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The definitive biography of the century's godfather of invention-from the preeminent Edison scholar
Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems, PV cells, PV measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of PV electricity for students and engineers new to the topic Starting with the basic principles of solar energy, this practical text explains the fundamentals of semiconductor physics and the structure and functioning of the solar cell. It describes current measurement techniques for solar modules, and the planning and operation of grid-connected and off-grid PV systems. Key features: * clarifies the technical and economic perspectives of PV energy generation, whilst providing an overview on the current economic status * discusses the future development of PV, including efficient promotion instruments and price development * each chapter contains various exercises and descriptive examples, with operation results from concrete PV plants * an accompanying website hosting exercise solutions, links to further PV references, and free downloads of the figures and additional software www.textbook-pv.org This is an essential text for renewable energy students, technicians and engineers wanting to know how solar cells work and how to design a complete PV plant. It is also a useful resource for PV installers, planners, operators, consultants, financers, potential energy investors and politicians.
Cementitious materials are being widely used as solidification/stabilisation and barrier materials for a variety of chemical and radioactive wastes, primarily due to their favourable retention properties for metals, radionuclides and other contaminants. The retention properties result from various mineral phases in hydrated cement that possess a high density and diversity of reactive sites for the fixation of contaminants through a variety of sorption and incorporation reactions. This book presents a state of the art review and critical evaluation of the type and magnitude of the various sorption and incorporation processes in hydrated cement systems for twenty-five elements relevant for a broad range of radioactive and industrial wastes. Effects of cement evolution or ageing on sorption/incorporation processes are explicitly evaluated and quantified. While the immobilisation of contaminants by mixing-in during hydration is not explicitly addressed, the underlying chemical processes are similar. A quantitative database on the solid/liquid distribution behaviour of radionuclides and other elements in hydrated cement systems is established on the basis of a consistent review and re-evaluation of literature data. In addition to recommended values, all underlying original experimental data and key experimental info rmation are provided, which allows users to trace the given recommendations or to develop their own set of key values. This database is closely tied to the safety analysis of near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. It focuses on radioelements, toxic stable elements and heavy metals, which makes it relevant for investigations involving the interaction of radioactive and conventional contaminants with cement-based barriers.
This book provides a state-of-art overview of the significant advances in understanding the impacts of wind energy on wildlife. However, many challenges remain regarding planning and policy, assessment of direct and indirect effects on wildlife, methodological approaches, technology development, and mitigation strategies and their effectiveness. The book comprises a selection of the best contributions presented at the 4th Conference on Wind energy and Wildlife impacts, held in Estoril, Portugal, 2017. The contents promote the international cooperation among researchers, developers, regulators and stakeholders that have contributed to building knowledge on this topic.
This book is devoted to the new development of zeolitic catalysts with an emphasis on new strategies for the preparation of zeolites, novel techniques for their characterization and emerging applications of zeolites as catalysts for sustainable chemistry, especially in the fields of energy, biomass conversion and environmental protection. Over the years, energy and the environment have become the most important global issues, while zeolitic catalysts play important roles in addressing them. With individual chapters written by leading experts, this book offers an essential reference work for researchers and professionals in both academia and industry. Feng-Shou Xiao is a Professor at the Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, China. Xiangju Meng is an Associate Professor at the Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, China.
This book addresses the crucial question of how the essential needs of the growing human population can be met without breaking the Earth's already-stretched life-support system. With four out of five people predicted to be urban dwellers by 2080, `One Planet' Cities proposes a pathway to genuine sustainability for cities and neighbourhoods, using an approach based on contraction and convergence. Utilising interviews with key players, including the Global Footprint Network, World Future Council, WWF, mayors and officials, and case studies from across the globe, including Europe, North and South America, Australia, Sweden, South Africa, China, and India, David Thorpe examines all aspects of modern society from food provision to neighbourhood design, via industry, the circular economy, energy and transport through the critical lens of the ecological footprint and relevant supporting international standards and indicators. Recommendations on managing supply chains and impacts, how the transition to a world within limits might be financed, and a deep examination of the Welsh Government's pioneering efforts follow. It concludes with an imagined vision of what a genuinely sustainable future might be like, and an appeal for 'one planeteers' everywhere to step up to the challenge. This book will be of great interest to practitioners and policymakers involved in governance, administration, urban environments and sustainability, alongside students of the built environment, urban planning, environmental policy and energy.
