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A complete and in-depth coverage on materials of use, their principles, processing and handling details; along with illustrative examples and sample projects. It clearly depicts the needed topics and gives adequate coverage with ample examples so that ME students can appreciate the relevance of materials to their discipline. Featuring the basic principles of materials selection for application in various engineering outcomes, the contents of this text follow those of the common first-level introductory course in materials science and engineering. Directed toward mechanical engineering, it introduces the materials commonly used in this branch, along with an exhaustive description of their properties that decide their functional characteristics and selection for use, typical problems encountered during application due to improper processing or handling of materials, non-destructive test procedures used in maintenance to detect and correct problems, and much more.
This SpringerBrief discusses the rise of the smart grid from the perspective of computing and communications. It explains how current and next-generation network technology and methodologies help recognize the potential that the smart grid initiative promises. Chapters provide context on the smart grid before exploring specific challenges related to communication control and energy management. Topics include control in heterogeneous power supply, solutions for backhaul and wide area networks, home energy management systems, and technologies for smart energy management systems. Designed for researchers and professionals working on the smart grid, Communication Challenges and Solutions in the Smart Grid offers context and applications for the common issues of this developing technology. Advanced-level students interested in networking and communications engineering will also find the brief valuable.
This book considers the pollutants formed by the combustion of solid biomass fuels. The availability and potential use of solid biofuels is first discussed because this is the key to the development of biomass as a source of energy. This is followed by details of the methods used for characterisation of biomass and their classification. The various steps in the combustion mechanisms are given together with a compilation of the kinetic data. The chemical mechanisms for the formation of the pollutants: NOx, smoke and unburned hydrocarbons, SOx, Cl compounds, and particulate metal aerosols are given in detail. Combustion kinetics required for the application for design purposes are given. Examples are given of emission levels of a range different types of combustion equipment. Data is given of NOx, particulates and other pollutant arising from combustion of different fuels in fixed bed combustion, fluidized bed combustion and pulverised biomass combustion and co-firing. Modeling methods including computational fluid dynamics for the various pollutants are outlined. The consequential issues arising from the wide scale use of biomass and future trends are then discussed. In particular the role of carbon capture and storage in large biomass combustion plants is considered as well as the opportunity of reducing the concentration of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide.
Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, and equipment design in one volume, making it a unique resource for specialists implementing the use of oxygen in combustion systems.
This second edition of the bestselling book has more than doubled in size. Extensively updated and expanded, it covers significant advances in the technology that have occurred since the publication of the first edition.
What s New in This Edition
This book offers a unified, up-to-date look at important commercialized uses of oxygen-enhanced combustion in a wide range of industries. It brings together the latest knowledge to assist those researching, engineering, and implementing combustion in power plants, engines, and other applications."
The rigorous treatment of combustion can be so complex that the kinetic variables, fluid turbulence factors, luminosity, and other factors cannot be defined well enough to find realistic solutions. Simplifying the processes, The Coen & Hamworthy Combustion Handbook provides practical guidance to help you make informed choices about fuels, burners, and associated combustion equipment-and to clearly understand the impacts of the many variables. Editors Stephen B. Londerville and Charles E. Baukal, Jr, top combustion experts from John Zink Hamworthy Combustion and the Coen Company, supply a thorough, state-of-the-art overview of boiler burners that covers Coen, Hamworthy, and Todd brand boiler burners. A Refresher in Fundamentals and State-of-the-Art Solutions for Combustion System Problems Roughly divided into two parts, the book first reviews combustion engineering fundamentals. It then uses a building-block approach to present specific computations and applications in industrial and utility combustion systems, including those for Transport and introduction of fuel and air to a system Safe monitoring of the combustion system Control of flows and operational parameters Design of a burner/combustion chamber to achieve performance levels for emissions and heat transfer Avoidance of excessive noise and vibration and the extension of equipment life under adverse conditions Coverage includes units, fluids, chemistry, and heat transfer, as well as atomization, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), noise, auxiliary support equipment, and the combustion of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels. Significant attention is also given to the formation, reduction, and prediction of emissions from combustion systems. Each chapter builds from the simple to the more complex and contains a wealth of practical examples and full-color photographs and illustrations. Practical Computations and Applications for Industrial and Utility Combustion Systems A ready reference and refresher, this unique handbook is designed for anyone involved in combustion equipment selection, sizing, and emissions control. It will help you make calculations and decisions on design features, fuel choices, emissions, controls, burner selection, and burner/furnace combinations with more confidence.
This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For these reasons, immobilized enzymatic process has been developed which retains the advantages of the soluble enzymatic process and reuse of the enzyme is possible which decreases the enzyme cost, the biodiesel produced does not contain any enzyme residue and the activity of the enzyme can be increased by immobilization. The drawbacks of the immobilized enzyme process are mass transfer limitation, enzyme leakage, the lack of a versatile commercial immobilized enzyme and some of immobilization methods involve toxic chemicals. To overcome the drawbacks of the immobilized enzyme, an attempt is made to use a degradable biopolymer ( -carrageenan) as a carrier for lipase immobilization.
