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The Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) is unique under international law, providing a multilateral framework for energy cooperation through the operation of more open and competitive energy markets, while respecting the principles of sustainable development and sovereignty over energy resources.. This is an in-depth, article-by-article commentary on all aspects of the Treaty and is essential for the large number of investors who are resorting to the protection of the ECT. It provides clear and comprehensive discussion of all provisions, analysing them against the background of other relevant writings such as case law and academic papers. It provides clear and comprehensive discussion of all provisions, analysing them against the background of other relevant materials such as case law, arbitral awards, and academic scholarship. It also offers insightful coverage and analysis of the history and background, as well as discussion of its relationships with other treaties. As energy investors and the legal community become more aware of the Treaty, the number of disputes relating to it is rapidly increasing, and the book considers the growing volume of case law concerning the interpretation or application of the provisions of the treaty. This is an invaluable reference tool for practitioners and investors.
This book is an easy to use instructional aide. Explore sustainability issues in contemporary society through a transdisciplinary approach. Chapters include ethics, public resources, public policy, combustion, heat exchangers, nuclear, solar, water, and wind energy. A short summary is presented for each topic, followed by additional topics for research, assignments, and references. The complex assignments require students to grow in their professional judgment.
This dictionary provides a synthesis of information currently available but only in a diverse array of sources. Through judicious choice and careful scrutiny, the author has gathered together a very handy ready-reference in the same style as his companion volumes, Dictionary of Energy and Fuels and Dictionary of Fire Protection Engineering. Although the material covered is diverse, particular entries are focused and linked with each other so as to provide a good degree of comprehensiveness. For example, there is much information on well engineering including example calculations, and this is linked to wells at particular oil fields. There is also much on offshore production and again principles are linked, often by calculation, with particular offshore production platforms. The North Sea features, but not exclusively, and the vast bulk of the information presented is relevant to all locations. Commercial products, including those for oil well maintenance, are featured and information on the web from suppliers is expanded by drawing on the physics and chemistry of how such products work.
For non-electrical engineering majors taking the introduction to electrical engineering course. Electrical Engineering: Concepts and Applications is the result of a multi-disciplinary effort at Michigan Technological University to create a new curriculum that is attractive, motivational, and relevant to students by creating many application-based problems; and provide the optimal level of both range and depth of coverage of EE topics in a curriculum package.
Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets and power systems.
Unlike other texts, this book analyses EV integration in parallel with electricity market design, showing the interaction between EVs and differing electricity markets. Future regulating power market and distribution system operator (DSO) market design is covered, with up-to-date case studies and examples to help readers carry out similar projects across the world.
With in-depth analysis, this book describes: the impact of EV charging and discharging on transmission and distribution networksmarket-driven EV congestion management techniques, for example the day-ahead tariff based congestion management scenario within electric distribution networks optimal EV charging management with the fleet operator concept and smart charging managementEV battery technology, modelling and tests the use of EVs for balancing power fluctuations from renewable energy sources, looking at power system operation support, including frequency reserve, power regulation and voltage support
An accessible technical book for power engineers and grid/distributed systems operators, this also serves as a reference text for researchers in the area of EVs and power systems. It provides distribution companies with the knowledge they need when facing the challenges introduced by large scale EV deployment, and demonstrates how transmission system operators (TSOs) can develop the existing system service market in order to fully utilize the potential of EV flexibility. With thorough coverage of the technologies for EV integration, this volume is informative for research professors and graduate students in power systems; it will also appeal to EV manufacturers, regulators, EV market professionals, energy providers and traders, mobility providers, EV charging station companies, and policy makers.
Ultra-capacitors, used as short-term energy storage devices, are growing in popularity especially in the transportation and renewable energy sectors. This text provides an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of ultra-capacitor theory, modeling and module design from an application perspective, focusing on the practical aspects of power conversion and ultra-capacitor integration with power electronics systems.
Key features: clearly explains the theoretical and practical aspects of ultra-capacitor, analysis, modelling and design describes different power conversion applications such as variable speed drives, renewable energy systems, traction, power quality, diesel electric hybrid applications provides detailed guidelines for the design and selection of ultra-capacitor modules and interface dc-dc convertersincludes end-of-chapter exercises and design examples
This is an essential reference for power electronics engineers and professionals wanting to expand their knowledge of advanced ultra-capacitor energy storage devices and their application in power conversion. It is also a valuable resource for industrial design engineers as well as academics and advanced students in power electronics who want to develop their understanding about this highly topical subject.
