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This is the first book to describe the development of and state of the art in solar shading devices in buildings, detailing all methods of evaluating shading systems according to thermal and visual comfort. The issue of energy balance in buildings is gaining importance as conventional energy sources dwindle and become more expensive. As such, environmental concerns should be considered in overall design decisions. The book discusses the role sun control "machines" play in controlling solar and thermal radiation. It examines their geometry, their position in relation to glazing and their operation (in the cases of movable systems) to control the heat and light entering a building, as well as how their material and color influence their performance. This book appeals to architects and designers who are interested in efficient energy facade design.
Significantly expanded and updated with extensive revisions, new material, and a new chapter on emerging applications of switching converters, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition offers the same trusted, accessible, and comprehensive information as its bestselling predecessors. Similar to the two previous editions, this book can be used for an introductory as well as a more advanced course. Chapters begin with an introduction to switching converters and basic switching converter topologies. Entry level chapters continue with a discussion of resonant converters, isolated switching converters, and the control schemes of switching converters. Skipping to chapters 10 and 11, the subject matter involves an examination of interleaved converters and switched capacitor converters to round out and complete the overview of switching converter topologies. More detailed chapters include the continuous time-modeling and discrete-time modeling of switching converters as well as analog control and digital control. Advanced material covers tools for the simulation of switching converters (including both PSpice and Matlab simulations) and the basic concepts necessary to understand various actual and emerging applications for switching converters, such as power factor correction, LED drivers, low-noise converters, and switching converters topologies for solar and fuel cells. The final chapter contains several complete design examples, including experimental designs that may be used as technical references or for class laboratory projects. Supplementary information is available at crcpress.com including slides, PSpice examples (designed to run on the OrCAD 9.2 student version and PSIM software) and MATLAB scripts. Continuing the august tradition of its predecessors, Power-Switching Converters, Third Edition provides introductory and advanced information on all aspects of power switching converters to give students the solid foundation and applicable knowledge required to advance in this growing field.
Sugarcane has garnered much interest for its potential as a viable renewable energy crop. While the use of sugar juice for ethanol production has been in practice for years, a new focus on using the fibrous co-product known as bagasse for producing renewable fuels and bio-based chemicals is growing in interest. The success of these efforts, and the development of new varieties of energy canes, could greatly increase the use of sugarcane and sugarcane biomass for fuels while enhancing industry sustainability and competitiveness. Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts examines the development of a suite of established and developing biofuels and other renewable products derived from sugarcane and sugarcane-based co-products, such as bagasse. Chapters provide broad-ranging coverage of sugarcane biology, biotechnological advances, and breakthroughs in production and processing techniques. This text brings together essential information regarding the development and utilization of new fuels and bioproducts derived from sugarcane. Authored by experts in the field, Sugarc ane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts is an invaluable resource for researchers studying biofuels, sugarcane, and plant biotechnology as well as sugar and biofuels industry personnel.
The electrochemical energy storage is a means to conserve electrical energy in chemical form. This form of storage benefits from the fact that these two energies share the same vector, the electron. This advantage allows us to limit the losses related to the conversion of energy from one form to another. The RS2E focuses its research on rechargeable electrochemical devices (or electrochemical storage) batteries and supercapacitors. The materials used in the electrodes are key components of lithium-ion batteries. Their nature depend battery performance in terms of mass and volume capacity, energy density, power, durability, safety, etc. This book deals with current and future positive and negative electrode materials covering aspects related to research new and better materials for future applications (related to renewable energy storage and transportation in particular), bringing light on the mechanisms of operation, aging and failure.
Containing the very latest information on all aspects of enthalpy and internal energy as related to fluids, this book brings all the information into one authoritative survey in this well-defined field of chemical thermodynamics. Written by acknowledged experts in their respective fields, each of the 26 chapters covers theory, experimental methods and techniques and results for all types of liquids and vapours. These properties are important in all branches of pure and applied thermodynamics and this vital source is an important contribution to the subject hopefully also providing key pointers for cross-fertilization between sub-areas.
