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This book focuses on multi-level actions that have attracted considerable interest and discussion within academia, decision makers and the public as a tool to assess anthropogenic effects of low-carbon energy development. The book begins with an overview of the state of the art policies in emerging economies, which provides a starting point for understanding the concept of low-carbon green growth. A unified framework for structuring, categorizing, and integrating various regional-level actions is established on the basis of a thorough investigation into the theoretical and methodological aspects of non-conventional energy policies that have been widely adopted. Furthermore, the book brings clarity to the relationship between clean energy policies and stakeholder participation, and the significance of coordinated actions at the regional level. The findings provide novel insights and policy tools to help decision-makers in identifying ways to mobilize private investment in low-carbon energy systems.
This book presents the latest, most interesting research efforts regarding Intelligent Transport System (ITS) technologies, from theory to practice. The book's main theme is "Mobility for everyone by ITS"; accordingly, it gathers a range of contributions on human-centered factors in the use or development of ITS technologies, infrastructures, and applications. Each of these contributions proposes a novel method for ITS and discusses the method on the basis of case studies conducted in the Asia-Pacific region. The book are roughly divided into four general categories: 1) Safe and Secure Society, 2) ITS-Based Smart Mobility, 3) Next-Generation Mobility, and 4) Infrastructure Technologies for Practical ITS. In these categories, several key topics are touched on with each other such as driver assistance and behavior analysis, traffic accident and congestion management, vehicle flow management at large events, automated or self-driving vehicles, V2X technologies, next-generation public transportation systems, and intelligent transportation systems made possible by big data analysis. In addition, important current and future ITS-related problems are discussed, taking into account many case studies that have been conducted in this regard.
In the United States, Federal incentives for the deployment of wind and solar power projects are delivered primarily through the tax code, in the form of accelerated tax depreciation and tax credits that are based on either investment or production. Both wind and solar projects are equally eligible for accelerated tax depreciation, but tax credit eligibility varies by technology: solar is currently eligible for the investment tax credit ("ITC"), while wind is eligible for either the ITC or the production tax credit ("PTC"), though wind project sponsors typically choose the PTC. The PTC is a per-kilowatt-hour tax (kWh) credit for electricity generated using qualified energy resources. This book provides a brief overview of the renewable electricity PTC. It describes the credit; a legislative history; and presents data on PTC claims and discusses the revenue consequences of the credit. It also briefly considers some of the economic and policy considerations related to the credit. This book concludes by briefly noting policy options related to the PTC.
The development of renewable and sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels is currently receiving worldwide attention and investment. Despite decades of research, there remain significant challenges to be overcome before these biofuels can be produced in large volumes at competitive prices. One obstacle is the lack of efficient and affordable catalytic systems to dissolve and hydrolyze polysaccharides into sugars. These sugars are then fed to microrganisms and fermented into biofuels. The price of these catalysts, be they biological, thermochemical, or chemical in nature, represent one of the largest costs in the conversion process. There are a number of catalytic schemes, each with their own advantages and disadvantages, available. This book presents a general yet substantial review of the most promising processes and the spectrum of biomass pretreatment, enzymes, chemical catalysts, and hybrid approaches of hydrolyzing biomass into fermentable sugars. It is the only currently available book that compares the biochemical, chemical, and thermochemical conversion processes to biofuel production.
"Industrial Application of Environmentally Conscious Design" describes the transition that companies are making towards incorporating environmental thinking into their design and product development activities. Based upon the experiences, ideas and opinions of a collection of practitioners from product development companies in Europe and the USA, a pattern is identified, describing the cause and effect of the changes that industry moves through when learning and adopting environmental principles. Design managers within product development companies will find "Industrial Applications of Environmentally Conscious Design" a useful guide. Although based upon the electrical and electronics industry, useful parallels can be drawn from this book to many industry sectors. For companies who are just beginning to consider incorporating environmental considerations into their product development processes, this publication will act as a guide for the steps ahead. For companies who are more progressed in environmentally conscious design, the identification of a pattern will assist the continued effort required to lead industry toward continued environmental improvement. To academics, the book should act as an inspiration for empirical research methodology, and also present a base-theory that can be built upon by subsequent research efforts. "Industrial Application of Environmentally Conscious Design" is the first book to be published as part of the Engineering Research Series. This new series, under the guidance of series editor Duncan Dowson, offers the opportunity to engineers in universities and industry to disseminate wider accounts of engineering research progress than are currently available. Material is selected for publication on the basis of its intrinsic quality, and potential applications and relevance to the wider professional engineering community. A range of engineering applications are covered each year to provide a useful information resource of significant developments in engineering research. Each title represents an important contribution to engineering research literature and will provide a valuable addition to university and other institutional libraries, as well as making leading topical research in specialist areas of engineering available to R&D experts in industry.