An all-in-one guide to high-voltage, multi-terminal converters, this book brings together the state of the art and cutting-edge techniques in the various stages of designing and constructing a high-voltage converter. The book includes 9 chapters, and can be classified into three aspects. First, all existing high-voltage converters are introduced, including the conventional two-level converter, and the multi-level converters, such as the modular multi-level converter (MMC). Second, different kinds of multi-terminal high-voltage converters are presented in detail, including the topology, operation principle, control scheme and simulation verification. Third, some common issues of the proposed multi-terminal high-voltage converters are discussed, and different industrial applications of the proposed multi-terminal high-voltage converters are provided. Systematically proposes, for the first time, the design methodology for high-voltage converters in use of MTDC grids; also applicable to constructing novel power electronics converters, and driving the development of HVDC, which is one of the most important technology areas Presents the latest research on multi-terminal high-voltage converters and its application in MTDC transmission systems and other industrially important applications Offers an overview of existing technology and future trends of the high-voltage converter, with extensive discussion and analysis of different types of high-voltage converters and relevant control techniques (including DC-AC, AC-DC, DC-DC, and AC-AC converters) Provides readers with sufficient context to delve into the more specialized topics covered in the book Featuring a series of novel multi-terminal high-voltage converters proposed and patented by the authors, Multi-terminal High Voltage Converters is written for researchers, engineers, and advanced students specializing in power electronics, power system engineering and electrical engineering.
An Integrated Approach to Product Development
"Reliability Engineering" presents an integrated approach to the design, engineering, and management of reliability activities throughout the life cycle of a product, including concept, research and development, design, manufacturing, assembly, sales, and service. Containing illustrative guides that include worked problems, numerical examples, homework problems, a solutions manual, and class-tested materials, it demonstrates to product development and manufacturing professionals how to distribute key reliability practices throughout an organization.
The authors explain how to integrate reliability methods and techniques in the Six Sigma process and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS). They also discuss relationships between warranty and reliability, as well as legal and liability issues. Other topics covered include: Reliability engineering in the 21st CenturyProbability life distributions for reliability analysisProcess control and process capabilityFailure modes, mechanisms, and effects analysisHealth monitoring and prognosticsReliability tests and reliability estimation
"Reliability Engineering" provides a comprehensive list of references on the topics covered in each chapter. It is an invaluable resource for those interested in gaining fundamental knowledge of the practical aspects of reliability in design, manufacturing, and testing. In addition, it is useful for implementation and management of reliability programs.
Large Power Transformers have long been a concern for the U.S. Electricity Sector, because the failure of a single unit can cause service interruption and lead to collateral damage, and there could be difficulties in quickly replacing them. This book assesses the procurement and supply environment of large power transformers (LPTs). Key industry sources have identified the limited availability of spare LPTs as a potential issue for critical infrastructure resilience in the United States, and both the public and private sectors have been undertaking a variety of efforts to address this concern. The following topics are examined in this book: characteristics and procurement of LPTs, including key raw materials and transportation; historical trends and future demands; global and domestic LPT suppliers; potential issues in the global sourcing of LPTs; and assessment of the risks facing LPTs.
A practical and highly popular guide for electrical contractors of small installations, now fully revised in accordance with the latest wiring regulations The book is a clearly written practical guide on how to design and complete a range of electrical installation projects in a competitive manner, while ensuring full compliance with the new Wiring Regulations (updated late 2008). The updated regulations introduced changes in terminology, such as basic and fault protection , and also changed the regulation numbers. This new edition reflects these changes. It discusses new sections covering domestic, commercial, industrial and agricultural projects, including material on marinas, caravan sites, and small scale floodlighting. This book provides guidance on certification and test methods, with full attention given to electrical safety requirements. Other brand new sections cover protective measures, additional protection by means of RCDs, the new cable guidelines for thin wall partitions and Part P of the Building Regulations. * Provides simple, practical guidance on how to design electrical installation projects, including worked examples and case studies * Covers new cable guidelines and Part P of the Building Regulations (Electrical Installations) in line with 17th edition of the Wiring Regulations BS 7671:2008 * New chapters on protective measures and additional protection by means of RCDs (residual current devices) * Features new wiring projects such as marinas, caravan sites and small scale floodlighting and street lighting * Fully illustrated, including illustrations new to the fourth edition
This book deals with quantifying and analyzing the risks associated with sustainable energy technology growth in electric power systems, and developing appropriate models and methodologies to mitigate the risks and improve the overall system performance. The rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy sources in electric power systems has given rise to a wide range of problems related to planning and operation of power systems to maintain quality, stability, reliability and efficiency. Additionally, there is a growing global environmental concern regarding increasing emissions from the electric power generation required to meet rising energy needs and support sustainable and inclusive development. The phenomenon of low voltage ride through (LVRT), common to wind energy systems, is discussed, and ways to tackle the same are proposed in the first chapter. Subsequent chapters propose methods of optimizing a sustainable and smart microgrid, and supplying electricity to remote areas of a developing country with no immediate possibility of national grid extension. The economic benefit and technical challenges of forming localized minigrid are also discussed. The book proposes a method for reliability assessment of a power grid with sustainable power transportation system. The issue of weak link in power system is very important as it will provide the system operators and planners to take necessary measures to strengthen the system. An approach to determine the weak parts of the system and its unreliability is proposed. With increasing installation of HVDC power transmission and development of efficient and low cost power electronic devices, the DC microgrids are becoming a common phenomenon. Their existence together with AC Grids result in Hybrid AC/DC Microgrids, which are discussed in this book. It further presents a method for reliability evaluation of a distribution system with network reconfiguration in the presence of distributed generation. The important problems in sustainable energy growth, and their potential solutions discussed and presented in the book should be of great interest to engineers, policy makers, researchers and academics in the area of electric power engineering.