Developing sufficient energy resources to replace coal, oil and gas is a globally critical necessity. Alternatives to fossil fuels such as wind, solar, or geothermal energies are desirable, but the usable quantities are limited and each has inherent deterrents. The only virtually unlimited energy source is nuclear energy, where safety of infrastructure systems is the paramount concern. "Infrastructure Systems for Nuclear Energy" addresses the analysis and design of infrastructures associated with nuclear energy. It provides an overview of the current and future nuclear power industry and the infrastructure systems from the perspectives of regulators, operators, practicing engineers and research academics. This book also provides details on investigations of containment structures, nuclear waste storage facilities and the applications of commercial/academic computer software. Specific environments that challenge the behavior of nuclear power plants infrastructure systems such as earthquake, blast, high temperature, irradiation effects, soil-structure interaction effect, etc., are also discussed. Key features: - Includes contributions from global experts representing academia and industry- Provides an overview of the nuclear power industry and nuclear infrastructure systems- Presents the state-of-the-art as well as the future direction for nuclear civil infrastructure systemsInfrastructure Systems for Nuclear Energy is a comprehensive, up-to-date reference for researchers and practitioners working in this field and for graduate studies in civil and mechanical engineering.
An updated and expanded new edition of this comprehensive guide to innovation in wind turbine design Innovation in Wind Turbine Design, Second Edition comprehensively covers the fundamentals of design, explains the reasons behind design choices, and describes the methodology for evaluating innovative systems and components. This second edition has been substantially expanded and generally updated. New content includes elementary actuator disc theory of the low induction rotor concept, much expanded discussion of offshore issues and of airborne wind energy systems, updated drive train information with basic theory of the epicyclic gears and differential drives, a clarified presentation of the basic theory of energy in the wind and fallacies about ducted rotor design related to theory, lab testing and field testing of the Katru and Wind Lens ducted rotor systems, a short review of LiDAR, latest developments of the multi-rotor concept including the Vestas 4 rotor system and a new chapter on the innovative DeepWind VAWT. The bookis divided into four main sections covering design background, technology evaluation, design themes and innovative technology examples. Key features: Expanded substantially with new content. Comprehensively covers the fundamentals of design, explains the reasons behind design choices, and describes the methodology for evaluating innovative systems and components. Includes innovative examples from working experiences for commercial clients. Updated to cover recent developments in the field. The book is a must-have reference for professional wind engineers, power engineers and turbine designers, as well as consultants, researchers and graduate students.
An Integrated Approach to Product Development
"Reliability Engineering" presents an integrated approach to the design, engineering, and management of reliability activities throughout the life cycle of a product, including concept, research and development, design, manufacturing, assembly, sales, and service. Containing illustrative guides that include worked problems, numerical examples, homework problems, a solutions manual, and class-tested materials, it demonstrates to product development and manufacturing professionals how to distribute key reliability practices throughout an organization.
The authors explain how to integrate reliability methods and techniques in the Six Sigma process and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS). They also discuss relationships between warranty and reliability, as well as legal and liability issues. Other topics covered include: Reliability engineering in the 21st CenturyProbability life distributions for reliability analysisProcess control and process capabilityFailure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysisHealth monitoring and prognosticsReliability tests and reliability estimation
"Reliability Engineering" provides a comprehensive list of references on the topics covered in each chapter. It is an invaluable resource for those interested in gaining fundamental knowledge of the practical aspects of reliability in design, manufacturing, and testing. In addition, it is useful for implementation and management of reliability programs.
A practical guide to SUSTAINABLE THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEMS
"Sustainable Thermal Storage Systems: Planning, Design, and Operations" offers proven techniques for reducing energy costs, on-peak demand, capital costs, and pollution using thermal storage systems. Written by an expert in the field, this book discusses sustainability requirements, advantages and disadvantages of various systems, and the relationship among loads, equipment choices, and system selection. Real-world case studies examine chilled water thermal storage and ice thermal storage. Tips for operating a thermal storage plant to maximize investment are also provided in this valuable resource.
