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Recent advances in combining two drilling techniques, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, have allowed access to large deposits of shale resources -- that is, crude oil and natural gas trapped in shale and certain other dense rock formations. As a result, the cost of that "tight oil" and "shale gas" has become competitive with the cost of oil and gas extracted from other sources. Virtually non-existent a decade ago, the development of shale resources has boomed in the United States, producing about 3.5 million barrels of tight oil per day and about 9.5 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of shale gas per year. This book discusses the economic and budgetary effects of producing oil and natural gas from shale. It also examines the production, infrastructure, and market issues in U.S. shale gas development; and potential budgetary effects of immediately opening most federal lands to oil and gas leasing.
Constantly in the news and the subject of much public debate,
fracking, as it is known for short, is one of the most promising
yet controversial methods of extracting natural gas and oil. Today,
90 percent of natural gas wells use fracking. Though highly
effective, the process-which fractures rock with pressurized
fluid-has been criticized for polluting land, air, and water, and
endangering human health.
Drawing on multidisciplinary perspectives from engineering, economics, business, science, and human behavior, this text presents an unrivalled introduction to how engineering practice can contribute to sustainable development. Varied approaches for assessing the sustainability of engineering and other human activities are presented in detail, and potential solutions to meet key challenges are proposed, with an emphasis on those that require engineering skills. Each concept and approach is supported by mathematical representation, solved problems, real-world examples, and self-study exercises. Topics covered range from introductory material on the nature of sustainability, to more advanced approaches for assessment and design. Prerequisites for each chapter are clearly explained so the text can be adapted to meet the needs of students from a range of backgrounds. Software tutorials, project statements and solutions, lecture slides, and a solutions manual accompany the book online, making this an invaluable resource for courses in sustainable engineering, as well as a useful reference for industry practitioners.
The book covers recent trends in the field of devices, wireless communication and networking. It presents the outcomes of the International Conference in Communication, Devices and Networking (ICCDN 2018), which was organized by the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim, India on 2-3 June, 2018. Gathering cutting-edge research papers prepared by researchers, engineers and industry professionals, it will help young and experienced scientists and developers alike to explore new perspectives, and offer them inspirations on addressing real-world problems in the field of electronics, communication, devices and networking.
What happens when fossil fuels run out? How do communities and cultures survive? Central Appalachia and South Wales were built to extract coal, and faced with coal's decline, both regions have experienced economic depression, labor unrest, and out-migration. After Coal focuses on coalfield residents who chose not to leave, but instead remained in their communities and worked to build a diverse and sustainable economy. It tells the story of four decades of exchange between two mining communities on opposite sides of the Atlantic, and profiles individuals and organizations that are undertaking the critical work of regeneration. The stories in this book are told through interviews and photographs collected during the making of After Coal, a documentary film produced by the Center for Appalachian Studies at Appalachian State University and directed by Tom Hansell. Considering resonances between Appalachia and Wales in the realms of labor, environment, and movements for social justice, the book approaches the transition from coal as an opportunity for marginalized people around the world to work toward safer and more egalitarian futures.
The U.S. petroleum refining industry -- the largest refining industry in the world -- experienced a period of high product prices and industry profits from the early 2000s through about 2007. Since the recession of 2007 to 2009, the industry has been in transition. Federal and state agencies regulate petroleum refining and the use of petroleum products to protect human health and the environment, as well as for other purposes. EPA, DOT, and California strengthened five key regulations, including EPA and DOT's coordinated fuel economy and GHG vehicle emission standards, and EPA's RFS, which has required that refiners and others ensure transportation fuels include increasing amounts of renewable fuels such as ethanol produced from corn. This book examines major changes that have recently affected the industry and the future of the industry.
This book presents a comprehensive assessment of clastic sedimentology and its application to reservoir geology. It covers the theoretical foundations of the topic and its use for scientists as well as professionals in the field. Further, it addresses all aspects of reservoir sedimentology, clastic sequence stratigraphy, sedimentation, reservoir diagenesis and heterogeneity, as well as depositional systems (alluvial, fluvial, lacustrine, delta, sandy coast, neritic, deep-water) in detail. The research team responsible for this book has been investigating clastic sedimentology for more than three decades and consists of highly published and cited authors. The Chinese edition of this book has been a great success, and is popular among sedimentologists and petroleum geologists alike.