This book explores the nexus of Sustainability and Information Communication Technologies that are rapidly changing the way we live, learn, and do business. The monumental amount of energy required to power the Zeta byte of data traveling across the globe's billions of computers and mobile phones daily cannot be overstated. This ground-breaking reference examines the possibility that our evolving technologies may enable us to mitigate our global energy crisis, rather than adding to it. By connecting concepts and trends such as smart homes, big data, and the internet of things with their applications to sustainability, the authors suggest that emerging and ubiquitous technologies embedded in our daily lives may rightfully be considered as enabling solutions for our future sustainable development.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of the nanocrystalline Al based alloys as prepared using high-energy ball milling (HEBM). It discusses the influence of HEBM parameters on grain refinement and examines methods for the consolidation of nanocrystalline Al powders; further, it reviews the effects of various processing parameters on the final microstructure and the impact of microstructure on corrosion and mechanical properties. The book also provides guidelines for choosing appropriate HEBM parameters for the production of nanocrystalline Al powders and methods for consolidating them in net-shaped components. Future challenges and possible applications of high-energy ball milled Al alloys are also discussed. The book is intended for researchers and professionals interested in aluminium alloy development, manufacturing technologies, light metals and nanocrystalline metallic materials.
The Handbook of Clean Energy Systems brings together an international team of experts to present a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems. Consolidating information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources, the handbook covers a broad range of topics in this interdisciplinary research field including both fossil and renewable energy systems. The development of intelligent energy systems for efficient energy processes and mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants is explored in depth, and environmental, social and economic impacts are also addressed. Topics covered include: Volume 1 - Renewable Energy: Biomass resources and biofuel production; Bioenergy Utilization; Solar Energy; Wind Energy; Geothermal Energy; Tidal Energy. Volume 2 - Clean Energy Conversion Technologies: Steam/Vapor Power Generation; Gas Turbines Power Generation; Reciprocating Engines; Fuel Cells; Cogeneration and Polygeneration. Volume 3 - Mitigation Technologies: Carbon Capture; Negative Emissions System; Carbon Transportation; Carbon Storage; Emission Mitigation Technologies; Efficiency Improvements and Waste Management; Waste to Energy. Volume 4 - Intelligent Energy Systems: Future Electricity Markets; Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems; New Electric Transmission Systems; Smart Grid and Modern Electrical Systems; Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems; Energy Efficiency of Industrial Energy Systems; Consumer Behaviors; Load Control and Management; Electric Car and Hybrid Car; Energy Efficiency Improvement. Volume 5 - Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage; Chemical Storage; Mechanical Storage; Electrochemical Storage; Integrated Storage Systems. Volume 6 - Sustainability of Energy Systems: Sustainability Indicators, Evaluation Criteria, and Reporting; Regulation and Policy; Finance and Investment; Emission Trading; Modeling and Analysis of Energy Systems; Energy vs. Development; Low Carbon Economy; Energy Efficiencies and Emission Reduction. Key features: * Comprising over 3,500 pages in 6 volumes, HCES presents a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems, consolidating a wealth of information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources. * In addition to renewable energy systems, HCES also covers processes for the efficient and clean conversion of traditional fuels such as coal, oil and gas, energy storage systems, mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants, and the development of intelligent energy systems. Environmental, social and economic impacts of energy systems are also addressed in depth. * Published in full colour throughout. * Fully indexed with cross referencing within and between all six volumes. * Edited by leading researchers from academia and industry who are internationally renowned and active in their respective fields. * Published in print and online. The online version is a single publication (i.e. no updates), available for one-time purchase or through annual subscription.