Concerns over an unstable energy supply and the adverse environmental impact of carbonaceous fuels have triggered considerable efforts worldwide to find carbon-free or low-carbon alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Carbon-Neutral Fuels and Energy Carriers emphasizes the vital role of carbon-neutral energy sources, transportation fuels, and associated technologies for establishing a sustainable energy future. Each chapter draws on the insight of world-renowned experts in such diverse fields as photochemistry and electrochemistry, solar and nuclear energy, biofuels and synthetic fuels, carbon sequestration, and alternative fuel vehicles.
After an introductory chapter on different energy options in a carbon-constrained world and proposed measures to stabilize atmospheric CO2, the book analyzes the advantages and challenges facing the introduction of hydrogen fuel to the marketplace. It then examines the role of nuclear power in the production of carbon-free energy and fuels as well as the efficient use and storage of renewable energy resources, emphasizing the production of solar fuels from water and CO2. The book also discusses different aspects of bioenergy and biofuels production and use and the potential role of bio-inspired energy systems and industrial processes. The final chapters present a thorough overview and analysis of state-of-the-art fossil fuel decarbonization technologies and clean transportation options.
This authoritative work provides the information needed to make more informed choices regarding available clean energy and fuel alternatives. It helps readers to better understand the interconnection between energy and the environment as well as the potential impact of human activities on climate.
High-speed, power-efficient analog integrated circuits can be used as standalone devices or to interface modern digital signal processors and micro-controllers in various applications, including multimedia, communication, instrumentation, and control systems. New architectures and low device geometry of complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) technologies have accelerated the movement toward system on a chip design, which merges analog circuits with digital, and radio-frequency components. CMOS: Analog Integrated Circuits: High-Speed and Power-Efficient Design describes the important trends in designing these analog circuits and provides a complete, in-depth examination of design techniques and circuit architectures, emphasizing practical aspects of integrated circuit implementation.
Focusing on designing and verifying analog integrated circuits, the author reviews design techniques for more complex components such as amplifiers, comparators, and multipliers. The book details all aspects, from specification to the final chip, of the development and implementation process of filters, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), phase-locked loops (PLLs), and delay-locked loops (DLLs). It also describes different equivalent transistor models, design and fabrication considerations for high-density integrated circuits in deep-submicrometer process, circuit structures for the design of current mirrors and voltage references, topologies of suitable amplifiers, continuous-time and switched-capacitor circuits, modulator architectures, and approaches to improve linearity of Nyquist converters. The text addresses the architectures and performance limitation issues affecting circuit operation and provides conceptual and practical solutions to problems that can arise in the design process.
This reference provides balanced coverage of theoretical and practical issues that will allow the reader to design CMOS analog integrated circuits with improved electrical performance. The chapters contain easy-to-follow mathematical derivations of all equations and formulas, graphical plots, and open-ended design problems to help determine most suitable architecture for a given set of performance specifications. This comprehensive and illustrative text for the design and analysis of CMOS analog integrated circuits serves as a valuable resource for analog circuit designers and graduate students in electrical engineering.
This book addresses energy research from four distinct International Political Economy perspectives: energy security, governance, legal and developmental areas. Energy is too important to be neglected by political scientists. Yet, within the mainstream of the discipline energy research still remains a peripheral area of academic enquiry seeking to plug into the discipline's theoretical debates. The purpose of this book is to assess how existing perspectives fit with our understanding of social science energy research by focusing on the oil and gas dimension.
Solar Power Generation Problems, Solutions, and Monitoring is a valuable resource for researchers, professionals and graduate students interested in solar power system design. Written to serve as a pragmatic resource for solar photovoltaic power systems financing, it outlines real-life, straightforward design methodology. Using numerous examples, illustrations and an easy to follow design methodology, Peter Gevorkian discusses some of the most significant issues that concern solar power generation including: power output; energy monitoring and energy output enhancement; fault detection; fire and life safety hazard mitigation; and detailed hardware, firmware and software analytic solutions required to resolve solar power technology shortcomings. This essential reference also highlights the significant issues associated with large scale solar photovoltaic and solar power generation technology covering design, construction, deployment and fault detection monitoring as well as life safety hazards.