Comprehensive coverage includes: Applicability and types of thermal storage systems Sensible thermal storage systems Latent thermal storage systems Heating storage systems Thermal storage system sizing Conducting a feasibility study Estimating energy use and analyzing costs Thermal storage design applications Thermal storage tank specifications Operating and control strategies Testing and commissioning requirements Sustainable operations
Materials for type III solar cells have branched into a series of generic groups. These include organic `small molecule' and polymer conjugated structures, fullerenes, quantum dots, copper indium gallium selenide nanocrystal films, dyes/TiO2 for Gratzel cells, hybrid organic/inorganic composites and perovskites. Whilst the power conversion efficiencies of organic solar cells are modest compared to other type III photovoltaic materials, plastic semiconductors provide a cheap route to manufacture through solution processing and offer flexible devices. However, other types of materials are proving to be compatible with this type of processing whilst providing higher device efficiencies. As a result, the field is experiencing healthy competition between technologies that is pushing progress at a fast rate. In particular, perovskite solar cells have emerged very recently as a highly disruptive technology with power conversion efficiencies now over 20%. Perovskite cells, however, still have to address stability and environmental issues. With such a diverse range of materials, it is timely to capture the different technologies into a single volume of work. This book will give a collective insight into the different roles that nanostructured materials play in type III solar cells. This will be an essential text for those working with any of the devices highlighted above, providing a fundamental understanding and appreciation of the potential and challenges associated with each of these technologies.
Good aging infrastructure management consists of optimizing the choice of equipment and its refurbishment while also making compatible changes in all those operating and ownership policies, the whole combination aimed at optimizing the business results the power system owner desires. Both a reference and tutorial guide, this second edition of Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures provides updated coverage of aging power delivery systems, the problems they cause, and the technical and managerial approaches that power systems owners can take to manage them. See What's New in the Second Edition: All chapters have been updated or are completely new Comprehensive discussions of all issues related to equipment aging Business impact analysis and models and engineering business studies of actual utility cases Strategy and policy issues and how to frame and customize them for specific situations This book looks at the basics of equipment aging and its system and business impacts on utilities. It covers various maintenance, service and retrofit methods available to mitigate age-related deterioration of equipment. It also presents numerous configuration and automation upgrades at the system level that can deal with higher portions of aging equipment in the system and still provide good service at a reasonable cost.
From household appliances to applications in robotics, engineered systems involving complex dynamics can only be as effective as the algorithms that control them. While Dynamic Programming (DP) has provided researchers with a way to optimally solve decision and control problems involving complex dynamic systems, its practical value was limited by algorithms that lacked the capacity to scale up to realistic problems. However, in recent years, dramatic developments in Reinforcement Learning (RL), the model-free counterpart of DP, changed our understanding of what is possible. Those developments led to the creation of reliable methods that can be applied even when a mathematical model of the system is unavailable, allowing researchers to solve challenging control problems in engineering, as well as in a variety of other disciplines, including economics, medicine, and artificial intelligence. Reinforcement Learning and Dynamic Programming Using Function Approximators provides a comprehensive and unparalleled exploration of the field of RL and DP. With a focus on continuous-variable problems, this seminal text details essential developments that have substantially altered the field over the past decade. In its pages, pioneering experts provide a concise introduction to classical RL and DP, followed by an extensive presentation of the state-of-the-art and novel methods in RL and DP with approximation. Combining algorithm development with theoretical guarantees, they elaborate on their work with illustrative examples and insightful comparisons. Three individual chapters are dedicated to representative algorithms from each of the major classes of techniques: value iteration, policy iteration, and policy search. The features and performance of these algorithms are highlighted in extensive experimental studies on a range of control applications. The recent development of applications involving complex systems has led to a surge of interest in RL and DP methods and the subsequent need for a quality resource on the subject. For graduate students and others new to the field, this book offers a thorough introduction to both the basics and emerging methods. And for those researchers and practitioners working in the fields of optimal and adaptive control, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and operations research, this resource offers a combination of practical algorithms, theoretical analysis, and comprehensive examples that they will be able to adapt and apply to their own work. Access the authors' website at www.dcsc.tudelft.nl/rlbook/ for additional material, including computer code used in the studies and information concerning new developments.