Researchers and engineers working in nuclear laboratories, nuclear electric plants, and elsewhere in the radiochemical industries need a comprehensive handbook describing all possible radiation-chemistry interactions between irradiation and materials, the preparation of materials under distinct radiation types, the possibility of damage of materials under irradiation, and more. Radiation nanotechnology is still practically an undeveloped field, except for some achievements in the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles under ionizing flows. Radiation Synthesis of Materials and Compounds presents the state of the art of the synthesis of materials, composites, and chemical compounds, and describes methods based on the use of ionizing radiation. It is devoted to the preparation of various types of materials (including nanomaterials) and chemical compounds using ionizing radiation (alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, and neutron, proton, and ion beams). The book presents contributions from leaders in the areas of radiation synthesis of materials and radiation damage, providing thorough and expert information for a wide range of readers, including advanced students, researchers, industrial practitioners, and university educators.
On March 11,2011, Japan experienced the largest earthquake in its history, causing massive property damage. This book summarizes and critically analyzes the natural events and human shortcomings responsible for the failure of the Fukushima reactors during the first year following the accident, and governmental and civilian responses to the emergency. It covers the plant's safety history, the tsunami and earthquake, and the implications of the events on the nuclear reactor industry.
This book seeks to answer the essential question of the investment-worthiness of green instruments. It is evident that investing in green and energy-efficient firms will be the most profitable choice for wise investors in the years to come. The reconciliation of the social choice for green technology and investors' choice for gray technology will be automatically achieved once green firms become more profitable than gray ones, in the Indian context. As there has been very little research done in this area, especially in the Indian context, this book addresses that gap. In order to do so, it follows the development of five different portfolios consisting of 100% green, 75% green-25% gray, 50% green-50% gray, 25% green-75% gray and 100% gray stocks, and attempts to answer questions such as: Do green portfolios entail less relative own-risk as compared to their gray counterparts? How effectively do green portfolios avoid market risk? Are green portfolios inherently more stable? Do green portfolios have a higher probability of surviving a financial crisis? Is the performance of green portfolios backed by their fundamentals? Is there any particular technical trading strategy that can ensure a consistently above-average return from these portfolios?
This book provides a cohesive overview of carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) of photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria and microalgae. This unique mechanism is by far the most spectacular physiological process in algal growth and productivity. Due to this fact, the study of CCM has captivated phycologists, algal molecular and cellular biologists, botanists, agriculturalists, crop growers, and most recently algal biofuel researchers, around the world. In the brief, the authors draw a contextual in-depth overview, on the basis of the latest findings, to develop an account of the core concepts regarding state-of-the-art of CCM. Subsequent chapters use this account to explore carbon concentrating mechanism of cyanobacteria and microalgae. They highlight the concise summaries of cutting-edge research and integrated industrial applications of photosynthetic microorganism based CO2 mitigation system, across a wide spectrum of energy and environment. The brief also presents sustainable perspectives of carbon concentrating mechanism in the context of current global energy and environmental challenges.
This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being investigated for the development of nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesting devices, also known as nanogenerators. There is growing interest in strategies for energy harvesting that use a variety of existing and well-known materials in new morphologies or architectures. A key change of morphology to enable new functionality is the nanostructuring of a material. One area of particular interest is self-powered devices based on portable energy harvesting. The charging of personal electronic equipment and other small-scale electronic devices such as sensors is a highly demanding environment that requires innovative solutions. The output of these so-called nanogenerators is explained in terms of the requirements for self-powered applications. The authors summarise the range of production methods used for nanostructured devices, which require much lower energy inputs than those used for bulk systems, making them more environmentally friendly and also compatible with a wide range of substrate materials.
Most people in the world have either no access to electricity or a poor and unreliable supply, yet the importance of access to electricity cannot be overstated. This source book aims to provide practical help in gaining accessibility to electricity for those living in remote or rural communities as well as individual home owners and small businesses.;The book begins with a brief introduction to the national grid and then focuses on some of the possibilities for independent production of electricity in the quantities used by households, micro-enterprises and small communities: diesel generators; micro-hydro; wind energy; solar photovoltaic energy (PV); gasifiers; biogas; steam; and batteries. Descriptions of the technologies and their costs are given, as well as their different requirements in terms of inputs and skill requirements for installation and operation. Information and advice is given on using electricity; indications on how to calculate the size of technology needed; and how to choose appropriate appliances. The text contains case studies from developing countries, highlighting successful women's initiatives with these technologies.; The book is intended to provide resourc
A single text that incorporates all of the theoretical principles and practical aspects of planar transmission line devices - since the early development of striplines, it has been sought by countless microwave engineers, researchers, and students. With the publication of Networks and Devices Using Planar Transmission Lines, the search for that one authoritative resource is over.