Significantly expanded and updated with extensive revisions, new material, and a new chapter on emerging applications of switching converters, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition offers the same trusted, accessible, and comprehensive information as its bestselling predecessors. Similar to the two previous editions, this book can be used for an introductory as well as a more advanced course. Chapters begin with an introduction to switching converters and basic switching converter topologies. Entry level chapters continue with a discussion of resonant converters, isolated switching converters, and the control schemes of switching converters. Skipping to chapters 10 and 11, the subject matter involves an examination of interleaved converters and switched capacitor converters to round out and complete the overview of switching converter topologies. More detailed chapters include the continuous time-modeling and discrete-time modeling of switching converters as well as analog control and digital control. Advanced material covers tools for the simulation of switching converters (including both PSpice and Matlab simulations) and the basic concepts necessary to understand various actual and emerging applications for switching converters, such as power factor correction, LED drivers, low-noise converters, and switching converters topologies for solar and fuel cells. The final chapter contains several complete design examples, including experimental designs that may be used as technical references or for class laboratory projects. Supplementary information is available at crcpress.com including slides, PSpice examples (designed to run on the OrCAD 9.2 student version and PSIM software) and MATLAB scripts. Continuing the august tradition of its predecessors, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition provides introductory and advanced information on all aspects of power switching converters to give students the solid foundation and applicable knowledge required to advance in this growing field.
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) has been used on a commercial scale for more than eighty years. It was initially developed for strategic reasons because it offered a source of transportation fuels that was independent from crude oil. Unlike crude, Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude is rich in olefins and oxygenates, while being sulphur and nitrogen free. Consequently, the catalysis involved in refining it is significantly different and only a few catalysts have been developed for the purpose. Until now, an account of this topic has been missing from the literature, despite mounting interest in the technology. This is the first book to provide a review and analysis of the literature (journal and patent) on the catalysis needed to refine syncrude to transportation fuels. It specifically highlights the impact of oxygenates and how oxygenates affect selectivity and deactivation. This aspect is also related to the refining of biomass derived liquids. Topics covered include: dimerisation / oligomerisation, isomerisation / hydroisomerisation, catalytic cracking / hydrocracking and hydrogenation, catalytic reforming, aromatic alkylation, etherification, dehydration, and some oxygenate and wax specific conversions.
Sugarcane has garnered much interest for its potential as a viable renewable energy crop. While the use of sugar juice for ethanol production has been in practice for years, a new focus on using the fibrous co-product known as bagasse for producing renewable fuels and bio-based chemicals is growing in interest. The success of these efforts, and the development of new varieties of energy canes, could greatly increase the use of sugarcane and sugarcane biomass for fuels while enhancing industry sustainability and competitiveness. Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts examines the development of a suite of established and developing biofuels and other renewable products derived from sugarcane and sugarcane-based co-products, such as bagasse. Chapters provide broad-ranging coverage of sugarcane biology, biotechnological advances, and breakthroughs in production and processing techniques. This text brings together essential information regarding the development and utilization of new fuels and bioproducts derived from sugarcane. Authored by experts in the field, Sugarc ane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts is an invaluable resource for researchers studying biofuels, sugarcane, and plant biotechnology as well as sugar and biofuels industry personnel.
The Performance of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems: Modelling, Measurement and Assessment explores the system lifetime of a PV system and the energy output of the system over that lifetime. The book concentrates on the prediction, measurement, and assessment of the performance of PV systems, allowing the reader to obtain a thorough understanding of the performance issues and progress that has been made in optimizing system performance.
The electrochemical energy storage is a means to conserve electrical energy in chemical form. This form of storage benefits from the fact that these two energies share the same vector, the electron. This advantage allows us to limit the losses related to the conversion of energy from one form to another. The RS2E focuses its research on rechargeable electrochemical devices (or electrochemical storage) batteries and supercapacitors. The materials used in the electrodes are key components of lithium-ion batteries. Their nature depend battery performance in terms of mass and volume capacity, energy density, power, durability, safety, etc. This book deals with current and future positive and negative electrode materials covering aspects related to research new and better materials for future applications (related to renewable energy storage and transportation in particular), bringing light on the mechanisms of operation, aging and failure.