This SpringerBrief reviews currently applied and potential solutions for improving the efficiency and quality of rural electricity supply in India, a major bottleneck for agricultural development. It provides background on the current state of supply and reviews recent and ongoing research and development projects. One selected project, designed and conducted by the authors, is outlined in detail. The research findings, project implementation, and evaluation are intended to provide development practitioners, policy makers, and applied researchers with experience from the field. At the core of this Brief is the integration of technical and social solutions, emphasizing the role of collective action, and the merits and demerits of small-scale, technically simple measures.
Master the art of FPGA digital system design with Verilog and VHDL This practical guide offers comprehensive coverage of FPGA programming using the two most popular hardware description languages-Verilog and VHDL. You will expand your marketable electronic design skills and learn to fully utilize FPGA programming concepts and techniques. Digital System Design with FPGA: Implementation Using Verilog and VHDL begins with basic digital design methods and continues, step-by-step, to advanced topics, providing a solid foundation that allows you to fully grasp the core concepts. Real-life examples, start-to-finish projects, and ready-to-run Verilog and VHDL code is provided throughout. * Concepts are explained using two affordable boards-the Basys 3 and Arty * Includes PowerPoint slides, downloadable figures, and an instructor's solutions manual * Written by a pair of experienced electronics designers and instructors
A valuable reference presenting many processes that facilitate lipid extraction from micro-organisms. Amongst the techniques included are Folch, Bligh and Dyer methods, and the Soxhlet technique as well as intensified green processes (ultrasound, microwave, supercritical fluid extraction, agro-solvent, accelerated solvent extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, instant controlled pressure drop, pulse electric field). In addition to a section featuring the analysis of fatty acids by Gas Chromatography and lipids by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), this brief contains a valuable bibliography on microorganisms (classes, structures) and their applications as a source of value added oils and compounds for food and non-food applications such as biojet fuel.
This book focuses on the stability of the dynamical neural system, synchronization of the coupling neural system and their applications in automation control and electrical engineering. The redefined concept of stability, synchronization and consensus are adopted to provide a better explanation of the complex neural network. Researchers in the fields of dynamical systems, computer science, electrical engineering and mathematics will benefit from the discussions on complex systems. The book will also help readers to better understand the theory behind the control technique and its design.
This Handbook provides researchers, faculty, design engineers in industrial R&D, and practicing engineers in the field concise treatments of advanced and more-recently established topics in thermal science and engineering, with an important emphasis on micro- and nanosystems, not covered in earlier references on applied thermal science, heat transfer or relevant aspects of mechanical/chemical engineering. Major sections address new developments in heat transfer, transport phenomena, single- and multiphase flows with energy transfer, thermal-bioengineering, thermal radiation, combined mode heat transfer, coupled heat and mass transfer, and energy systems. Energy transport at the macro-scale and micro/nano-scales is also included. The internationally recognized team of authors adopt a consistent and systematic approach and writing style, including ample cross reference among topics, offering readers a user-friendly knowledgebase greater than the sum of its parts, perfect for frequent consultation. The Handbook of Thermal Science and Engineering is ideal for academic and professional readers in the traditional and emerging areas of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, aerospace engineering, bioengineering, electronics fabrication, energy, and manufacturing concerned with the influence thermal phenomena.
In the years since the publication of the first edition of this book, the world has undergone drastic changes in terms of energy sources. This is reflected in the expansion of this second edition from 20 to 26 chapters. The most dramatic occurrence was the Tsunami which struck Japan in March of 2011 and set off a reactor catastrophe at the nuclear power plants in Fukushima. On the other hand fossil fuel technology drives the climate change to a threatening level. So, renewable energy sources are essential for the 21st century. The increasing number of wind power plants, solar collectors and photovoltaic installations demonstrates perceptibly that many innovations for tapping renewable energy sources have matured: very few other technologies have developed so dynamically in the past years.Nearly all the chapters were written by professionals in the respective fields. That makes this book an especially valuable and reliable source of information. The second edition is extended by several new chapters such as tidal power stations, the Desertec project, thermography of buildings and more. Furthermore, the critical debate about current first generation bio-fuels is carefully reflected, and the book presents promising solutions that do not trade in food for fuel.
The editors are experienced journalists and illustrate the text with simple diagrams and information boxes, printed in full-color throughout.
A valuable resource for applied physicists, engineers in power technology, engineers, and anyone interested in natural sciences.