This book addresses the latest findings on practical ultra-high voltage AC/DC (UHVAC/UHVDC) power transmission. Firstly, it reviews current constructions and future plans for major UHVDC and UHVAC projects around the world. The book subsequently illustrates the basic theories, economic analysis, and key technologies of UHV power networks in detail, and describes the design of the UHVAC substations and UHVDC converter stations and transmission lines. A wealth of clear and specific figures and formulas help readers to understand the fundamental theories underlying UHVAC and UHVDC technologies, as well as their developmental trends. This book is intended for graduate students, researchers and engineers in the fields of power systems and electrical engineering.
This newly reissued debut book in the Rutgers University Press Classics Imprint is the story of the search for a rocket propellant which could be trusted to take man into space. This search was a hazardous enterprise carried out by rival labs who worked against the known laws of nature, with no guarantee of success or safety. Acclaimed scientist and sci-fi author John Drury Clark writes with irreverent and eyewitness immediacy about the development of the explosive fuels strong enough to negate the relentless restraints of gravity. The resulting volume is as much a memoir as a work of history, sharing a behind-the-scenes view of an enterprise which eventually took men to the moon, missiles to the planets, and satellites to outer space. A classic work in the history of science, and described as "a good book on rocket stuff...that's a really fun one" by SpaceX founder Elon Musk, readers will want to get their hands on this influential classic, available for the first time in decades.
Fluid machinery is essential for the movement of oil and gas in the extraction and hydrocarbon processing industries. Improvements and innovations in fluid machinery result in improved reliability, and increased efficiency, as well as totally new approaches to business itself.
These latest IMechE conference transactions showcase the latest in technology and provide an excellent forum for sharing valuable experiences.
Topics covered in this indispensable edition include:
Fluid Machinery Design
Developments in Pumps and Drivers
Multiphase Pressure Boosting
Safety and Environment
Operations and Maintenance
Retrofits and Upgrades
This volume will be of great interest to engineering managers, chief engineers, academics, and all those involved in the rotating equipment companies.
With emphasis on power system protection from the network operator perspective, this classic textbook explains the fundamentals of relaying and power system phenomena including stability, protection and reliability. The fourth edition brings coverage up-to-date with important advancements in protective relaying due to significant changes in the conventional electric power system that will integrate renewable forms of energy and, in some countries, adoption of the Smart Grid initiative. New features of the Fourth Edition include: * an entirely new chapter on protection considerations for renewable energy sources, looking at grid interconnection techniques, codes, protection considerations and practices. * new concepts in power system protection such as Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) and system integrity protection (SIPS) -how to use WAMS for protection, and SIPS and control with WAMS. * phasor measurement units (PMU), transmission line current differential, high voltage dead tank circuit breakers, and relays for multi-terminal lines. * revisions to the Bus Protection Guide IEEE C37.234 (2009) and to the sections on additional protective requirements and restoration. Used by universities and industry courses throughout the world, Power System Relaying is an essential text for graduate students in electric power engineering and a reference for practising relay and protection engineers who want to be kept up to date with the latest advances in the industry.
This book discusses vegetable oil based biolubricants and their applications in the power distribution industry. Vegetable oil based lubricants offer significant advantages over petroleum-based lubricants, including biodegradability, cost-effectiveness, renewability, and lower environmental effects. This book provides a detailed literature survey of modified vegetable oils. It discusses the physical and chemical properties of vegetable oil, and their effects on its applications in tribology. The book discusses additives and enhancements to make vegetable oils suitable for use as lubricating oils and transformer oils in power plants and power distribution grids. The contents of the book will be useful to researchers and professionals as well as policy makers and standards agencies.