An updated and expanded new edition of this comprehensive guide to innovation in wind turbine design Innovation in Wind Turbine Design, Second Edition comprehensively covers the fundamentals of design, explains the reasons behind design choices, and describes the methodology for evaluating innovative systems and components. This second edition has been substantially expanded and generally updated. New content includes elementary actuator disc theory of the low induction rotor concept, much expanded discussion of offshore issues and of airborne wind energy systems, updated drive train information with basic theory of the epicyclic gears and differential drives, a clarified presentation of the basic theory of energy in the wind and fallacies about ducted rotor design related to theory, lab testing and field testing of the Katru and Wind Lens ducted rotor systems, a short review of LiDAR, latest developments of the multi-rotor concept including the Vestas 4 rotor system and a new chapter on the innovative DeepWind VAWT. The bookis divided into four main sections covering design background, technology evaluation, design themes and innovative technology examples. Key features: Expanded substantially with new content. Comprehensively covers the fundamentals of design, explains the reasons behind design choices, and describes the methodology for evaluating innovative systems and components. Includes innovative examples from working experiences for commercial clients. Updated to cover recent developments in the field. The book is a must-have reference for professional wind engineers, power engineers and turbine designers, as well as consultants, researchers and graduate students.
Developing sufficient energy resources to replace coal, oil and gas is a globally critical necessity. Alternatives to fossil fuels such as wind, solar, or geothermal energies are desirable, but the usable quantities are limited and each has inherent deterrents. The only virtually unlimited energy source is nuclear energy, where safety of infrastructure systems is the paramount concern. "Infrastructure Systems for Nuclear Energy" addresses the analysis and design of infrastructures associated with nuclear energy. It provides an overview of the current and future nuclear power industry and the infrastructure systems from the perspectives of regulators, operators, practicing engineers and research academics. This book also provides details on investigations of containment structures, nuclear waste storage facilities and the applications of commercial/academic computer software. Specific environments that challenge the behavior of nuclear power plants infrastructure systems such as earthquake, blast, high temperature, irradiation effects, soil-structure interaction effect, etc., are also discussed. Key features: - Includes contributions from global experts representing academia and industry- Provides an overview of the nuclear power industry and nuclear infrastructure systems- Presents the state-of-the-art as well as the future direction for nuclear civil infrastructure systemsInfrastructure Systems for Nuclear Energy is a comprehensive, up-to-date reference for researchers and practitioners working in this field and for graduate studies in civil and mechanical engineering.
A manifesto for a radically different philosophy and practice of
manufacture and environmentalism
A practical guide to SUSTAINABLE THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEMS
"Sustainable Thermal Storage Systems: Planning, Design, and Operations" offers proven techniques for reducing energy costs, on-peak demand, capital costs, and pollution using thermal storage systems. Written by an expert in the field, this book discusses sustainability requirements, advantages and disadvantages of various systems, and the relationship among loads, equipment choices, and system selection. Real-world case studies examine chilled water thermal storage and ice thermal storage. Tips for operating a thermal storage plant to maximize investment are also provided in this valuable resource.
Comprehensive coverage includes: Applicability and types of thermal storage systems Sensible thermal storage systems Latent thermal storage systems Heating storage systems Thermal storage system sizing Conducting a feasibility study Estimating energy use and analyzing costs Thermal storage design applications Thermal storage tank specifications Operating and control strategies Testing and commissioning requirements Sustainable operations
Materials for type III solar cells have branched into a series of generic groups. These include organic `small molecule' and polymer conjugated structures, fullerenes, quantum dots, copper indium gallium selenide nanocrystal films, dyes/TiO2 for Gratzel cells, hybrid organic/inorganic composites and perovskites. Whilst the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells are modest compared to other type III photovoltaic materials, plastic semiconductors provide a cheap route to manufacture through solution processing and offer flexible devices. However, other types of materials are proving to be compatible with this type of processing whilst providing higher device efficiencies. As a result, the field is experiencing healthy competition between technologies that is pushing progress at a fast rate. In particular, perovskite solar cells have emerged very recently as a highly disruptive technology with power conversion efficiencies now over 20%. Perovskite cells, however, still have to address stability and environmental issues. With such a diverse range of materials, it is timely to capture the different technologies into a single volume of work. This book will give a collective insight into the different roles that nanostructured materials play in type III solar cells. This will be an essential text for those working with any of the devices highlighted above, providing a fundamental understanding and appreciation of the potential and challenges associated with each of these technologies.
