features, processes, measurement techniques, and management methods. This authoritative survey of the management and ecology of forest soils: Offers full-color photographs and illustrations, real-world examples and case studies, and clear overviews to each topic Presents up-to-date and accessible coverage of contemporary forest science literature and research Addresses topical issues relevant to areas such as ecology, forest management, conservation, and government policy Provides a comprehensive, global perspective on forest soils, from tropical to temperate to boreal Presents balanced coverage of soil science principles and their practical application to forest management Ecology and Management of Forest Soils offers students in areas of soil science and forestry, natural resource and environmental management, ecology, agronomy, and conservation an invaluable overview of the field, while providing forestry professionals an efficient and current work of reference.
With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students and researchers will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental aspects of the hydrodynamic control of wave energy converters. Such control is necessary to maximise energy capture for a given device configuration and plays a major role in efforts to make wave energy economic. Covering a wide range of disciplines, the reader is taken from the mathematical and technical fundamentals, through the main pillars of wave energy hydrodynamic control, right through to state-of-the-art algorithms for hydrodynamic control. The various operating principles of wave energy converters are exposed and the unique aspects of the hydrodynamic control problem highlighted, with a variety of potential solutions discussed. Supporting material on wave forecasting and the interaction of the hydrodynamic control problem with other aspects of wave energy device optimisation, such as device geometry optimisation and optimal device array layout, is also provided.
Most people are familiar with the dodo and the dinosaur, but extinction has occurred throughout the history of life, with the result that nearly all the species that have ever existed are now extinct. Today, species are disappearing at an ever increasing rate, whilst past losses have occurred during several great crises. Issues such as habitat destruction, conservation, climate change, and, during major crises, volacanism and meteorite impact, can all contribute towards the demise of a group. In this Very Short Introduction, Paul B. Wignall looks at the causes and nature of extinctions, past and present, and the factors that can make a species vulnerable. Summarising what we know about all of the major and minor exctinction events, he examines some of the greatest debates in modern science, such as the relative role of climate and humans in the death of the Pleistocene megafauna, including mammoths and giant ground sloths, and the roles that global warming, ocean acidification, and deforestation are playing in present-day extinctions ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This authoritative guide enables accurate identification of the common components of the inshore benthic invertebrates of the British Isles and adjacent European coasts, as well as a substantial proportion of fish species. This new edition builds upon the strengths of the earlier work and is thoroughly revised throughout to incorporate advances in both the taxonomy and ecology of the organisms concerned.
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