The importance of developing new, clean and renewable sources of energy will continue to grow in the foreseeable future and so will the need for the education of researchers in this field of research. The interest and challenges of the field continue to shift from simple homogeneous solutions to increasingly more complex heterogeneous systems and interfaces. Over the past decade there have been numerous theoretical and experimental breakthroughs many of which still exist only in the primary literature. The aim of this book is to gather in one volume the description of modern, sometimes exploratory, experimental and theoretical techniques applied to the dynamics of interfacial electron and electronic excitation transfer processes studied in the context of solar energy conversion. The intended treatment will be fundamental in nature and thus applicable to a broad range of hybrid photovoltaic and photocatalytic materials and interfaces. The book will focus on the dynamic aspects of the electron injection, exciton and carrier relaxation processes, as well as coherence effects, which continue to provide the impetus and the greatest challenge for the development of new methodologies.
This book takes the reader on a journey from the moment that raw wood material enters the factory to the final pellet consumption. It starts by reviewing biomass application and its role for the future development of renewable energies, discussing different biomass conversion methods as alternatives to direct utilization. The second chapter then comprehensively examines densification processes, with a focus on the pelleting process. Chapter three further elaborates on the pelleting process, including an overview of the pellet structure and properties, and the history of this process. The subsequent chapters provide a detailed account of the production process from raw material delivery to final distribution, addressing the chemical and physical quality, and presenting measurement methods and standards. In the final chapters, the authors describe in detail the pellet combustion process and emissions.
The updated fourth edition of the "bible" of solar energy theory and applications
Over several editions, "Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes" has become a classic solar engineering text and reference. This revised "Fourth Edition" offers current coverage of solar energy theory, systems design, and applications in different market sectors along with an emphasis on solar system design and analysis using simulations to help readers translate theory into practice.
An important resource for students of solar engineering, solar energy, and alternative energy as well as professionals working in the power and energy industry or related fields, "Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes," "Fourth Edition" features: Increased coverage of leading-edge topics such as photovoltaics and the design of solar cells and heatersA brand-new chapter on applying CombiSys (a readymade TRNSYS simulation program available for free download) to simulate a solar heated house with solar- heated domestic hot waterAdditional simulation problems available through a companion websiteAn extensive array of homework problems and exercises
This thorough and highly relevant volume examines exergy, energy and the environment in the context of energy systems and applications and as a potential tool for design, analysis, optimization. It further considers their role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing for sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered.
The recent rise to prominence of renewable energy and energy efficiency has been driven by their potential to lower the environmental impacts of energy use. As these technologies mature they must demonstrate not only their environmental benefits, but also their economic competitiveness. The relative costs and benefits of each potential project, whether large or small, must be systematically modelled and assessed before they can be financed and implemented. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Assessment of Projects and Policies deals with the appraisal of such projects against financial and non-financial criteria, illustrating the assessment tools necessary to make appropriate, evidence based decisions as efficiently as possible. The most important technologies are first described, stressing their economic and performance characteristics. Key project appraisal concepts are then introduced, approaches to modelling the cash flows in energy projects are described, and the issues of uncertainty and optimisation are fully discussed. These financial concepts, together with methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions, are extended to address aspects of energy policy. Illustrated with many case studies this is an ideal introduction to financial and non-financial appraisal techniques as applied to energy efficient and renewable energy technologies.
Wind energy technology has progressed enormously over the last decade. In coming years it will continue to develop in terms of power ratings, performance and installed capacity of large wind turbines worldwide, with exciting developments in offshore installations. Designed to meet the training needs of wind engineers, this introductory text puts wind energy in context, from the natural resource to the assessment of cost effectiveness and bridges the gap between theory and practice. The thorough coverage spans the scientific basics, practical implementations and the modern state of technology used in onshore and offshore wind farms for electricity generation. Key features: * provides in-depth treatment of all systems associated with wind energy, including the aerodynamic and structural aspects of blade design, the flow of energy and loads through the wind turbine, the electrical components and power electronics including control systems * explains the importance of wind resource assessment techniques, site evaluation and ecology with a focus of project planning and operation * describes the integration of wind farms into the electric grid and includes a whole chapter dedicated to offshore wind farms * includes questions in each chapter for readers to test their knowledge Written by experts with deep experience in research, teaching and industry, this text conveys the importance of wind energy in the international energy-policy debate, and offers clear insight into the subject for postgraduates and final year undergraduate students studying all aspects of wind engineering. Understanding Wind Power Systems is also an authoritative resource for engineers designing and developing wind energy systems, energy policy makers, environmentalists, and economists in the renewable energy sector.