Featuring a detailed analysis of current approval requirements and the relevant safety assessment methods for gas cylinders in general and with main focus on composite cylinders for storing compressed natural gas and hydrogen, this book demonstrates how current regulations and standards limit the ability to reduce cost and weight. Based on this data, it then highlights the potential offered by the proposed approval procedure based on probabilistic safety assessment After addressing the economic potential of probabilistic safety assessments, the book details working procedures and improving cycles and (slow) bursts as methods for assessing residual strength. It then discusses methods for statistically evaluating test data, as well as sample- size and distribution-character considerations. A definition of sample strength is elaborated in terms of the performance sheets developed by the author. On this basis, it discusses safety as a property of service life and interpreted as an issue of degradation, and explores aspects of artificial aging for simulating the end-of-life reliability level. Lastly, the book considers control and inspection aspects: quality of production, degradation prediction using destructive sample tests parallel to operation, retesting periods and correcting for under- and overestimates of safe lifetime. Presented in schematic diagrams, illustrations and tables, this information enables manufacturers and operators to use this new approach in practice and supports the improvement of current regulations and standards.
This book introduces researchers and practitioners to Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and its applications in the built environment. It begins with a fundamental introduction to CPS technology and associated concepts.It then presents numerous examples of applications from managing construction projects to smart transportation systems and smart cities. It concludes with a discussion of future directions for CPS deployment in the construction, operation and maintenance of constructed facilities. Featuring internationally recognized experts as contributors, Cyber-Physical Systems in the Built Environment, is an ideal resource for engineers, construction managers, architects, facilities managers, and planners working on a range of building and civil infrastructure projects.
The U.S. petroleum refining industry -- the largest refining industry in the world -- experienced a period of high product prices and industry profits from the early 2000s through about 2007. Since the recession of 2007 to 2009, the industry has been in transition. Federal and state agencies regulate petroleum refining and the use of petroleum products to protect human health and the environment, as well as for other purposes. EPA, DOT, and California strengthened five key regulations, including EPA and DOT's coordinated fuel economy and GHG vehicle emission standards, and EPA's RFS, which has required that refiners and others ensure transportation fuels include increasing amounts of renewable fuels such as ethanol produced from corn. This book examines major changes that have recently affected the industry and the future of the industry.
A comprehensive text covering all aspects of wave and tidal energy Wave and Tidal Energy provides a comprehensive and self-contained review of the developing marine renewable energy sector, drawing from the latest research and from the experience of device testing. The book has a twofold objective: to provide an overview of wave and tidal energy suitable for newcomers to the field and to serve as a reference text for advanced study and practice. Including detail on key issues such as resource characterisation, wave and tidal technology, power systems, numerical and physical modelling, environmental impact and policy. The book also includes an up-to-date review of developments worldwide and case studies of selected projects. Key features: * A comprehensive and self-contained text covering all aspects of the multidisciplinary fields of wave and tidal energy. * Draws upon the latest research in wave and tidal energy and the experience of leading practitioners in numerical and laboratory modelling. * Regional developments worldwide are reviewed and representative projects are presented as case studies. Wave and Tidal Energy is an invaluable resource to a wide range of readers, from engineering students to technical managers and policymakers to postgraduate students and researchers.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. A PRACTICAL GUIDE that shows maintenance and construction electricians how to successfully repair commercial and industrial electrical equipmentTroubleshooting and Repairing Commercial Electrical Equipment is the first work that offers a practical approach to diagnosing and repairing commercial/industrial electrical equipment - covering everything from motors, computers, elevators, and fire alarm systems to heavy-duty ovens and audio equipment. If you are a licensed construction or maintenance electrician who repairs malfunctioning industrial electrical equipment, this one-of-a-kind guide can help you become more competent in your profession. Inside you'll find ways to become faster, more efficient, and able to achieve a much higher success rate in restoring large electrical equipment without damaging it, introducing an additional defect, or creating a hazard. This invaluable resource also includes information for those seeking licensing and certification, as well as different measures that should be taken to ensure that a UL or other agency listing is not voided. Presents a new system of diagnostics based on the difficulty of each procedure and the probability of its success Emphasizes a practical approach to ensure that equipment is fixed properly Uses a blend of basic electrical theory and sophisticated mathematical equations that both experienced technicians and apprentices can learn from Includes separate chapters on elevators, fire alarm systems, motors, largescale stereo equipment, and industrial appliances Discusses related licensing and certification as they pertain to troubleshooting and repair Written by a Master Electrician with more than 35 years of experience
There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however,
the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid
oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on
specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack
engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials
requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel
Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials
and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will
cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books
form part of the "Materials for Sustainable Energy &
This book presents both the fundamental theory and numerical calculations and field experiments used in a range of practical engineering projects. It not only provides theoretical formulations and various solutions, but also offers concrete methods to extend the life of existing bridge structures and presents a guide to the rational design of new bridges, such as high-speed railway bridges and long-span bridges. Further, it offers a reference resource for solving vehicle-structure dynamic interaction problems in the research on and design of all types of highways, railways and other transport structures.