This book is a guide to a sustainable design process that moves from theory, to site and energy use, to building systems, and finally to evaluation and case studies, so you can integrate design and technology for effective sustainable building. Kuppaswamy Iyengar shows you how to get it right the first time, use free energy systems, and utilise technologies that minimize fossil fuel use. Each chapter has a sustainable design overview, technical details and strategies marked by clear sections, a summary, and further resources. Heavily illustrated with charts, tables, drawings, photographs, and case studies, the book shows technologies and concepts integrated into cohesive project types, from small and large office spaces to single and multiuse residences, hospitals, schools, restaurants, and warehouses to demonstrate implementing your designs to meet clients' needs now and for the future. Includes an overview of alternate assessment and evaluation systems such as BREEAM, CASBEE, GBTool, Green Globes alongside LEED, ECOTECT, energy 10, HEED and eQuest simulation programs. The guide reveals the importance of the building envelope-walls, superstructure, insulation, windows, floors, roofs, and building materials-on the environmental impact of a building, and has a section on site systems examining site selection, landscape design, thermal impact, and building placement.
The main focus of this book is on the contribution of Welsh scientists, engineers and facilities in Wales to the British nuclear programme - especially the military programme - from the Second World War through to the present day. After the war, a number of Welsh scientists at Harwell played an important role in the development of civil nuclear power, and subsequently also at Aldermaston where Welsh scientists and engineers were a key part of William Penney's team producing the first UK nuclear device tested at Monte Bello in 1952. This book highlights the scientific and engineering contribution made by Welsh scientists and engineers, and, where possible, it considers their backgrounds, education, personalities and interests. Many, for example, were sons of miners from the Welsh valleys, whose lives were changed by their teachers and education at Wales's university institutions - which responds in part to the question, `Why so many Welshmen?'
Written and edited by top fuel cell catalyst scientists and
engineers from both industry and academia, this is the first book
to provide a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the
synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of
different non-noble metal electrocatalysts, as well as their
integration into fuel cells and their performance validation, while
also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell
Combining the two topics for the first time, this book begins with an introduction to the recent challenges in energy conversion devices from a materials preparation perspective and how they can be overcome by using atomic layer deposition (ALD). By bridging these subjects it helps ALD specialists to understand the requirements within the energy conversion field, and researchers in energy conversion to become acquainted with the opportunities offered by ALD. With its main focus on applications of ALD for photovoltaics, electrochemical energy storage, and photo- and electrochemical devices, this is important reading for materials scientists, surface chemists, electrochemists, electrotechnicians, physicists, and those working in the semiconductor industry.
The only book to successfully integrate social, economic and environmental considerations with an accessible, quantitative approach to energy science. Energy Science introduces the latest energy technologies, explaining the physical principles underlying technology and discussing their environmental, economic, and social impacts. Covering fossil fuels, renewable, and nuclear energy, the text enables students to evaluate the key sources of energy available, and introduces potential solutions to the energy problems facing us today. A core text in the field, Energy Science is full of topical case studies and examples using current data to highlight the practical application of relevant theory.Discussion questions throughout the text encourage the development of deep critical thinking skills, ensuring that students are properly equipped to approach the energy challenges that lie ahead. Energy Science is accompanied by an Online Resource Centre which features: For Students: -Auto-marked multiple choice questions to accompany each chapter -Curated links to online sources of further information For Lecturers: -Figures from the book: available to download for use in lectures -A solutions manual for end-of-chapter questions -A complete set of customizable PowerPoint slides to use as the basis for lectures, or as hand-outs in class
The high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is identified as one of the leading fuel cell technology contenders to capture the energy market in years to come. However, in order to operate as an efficient energy generating system, the SOFC requires an appropriate control system which in turn requires a detailed modelling of process dynamics. Introducting state-of-the-art dynamic modelling, estimation, and control of SOFC systems, this book presents original modelling methods and brand new results as developed by the authors. With comprehensive coverage and bringing together many aspects of SOFC technology, it considers dynamic modelling through first-principles and data-based approaches, and considers all aspects of control, including modelling, system identification, state estimation, conventional and advanced control. Key features: * Discusses both planar and tubular SOFC, and detailed and simplified dynamic modelling for SOFC * Systematically describes single model and distributed models from cell level to system level * Provides parameters for all models developed for easy reference and reproducing of the results * All theories are illustrated through vivid fuel cell application examples, such as state-of-the-art unscented Kalman filter, model predictive control, and system identification techniques to SOFC systems The tutorial approach makes it perfect for learning the fundamentals of chemical engineering, system identification, state estimation and process control. It is suitable for graduate students in chemical, mechanical, power, and electrical engineering, especially those in process control, process systems engineering, control systems, or fuel cells. It will also aid researchers who need a reminder of the basics as well as an overview of current techniques in the dynamic modelling and control of SOFC.