Good aging infrastructure management consists of optimizing the choice of equipment and its refurbishment while also making compatible changes in all those operating and ownership policies, the whole combination aimed at optimizing the business results the power system owner desires. Both a reference and tutorial guide, this second edition of Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures provides updated coverage of aging power delivery systems, the problems they cause, and the technical and managerial approaches that power systems owners can take to manage them. See What's New in the Second Edition: All chapters have been updated or are completely new Comprehensive discussions of all issues related to equipment aging Business impact analysis and models and engineering business studies of actual utility cases Strategy and policy issues and how to frame and customize them for specific situations This book looks at the basics of equipment aging and its system and business impacts on utilities. It covers various maintenance, service and retrofit methods available to mitigate age-related deterioration of equipment. It also presents numerous configuration and automation upgrades at the system level that can deal with higher portions of aging equipment in the system and still provide good service at a reasonable cost.
From household appliances to applications in robotics, engineered systems involving complex dynamics can only be as effective as the algorithms that control them. While Dynamic Programming (DP) has provided researchers with a way to optimally solve decision and control problems involving complex dynamic systems, its practical value was limited by algorithms that lacked the capacity to scale up to realistic problems. However, in recent years, dramatic developments in Reinforcement Learning (RL), the model-free counterpart of DP, changed our understanding of what is possible. Those developments led to the creation of reliable methods that can be applied even when a mathematical model of the system is unavailable, allowing researchers to solve challenging control problems in engineering, as well as in a variety of other disciplines, including economics, medicine, and artificial intelligence. Reinforcement Learning and Dynamic Programming Using Function Approximators provides a comprehensive and unparalleled exploration of the field of RL and DP. With a focus on continuous-variable problems, this seminal text details essential developments that have substantially altered the field over the past decade. In its pages, pioneering experts provide a concise introduction to classical RL and DP, followed by an extensive presentation of the state-of-the-art and novel methods in RL and DP with approximation. Combining algorithm development with theoretical guarantees, they elaborate on their work with illustrative examples and insightful comparisons. Three individual chapters are dedicated to representative algorithms from each of the major classes of techniques: value iteration, policy iteration, and policy search. The features and performance of these algorithms are highlighted in extensive experimental studies on a range of control applications. The recent development of applications involving complex systems has led to a surge of interest in RL and DP methods and the subsequent need for a quality resource on the subject. For graduate students and others new to the field, this book offers a thorough introduction to both the basics and emerging methods. And for those researchers and practitioners working in the fields of optimal and adaptive control, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and operations research, this resource offers a combination of practical algorithms, theoretical analysis, and comprehensive examples that they will be able to adapt and apply to their own work. Access the authors' website at www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/rlbook/ for additional material, including computer code used in the studies and information concerning new developments.
A comprehensive tutorial on photovoltaic technology now fully updated to include solar storage and the latest methods for on-site plant measurements Starting with the basic principles of solar energy, this fully updated, practical text explains the fundamentals of semiconductor physics and the structure and functioning of the solar cell. It describes the latest measurement techniques for solar modules, and the planning and operation of grid-connected and off-grid PV systems. It also looks at other thin film cells, hybrid wafer cells, and concentrator systems. Additionally, this Second Edition covers solar modules and solar generators; system technology of grid connected plants; the storage of solar energy; photovoltaic measurement technology; the planning and operation of grid-connected systems; economic efficiency of PV systems; and the future development of PV. Presents the latest advances in PV R&D and industry deployment Updated illustrations and tabular data reflect current state-of-the-art and PV technology efficiencies Offers expanded tutorial sections to aid teaching and self-study Includes a brand-new chapter on Solar Energy Storage Features two enlarged chapters--one on up-to-date photovoltaic metrology and the other on the future developments in photovoltaics Comes along with the accompanying website www.textbook-pv.org which offers free downloadable figures of the book, solutions of exercises, additional free PV software etc. Developed to prepare engineering students for the PV industry, this practical text is an essential PV primer.
Fluid machinery is essential for the movement of oil and gas in the extraction and hydrocarbon processing industries. Improvements and innovations in fluid machinery result in improved reliability, and increased efficiency, as well as totally new approaches to business itself.
These latest IMechE conference transactions showcase the latest in technology and provide an excellent forum for sharing valuable experiences.
Topics covered in this indispensable edition include:
Fluid Machinery Design
Developments in Pumps and Drivers
Multiphase Pressure Boosting
Safety and Environment
Operations and Maintenance
Retrofits and Upgrades
This volume will be of great interest to engineering managers, chief engineers, academics, and all those involved in the rotating equipment companies.
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