A unique and timely book on understanding and tailoring the flow of fluids in porous materials Porous media play a key role in chemical processes, gas and water purification, gas storage and the development of new multifunctional materials. Understanding hydrodynamics in porous media is decisive for enabling a wide range of applications in materials science and chemical engineering. This all-encompassing book offers a timely overview of all flow and transport processes in which chemical or physicochemical phenomena such as dissolution, phase transition, reactions, adsorption, diffusion, capillarity, and surface phenomena are essential. It brings together both theoretical and experimental results and includes important industrial applications. Physicochemical Fluid Dynamics in Porous Media: Applications in Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering explains the thermodynamics of phase equilibria for multicomponent fluids, physicochemical models of single-phase and immiscible two-phase flow, based on the macroscopic theory of oil displacement by water. It also covers the theory of two-phase flow with partial miscibility and describes partially miscible flows with phase transitions by means of the negative saturation approach. The final chapters are devoted to flow with chemical reactions, based on the example of in-situ leaching of uranium, and flow with bio-chemical reactions in terms of the underground storage of hydrogen. -Brings together the theoretical and experimental results necessary for the understanding of hydrodynamics in porous media -Covers important industrial applications such as underground leaching of uranium and underground storage of hydrogen -Presents a state-of-the-art overview and summarizes the research results usually found only scattered in the literature Physicochemical Fluid Dynamics in Porous Media: Applications in Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering will appeal to chemical engineers, materials scientists, applied physicists, and mechanical engineers.
This proceedings contains a collection of 20 papers from the following five 2014 Materials Science and Technology (MS&T'14) symposia: * Materials Issues in Nuclear Waste Management in the 21st Century * Green Technologies for Materials Manufacturing and Processing V * Nanotechnology for Energy, Healthcare and Industry * Materials for Processes for CO2 Capture, Conversion, and Sequestration * Materials Development for Nuclear Applications and Extreme Environments
The handbook focuses on a complete outline of lithium-ion batteries. Just before starting with an exposition of the fundamentals of this system, the book gives a short explanation of the newest cell generation. The most important elements are described as negative / positive electrode materials, electrolytes, seals and separators. The battery disconnect unit and the battery management system are important parts of modern lithium-ion batteries. An economical, faultless and efficient battery production is a must today and is represented with one chapter in the handbook. Cross-cutting issues like electrical, chemical, functional safety are further topics. Last but not least standards and transportation themes are the final chapters of the handbook. The different topics of the handbook provide a good knowledge base not only for those working daily on electrochemical energy storage, but also to scientists, engineers and students concerned in modern battery systems.
Compact but comprehensive, this textbook presents the essential concepts of electronic circuit theory. As well as covering classical linear theory involving resistance, capacitance and inductance it treats practical nonlinear circuits containing components such as operational amplifiers, Zener diodes and exponential diodes. The book's straightforward approach highlights the similarity between the equations describing direct current (DC), alternating current (AC) and small-signal nonlinear behaviour, thus making the analysis of these circuits easier to comprehend.
Introductory Circuits explains:
the laws and analysis of DC circuits including those containing controlled sources;
AC circuits, focusing on complex currents and voltages, and with extension to frequency domain performance;
opamp circuits, including their use in amplifiers and switches;
change behaviour within circuits, whether intentional (small-signal performance) or caused by unwanted changes in components.
In addition to worked examples within the text a number of problems for student solution are provided at the end of each chapter, ranging in difficulty from the simple to the more challenging. Most solutions for these problems are provided in the book, while others can be found on the accompanying website.
Introductory Circuits is designed for first year undergraduate mechanical, biomedical, materials, chemical and civil engineering students who are taking short electrical engineering courses and find other texts on the subject too content-heavy for their needs. With its clear structure and consistent treatment of resistive, reactive and small-signal operation, this volume is also a greatsupporting text for mainstream electrical engineering students.
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