Manual calculations are still extensively used and in particular are necessary for checking and verifying various software calculation design packages. It is highly recommended that users of such software familiarise themselves with the rudiments of these calculations prior to using the software packages.
This essential book fills the gap between software and manual calculations. It provides the reader with all the necessary tools to enable accurate calculations of circuit designs. Rather than complex equations, this book uses extensive worked examples to make understanding the calculations simpler. The focus on worked examples furnishes the reader with the knowledge to carry out the necessary checks to electrical cable sizing software programmes.
Other key features include: Updated information on 230 volt references and voltage drop under normal load conditions New sections on buried cables that take into account soil thermal conductivity, trenches and grouping, allowing readers to carry out accurate cables sizing Information and examples of steel wired armour cables, new to this edition. This includes sufficiency during short circuits and, for cables with externally run CPCs, gives unique fault conditions. Covers calculations of cross-sectional areas of circuit live conductors Earth fault loop impedances Protective conductor cross-sectional areas and short circuit conditions Short circuit protection.
The last chapter combines all of the calculations of the previous chapters to enable the reader to complete an accurate design of an installation circuit under all conditions.
A unique tool for detailed electrical installation trade, "Electrical Installation Calculations, Fourth Edition" is invaluable to electricians, electrical designers, installers, technicians, contractors, and plant engineers. Senior electrical engineering students and technical colleges, junior engineers, and contracts managers will also find this text useful.
Climate change is forcing us to rethink our lifestyles, but green
consumerism won't save the planet. Mainstream approaches simply
cannot deliver the radical changes we need for a sustainable
society. This book, now available in paperback, offers a fresh look
at sustainable consumption, presenting a holistic "New Economics"
approach. It explores how grassroots community actions for
sustainability are experimenting with new ways of working,
measuring value and progress, and expressing ecological
This first ever reference book that focuses on metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures for renewable energy applications encapsulates the state-of-the-art in multidisciplinary research on the metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures (nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts, nanoflowers, nanoribbons and more).
The properties and synthesis of a class of nanomaterials is essential to renewable energy manufacturing and this book focuses on the synthesis of metal chalcogendie nanostructures, their growth mechanism, optical, electrical, and other important properties and their applications in different diverging fields like photovoltaics, hydrogen production, theromelectrics, lithium battery, energy storage, photocatalysis, sensors.
An important reference source for students, scientists, engineers, researchers and industrialists working on nanomaterials-based energy aspects associated with chemistry, physics, materials science, electrical engineering, energy science and technology, and environmental science.
Production of oil and natural gas from leases on federal lands and waters is an important part of the nation's energy portfolio and a significant source of revenue for the federal government. This book examines steps Interior has taken to ensure the public receives a fair return on oil and gas resources since 2007. It also examines the number of tracts leased, along with the trends in associated coal production and revenues generated since 1990; BLM's implementation of the process to estimate fair market value for coal leases; the extent to which BLM considers coal exports and domestic coal reserve estimates when estimating fair market value; and the extent to which BLM communicates information on federal coal lease sales to the public.
This book focuses on radiation applications in various fields such as industry, environmental conservation, analytical sciences, agriculture, medical diagnosis and therapy, and other areas, from laboratory or research scale to practical or commercial scale. The book targets rather beginning or young professionals in radiation chemistry, processing, biology, and medicine, among others, but also introduces the state of the art of the relevant fields. This volume also helps readers to understand the fundamentals of radiation chemistry, physics, and biology that underlie the miscellaneous applications. Readers will understand, for example, that industry utilizes radiation to fabricate water-absorbent materials or semiconductors and also that cancer patients can be cured through radiation without surgery. These and more facts about radiation applications are made available in this valuable book.
Drawing on multidisciplinary perspectives from engineering, economics, business, science, and human behavior, this text presents an unrivalled introduction to how engineering practice can contribute to sustainable development. Varied approaches for assessing the sustainability of engineering and other human activities are presented in detail, and potential solutions to meet key challenges are proposed, with an emphasis on those that require engineering skills. Each concept and approach is supported by mathematical representation, solved problems, real-world examples, and self-study exercises. Topics covered range from introductory material on the nature of sustainability, to more advanced approaches for assessment and design. Prerequisites for each chapter are clearly explained so the text can be adapted to meet the needs of students from a range of backgrounds. Software tutorials, project statements and solutions, lecture slides, and a solutions manual accompany the book online, making this an invaluable resource for courses in sustainable engineering, as well as a useful reference for industry practitioners.
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