With increased public and scientific attention driven by factors such as oil price spikes, the need for increased energy security, and concerns over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, the production of fuels by biological systems is becoming increasingly important as the world seeks to move towards renewable, sustainable energy sources. Biofuels and Bioenergy presents a broad, wide-ranging and informative treatment of biofuels. The book covers historical, economic, industrial, sociological and ecological/environmental perspectives as well as dealing with all the major scientific issues associated with this important topic. With contributions from a range of leading experts covering key aspects, including: Conventional biofuels. Basic biology, biochemistry and chemistry of different types and classes of biofuel. Current research in synthetic biology and GM in the development and exploitation of new biofuel sources. Aspects relating to ecology and land use, including the fuel v food dilemma. Sustainability of different types of biofuel. Ethical aspects of biofuel production. Biofuels and Bioenergy provides students and researchers in biology, chemistry, biochemistry and chemical engineering with an accessible review of this increasingly important subject.
Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Intelligent Control for Sustainable Power Systems Jose Luis Rueda-Torres, TU Delft, The Netherlands Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, Loughborough University, UK Identifying, assessing, and mitigating electric power grid vulnerabilities is a growing focus in short-term operational planning of power systems. Through illustrated application, this important guide surveys state-of-the-art methodologies for the assessment and enhancement of power system security in short term operational planning and real-time operation. The methodologies employ advanced methods from probabilistic theory, data mining, artificial intelligence, and optimization, to provide knowledge-based support for monitoring, control (preventive and corrective), and decision making tasks. Key features: * Introduces behavioural recognition in wide-area monitoring and security constrained optimal power flow for intelligent control and protection and optimal grid management. * Provides in-depth understanding of risk-based reliability and security assessment, dynamic vulnerability assessment methods, supported by the underpinning mathematics. * Develops expertise in mitigation techniques using intelligent protection and control, controlled islanding, model predictive control, multi-agent and distributed control systems * Illustrates implementation in smart grid and self-healing applications with examples and real-world experience from the WAMPAC (Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control) scheme. * Supplementary material, including Matlab codes, available through the companion website: www.wiley.com/go/rueda-torres/dynamic Dynamic Vulnerability Assessment and Intelligent Control for Power Systems is a valuable reference for postgraduate students and researchers in power system stability as well as practicing engineers working in power system dynamics, control, and network operation and planning.
Troy Townsend's thesis explores the structure, energetics and activity of three inorganic nanocrystal photocatalysts. The goal of this work is to investigate the potential of metal oxide nanocrystals for application in photocatalytic water splitting, which could one day provide us with clean hydrogen fuel derived from water and solar energy. Specifically, Townsend's work addresses the effects of co-catalyst addition to niobium oxide nanotubes for photocatalytic water reduction to hydrogen, and the first use of iron oxide 'rust' in nanocrystal suspensions for oxygen production. In addition, Townsend studies a nickel/oxide-strontium titanate nanocomposite which can be described as one of only four nanoscale water splitting photocatalysts. He also examines the charge transport for this system. Overall, this collection of studies brings relevance to the design of inorganic nanomaterials for photocatalytic water splitting while introducing new directions for solar energy conversion.
Photovoltaic Laboratory: Safety, Code-Compliance, and Commercial Off-the-Shelf Equipment is the only textbook that offers students the opportunity to design, build, test, and troubleshoot practical PV systems based on commercially available equipment. Complete with electrical schematics, layouts, and step-by-step installation instructions, this hands-on laboratory manual: Promotes "safety first" by covering working in extreme weather conditions, personal protective equipment, working at heights, electrical safety, and power tool safety Includes chapters on trade math, DC/AC electrical circuits, and assessing a property for a photovoltaic system (e.g., surveying the available space, shading, and solar harvest) Discusses aspects of mechanical and electric integration specific to different roof types, and characterizing a PV module under different levels of irradiation and ambient temperature Addresses the design, installation, and testing of off-grid PV systems with DC-only loads and with DC and AC loads, as well as 2.4 kw DC grid-tied PV systems with microinverters and string inverters Trains students on exactly the sort of equipment that they will encounter in the field, so they gain valuable experience and skills that translate directly to real-world applications Photovoltaic Laboratory: Safety, Code-Compliance, and Commercial Off-the-Shelf provides in-depth, project-driven instruction on everything from attaching brackets and flashing to modeling PV cells, modules, and arrays. This textbook is ideal preparation for those seeking a career in the PV industry-from system installers and designers to quality assurance and sales/marketing personnel.