This book examines the concept and purpose of joint development agreements of offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the perspective of public international law and the law of the sea, taking into consideration and extensively reviewing State practice concerning seabed activities in disputed maritime areas and when hydrocarbon deposits extend across maritime boundaries. It distinguishes between agreements signed before and after the delimitation of maritime boundaries and analyzes the relevance of natural resources or unitization clauses included in maritime delimitation agreements. It also takes into consideration the relation between these resources and maritime delimitation and analyzes all the relevant international jurisprudence. Another innovative aspect of this book is that it examines the possibility of joint development of resources that lay between the continental shelf and the Area, considering both theoretical and practical problems. As such, the book is a useful tool for scholars and experts on public international law and the law of the sea, but also for national authorities and practitioners of international disputes resolution, as well as public and private entities working in the oil and gas industry.
Clogging of steam generators in nuclear power plants is a highly sensitive issue in terms of performance and safety and this book proposes a completely novel methodology for diagnosing this phenomenon. It demonstrates real-life industrial applications of this approach to French steam generators and applies the approach to operational data gathered from French nuclear power plants. The book presents a detailed review of in situ diagnosis techniques and assesses existing methodologies for clogging diagnosis, whilst examining their limitations. It also addresses numerical modelling of the dynamic behaviour of steam generators and provides a thorough analysis of statistical methods for sensitivity analysis and dimension reduction. Steam generators are heat exchangers found in nuclear power plants and over time they become increasingly clogged by iron oxides. This clogging then hampers the flow inside steam generators and compromises their mechanical integrity, which hinders performance and safety. This book is intended for nuclear safety specialists, nuclear performance engineers and researchers and postgraduate students working on heat exchanger modeling and computational engineering.
The National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF), announced in the
Government of India s Budget 2010-11, is seen as a major step in
India's quest for energy security and reducing the carbon intensity
of energy. Funding research and innovative projects in clean energy
technologies, and harnessing renewable energy sources to reduce
dependence on fossil fuels constitute the objectives of the NCEF.
The NCEF s utilization of funds is considered to be rather low and
disbursements poorly aligned with the fund s stated objectives,
thus posing a potential risk of diluting the focus of NCEF with
adverse implications for the much-needed research and innovation in
the clean energy sector in India.
This thesis reports the discovery of metal nanoparticles having new structures that do not exist in bulk state and that exhibit hydrogen storage ability or CO oxidation activity. Research into the reaction of hydrogen with metals has attracted much attention because of potential applications as effective hydrogen storage materials, as permeable films, or as catalysts for hydrogenation. Also, CO oxidation catalysts have been extensively developed because of their importance to CO removal from car exhaust or fuel-cell systems. At the same time, atomic-level (solid solution) alloying has the advantage of being able to continuously control chemical and physical properties of elements by changing compositions and/or combinations of constituent elements. This thesis provides a novel strategy for the basis of inter-elemental fusion to create highly efficient functional materials for energy and material conversions.
The linkages between WTO rules governing trade and energy security with a certain degree of focus on India are the main subject of this book. The edited volume brings together the views of academics, policymakers and experts with extensive experience covering WTO and international trade issues. The issues examined include mapping the linkages between trade and energy security in the WTO agreements, case law, accession and Doha negotiations; assessing the issues that could be raised by energy deficit or energy surplus countries at the WTO; analyzing the provisions of the ECT and NAFTA vis-a-vis the Indian policy framework and examining the trade regimes of selected OPEC members and other major suppliers of fossil fuels to India. While the Indian perspective is evident in the contributions, this book will also be of interest to an international audience, as trade, the WTO and energy security are global concerns and of relevance to all practitioners and academics working on these issues."
To address the environmental, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues associated with increasing global human energy consumption, technologies for utilizing renewable carbon-free or carbon-neutral energy sources must be identified and developed. Among renewable sources, solar energy is quite promising as it alone is sufficient to meet global human demands well into the foreseeable future. However, it is diffuse and diurnal. Thus effective strategies must be developed for its capture, conversion and storage. In this context, photosynthesis provides a paradigm for large-scale deployment. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and has evolved over 3 billion years. The process of photosynthesis currently produces more than 100 billion tons of dry biomass annually, which equates to a global energy storage rate of ~100 TW. Recently, detailed structural information on the natural photosynthetic systems has been acquired at the molecular level, providing a foundation for comprehensive functional studies of the photosynthetic process. Likewise, sophisticated spectroscopic techniques have revealed important mechanistic details. Such accomplishments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to construct artificial systems for solar energy transduction that are inspired by their biological counterparts. The book contains articles written by experts and world leaders in their respective fields and summarizes the exciting breakthroughs toward understanding the structures and mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus as well as efforts toward developing revolutionary new energy conversion technologies. The topics/chapters will be organized in terms of the natural sequence of events occurring in the process of photosynthesis, while keeping a higher-order organization of structure and mechanism as well as the notion that biology can inspire human technologies. For example, the topic of light harvesting, will be followed by charge separation at reaction centers, followed by charge stabilization, followed by chemical reactions, followed by protection mechanisms, followed by other more specialized topics and finally ending with artificial systems and looking forward. As shown in the table of contents (TOC), the book includes and integrates topics on the structures and mechanisms of photosynthesis, and provides relevant information on applications to bioenergy and solar energy transduction.
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