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This book is for all graduate students who are specializing in any environmental issue and who wish to grasp the fundamentals of physics that are required in various fields of science and engineering. The book provides the structural concept of the system state equation and its dynamics, which can be applicable to numerical solutions in several important areas such as heat and mass transfer and fluid dynamics. As a first step, there is a description of how to solve a linear system by conducting an analysis of temperature distribution in an infinite soil as a practical example. This exercise helps readers to fully understand what time and space discretizations are, and how actual numerical solutions should work. Because the concept of the system state equation relies on a vector-matrix form, the book shows how that particular form is applicable to other practical procedures: linear multi regression analysis, the least square method, and others. The book also gives the solution to non-linear dynamical systems and their applications. Although this book may appear to take an unusual approach, the author believes it will be inspiring and greatly helpful for the beginner who seeks a solid understanding of the basis of mathematics and physics for any environmental problems.
Production of oil and natural gas from leases on federal lands and waters is an important part of the nation's energy portfolio and a significant source of revenue for the federal government. This book examines steps Interior has taken to ensure the public receives a fair return on oil and gas resources since 2007. It also examines the number of tracts leased, along with the trends in associated coal production and revenues generated since 1990; BLM's implementation of the process to estimate fair market value for coal leases; the extent to which BLM considers coal exports and domestic coal reserve estimates when estimating fair market value; and the extent to which BLM communicates information on federal coal lease sales to the public.
This practical reference evaluates the performance, safety, and efficiency of a power delivery system-emphasizing the use and interpretation of computational data to assess system operating limits, load level increases, equipment failure, and mitigating procedures through computer-aided analysis to maximize cost-effectiveness. Containing more than 600 references, tables, figures, and equations, this indispensable reference is essential reading for electrical and electronics, industrial, transmission, distribution, power, and energy engineers and technicians, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.
The use of neural networks is permeating every area of signal processing. They can provide powerful means for solving many problems, especially in nonlinear, real-time, adaptive, and blind signal processing. The Handbook of Neural Network Signal Processing brings together applications that were previously scattered among various publications to provide an up-to-date, detailed treatment of the subject from an engineering point of view.
Cementitious materials are being widely used as solidification/stabilisation and barrier materials for a variety of chemical and radioactive wastes, primarily due to their favourable retention properties for metals, radionuclides and other contaminants. The retention properties result from various mineral phases in hydrated cement that possess a high density and diversity of reactive sites for the fixation of contaminants through a variety of sorption and incorporation reactions. This book presents a state of the art review and critical evaluation of the type and magnitude of the various sorption and incorporation processes in hydrated cement systems for twenty-five elements relevant for a broad range of radioactive and industrial wastes. Effects of cement evolution or ageing on sorption/incorporation processes are explicitly evaluated and quantified. While the immobilisation of contaminants by mixing-in during hydration is not explicitly addressed, the underlying chemical processes are similar. A quantitative database on the solid/liquid distribution behaviour of radionuclides and other elements in hydrated cement systems is established on the basis of a consistent review and re-evaluation of literature data. In addition to recommended values, all underlying original experimental data and key experimental info rmation are provided, which allows users to trace the given recommendations or to develop their own set of key values. This database is closely tied to the safety analysis of near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. It focuses on radioelements, toxic stable elements and heavy metals, which makes it relevant for investigations involving the interaction of radioactive and conventional contaminants with cement-based barriers.
This book is devoted to the new development of zeolitic catalysts with an emphasis on new strategies for the preparation of zeolites, novel techniques for their characterization and emerging applications of zeolites as catalysts for sustainable chemistry, especially in the fields of energy, biomass conversion and environmental protection. Over the years, energy and the environment have become the most important global issues, while zeolitic catalysts play important roles in addressing them. With individual chapters written by leading experts, this book offers an essential reference work for researchers and professionals in both academia and industry. Feng-Shou Xiao is a Professor at the Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, China. Xiangju Meng is an Associate Professor at the Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, China.
This book details first the chemistry of hydrogen production from biomass. Solutions to the CO2 issue are given in three chapters, which describe CO2 photo catalytic reduction, CO2 sequestration in terrestrial biomass, and plants as renewable fuels. Further chapters review the selenium cycle in ecosystems, advanced processes to treat water and ecological ways to dye textiles. Society growth during the last century has almost entirely relied on the carbon economy, which is the use of fossil fuels for energy and materials. The carbon economy has provided and will still provide many benefits. However, the increasing use of fossil fuels is partly responsible for the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and in turn, global warming. There is therefore an urgent need for cleaner fuels such as hydrogen, as well as a need for a carbon neutral economy where each emitted CO2 molecule is fast sequestered in plants, algae, soils, sub soils and sediments.