This pedagogical textbook covers the entire evolutionary spectrum of biomass, from its genetic modification and harvesting, to conversion technologies, life cycle analysis, and its value to the current global economy. Combining the underpinning science with technology applications and sustainability considerations, this interdisciplinary textbook provides advanced students with the broad focus required for understanding this new discipline. Each chapter includes a glossary of terms, 2-3 problem sets, and feature boxes to highlight novel discoveries and instruments. At the end of the chapters there are questions for further consideration and suggestions for further reading. This textbook has been developed from a successful USDA funded course run by a partnership of three US universities, the internationally recognized BioSUCCEED education and research platform (BioProducts Sustainability, a University Cooperative Center for Excellence in Education.)
Obtain better system performance, lower energy consumption, and avoid hand-coding arithmetic functions with this concise guide to automated optimization techniques for hardware and software design. High-level compiler optimizations and high-speed architectures for implementing FIR filters are covered, which can improve performance in communications, signal processing, computer graphics, and cryptography. Clearly explained algorithms and illustrative examples throughout make it easy to understand the techniques and write software for their implementation. Background information on the synthesis of arithmetic expressions and computer arithmetic is also included, making the book ideal for newcomers to the subject. This is an invaluable resource for researchers, professionals, and graduate students working in system level design and automation, compilers, and VLSI CAD.
This book highlights the current limitations of biogas production and yield and new avenues to improving them. Biogas production and yield are among the most important renewable energy targets for our world. Pursuing an innovative and biotechnological approach, the book presents alternative sources for biogas production and explores a broad range of aspects, including: pre-treatment of substrates, accelerators (enzyme-mediated) and inhibitors involved in the process of obtaining biogas and its yield, design specifications for digesters/modified digesters, managing biogas plants, microbial risk and slurry management, energy balance and positive climatic impacts of the biogas production chain, and the impacts on Human, Animal and Environmental Health ("One Health" concept for the biogas chain).
The latest volume in the well-established AMN series, this ready reference provides an up-to-date, self-contained summary of recent developments in the technologies and systems for thermoelectricity. Following an initial chapter that introduces the fundamentals and principles of thermoelectricity, subsequent chapters discuss the synthesis and integration of various bulk thermoelectric as well as nanostructured materials. The book then goes on to discuss characterization techniques, including various light and mechanic microscopy techniques, while also summarizing applications for thermoelectric materials, such as micro- and nano-thermoelectric generators, wearable electronics and energy conversion devices. The result is a bridge between industry and scientific researchers seeking to develop thermoelectric generators.
Fossil fuel energy is the lifeblood of the modern world. Before the Industrial Revolution, humanity depended on burning wood and candle wax. But with the ability to harness the energy in oil and other fossil fuels, quality of life and capacity for progress increased exponentially. Thanks to incredible innovations in the energy industry, fossil fuels are as promising, safe, and clean an energy resource as has ever existed in history. Yet, highly politicized climate policies are pushing a grand-scale shift to unreliable, impractical, incredibly expensive, and far less efficient energy sources. Today, "fossil fuel" has become such a dirty word that even fossil fuel companies feel compelled to apologize for their products. In Fueling Freedom, energy experts Stephen Moore and Kathleen Hartnett White make an unapologetic case for fossil fuels, turning around progressives' protestations to prove that if fossil fuel energy is supplanted by "green" alternatives for political reasons, humanity will take a giant step backwards and the planet will be less safe, less clean, and less free.
Drawing on the authors' extensive research and project implementation around the globe, Solar Energy Renewable Energy and the Environment covers solar energy resources, thermal and photovoltaic systems, and the economics involved in using solar energy. It provides background theory on solar energy as well as useful technical information for implementing solar energy applications.
The book details the strengths, weaknesses, and applications of solar power generation technologies. It discusses the design and implementation of often-overlooked solar technologies, such as solar water pumping, distillation, detoxification, refrigeration, and village power. The text also examines photovoltaic power and how it is best suited for remote-site applications with small to moderate power requirements. Examples, real-world case studies, and lessons learned from technical failures illustrate how to best implement solar energy projects.
The time for clean energy solutions is here. Only through energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can modern civilization extricate itself from the gathering "perfect energy storm." Focusing on one of the keys to lessen the potentially harmful impacts of the storm, this book discusses how to increase energy production from a clean energy source-the sun.
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