This book introduces readers to the field of seismic data interpretation and evaluation, covering themes such as petroleum exploration and high resolution seismic data. It helps geoscientists and engineers who are practitioners in this area to both understand and to avoid the potential pitfalls of interpreting and evaluating such data, especially the over-reliance on sophisticated software packages and workstations alongside a lack of grasp on the elementary principles of geology and geophysics. Chapters elaborate on the necessary principles, from topics like seismic wave propagation and rock-fluid parameters to seismic modeling and inversions, explaining the need to understand geological implications. The difference between interpretation of data and its evaluation is highlighted and the author encourages imaginative, logical and practical application of knowledge. Readers will appreciate the exquisite illustrations included with the accessibly written text, which simplify the process of learning about interpretation of seismic data. This multidisciplinary, integrated and practical approach to data evaluation will prove to be a valuable tool for students and young professionals, especially those connected with oil companies.
"Power Electronics and Energy Conversion Systems" is a definitive five-volume reference spanning classical theory through practical applications and consolidating the latest advancements in energy conversion technology. Comprehensive yet highly accessible, each volume is organised in a basic-to-sophisticated crescendo, providing a single-source reference for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and designers.Volume 1 Fundamentals and Hard-switching Converters introduces the key challenges in power electronics from basic components to operation principles and presents classical hard- and soft-switching DC to DC converters, rectifiers and inverters. At a more advanced level, it provides comprehensive analysis of DC and AC models comparing the available approaches for their derivation and results. A full treatment of DC to DC hard-switching converters is given, from fundamentals to modern industrial solutions and practical engineering insight. The author elucidates various contradictions and misunderstandings in the literature, for example, in the treatment of the discontinuous conduction operation or in deriving AC small-signal models of converters.
Other key features: - Consolidates the latest advancements in hard-switching converters including discontinuous capacitor voltage mode, and their use in power-factor-correction applications- Includes fully worked design examples, exercises, and case studies, with discussion of the practical consequences of each choice made during the design- Explains all topics in detail with step-by-step derivation of formulas appropriate for energy conversion courses- End-of-section review of the learned material- Includes topics treated in recent journal, conference and industry application coverage on solutions, theory and practical concerns
With emphasis on clear explanation, the text offers both a thorough understanding of DC to DC converters for undergraduate and graduate students in power electronics, and more detailed material suitable for researchers, designers and practising engineers working on the development and design of power electronics. This is an accessible reference for engineering and procurement managers from industries such as consumer electronics, integrated circuits, aerospace and renewable energy.
Tremendous research is taking place to make photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting technology a reality. Development of high performance PEC systems requires an understanding of the theory to design novel materials with attractive band gaps and stability. Focusing on theory and systems analysis, Advances in Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting provides an up-to-date review of this exciting research landscape. The book starts by addressing the challenges of water splitting followed by chapters on the theoretical design of PEC materials and their computational screening. The book then explores advances in identifying reaction intermediates in PEC materials as well as developments in solution processed photoelectrodes, photocatalyst sheets, and bipolar membranes. The last part of the book focuses on systems analysis, which lays out a roadmap of where researchers hope the fundamental research will lead us. Edited by world experts in the field of solar fuels, the book provides a comprehensive overview of photoelectrochemical water splitting, from theoretical aspects to systems analysis, for the energy research community.
This ready reference is unique in collating in one scientifically precise and comprehensive handbook the widespread data on what is feasible and realistic in modern fuel cell technology. Edited by one of the leading scientists in this exciting area, the short, uniformly written chapters provide economic data for cost considerations and a full overview of demonstration data, covering such topics as fuel cells for transportation, fuel provision, codes and standards. The result is highly reliable facts and figures for engineers, researchers and decision makers working in the field of fuel cells.
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