Recent advances in combining two drilling techniques, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling, have allowed access to large deposits of shale resources -- that is, crude oil and natural gas trapped in shale and certain other dense rock formations. As a result, the cost of that "tight oil" and "shale gas" has become competitive with the cost of oil and gas extracted from other sources. Virtually non-existent a decade ago, the development of shale resources has boomed in the United States, producing about 3.5 million barrels of tight oil per day and about 9.5 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of shale gas per year. This book discusses the economic and budgetary effects of producing oil and natural gas from shale. It also examines the production, infrastructure, and market issues in U.S. shale gas development; and potential budgetary effects of immediately opening most federal lands to oil and gas leasing.
This book introduces the fundamental concepts of inverse heat transfer problems. It presents in detail the basic steps of four techniques of inverse heat transfer protocol, as a parameter estimation approach and as a function estimation approach. These techniques are then applied to the solution of the problems of practical engineering interest involving conduction, convection, and radiation. The text also introduces a formulation based on generalized coordinates for the solution of inverse heat conduction problems in two-dimensional regions.
Giorgio Rizzoni and James Kearns 6th edition provides a solid overview of the electrical engineering discipline that is especially geared toward the many non-electrical engineering students who take this course. The hallmark feature of the text is its liberal use of practical applications to illustrate important principles. The applications come from every field of engineering and feature exciting technologies such as Ohio State's world-record setting electric car. The appeal to non-EE's is further heightened by such special features as the book's Focus on Measurement sections, Focus on Methodology sections, and Make the Connection sidebars. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer Connect with the sixth edition of Rizzoni and Kearns, Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering. Connect is the only integrated learning system that empowers students by continuously adapting to deliver precisely what they need, when they need it, how they need it, so that your class time is more engaging and effective.Rizzoni and Kearns Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering, sixth edition, includes the power of McGraw-Hill's LearnSmart--a proven adaptive learning program that helps students learn faster, study more efficiently, and retain more knowledge for greater success. LearnSmart is included in ConnectPlus.
This textbook provides a solid introduction to the theoretical and empirical aspects of environmental economics, and their links to environmental policy. It advocates drawing on the economist's toolbox as a powerful means of finding solutions to environmental problems by addressing the conflict between the societal costs of pollution on the one hand, and the financial costs of emissions reduction on the other. The book presents the main economic theory approaches to handling environmental problems and assessing the monetary value of environmental quality; the most relevant environmental policy instruments and challenges involved in their effective real-world application; and both national and global environmental problems addressed by environmental negotiations and agreements. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable basis of information for students, and for policymakers pursuing effective environmental policies.
Updated with modern coverage, a streamlined presentation, and excellent companion software, this seventh edition of FUNDAMENTALS OF LOGIC DESIGN achieves yet again an unmatched balance between theory and application. Authors Charles H. Roth, Jr. and Larry L. Kinney carefully present the theory that is necessary for understanding the fundamental concepts of logic design while not overwhelming students with the mathematics of switching theory. Divided into 20 easy-to-grasp study units, the book covers such fundamental concepts as Boolean algebra, logic gates design, flip-flops, and state machines. By combining flip-flops with networks of logic gates, students will learn to design counters, adders, sequence detectors, and simple digital systems. After covering the basics, this text presents modern design techniques using programmable logic devices and the VHDL hardware description language.
A work on turbulent premixed combustion is timely because of increased concern about the environmental impact of combustion and the search for new combustion concepts and technologies. An improved understanding of lean fuel turbulent premixed flames must play a central role in the fundamental science of these new concepts. Lean premixed flames have the potential to offer ultra-low emission levels, but they are notoriously susceptible to combustion oscillations. Thus, sophisticated control measures are inevitably required. The editors' intent is to set out the modeling aspects in the field of turbulent premixed combustion. Good progress has been made recently on this topic. Thus, it is timely to edit a cohesive volume containing contributions from international experts on various subtopics of the lean premixed flame problem.
An intelligent transportation system (ITS) offers considerable opportunities for increasing the safety, efficiency, and predictability of traffic flow and reducing vehicle emissions. Sensors (or detectors) enable the effective gathering of arterial and controlled-access highway information in support of automatic incident detection, active transportation and demand management, traffic-adaptive signal control, and ramp and freeway metering and dispatching of emergency response providers. As traffic flow sensors are integrated with big data sources such as connected and cooperative vehicles, and cell phones and other Bluetooth-enabled devices, more accurate and timely traffic flow information can be obtained. The book examines the roles of traffic management centers that serve cities, counties, and other regions, and the collocation issues that ensue when multiple agencies share the same space. It describes sensor applications and data requirements for several ITS strategies; sensor technologies; sensor installation, initialization, and field-testing procedures; and alternate sources of traffic flow data. The book addresses concerns related to the introduction of automated and connected vehicles, and the benefits that systems engineering and national ITS architectures in the US, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere bring to ITS. Sensor and data fusion benefits to traffic management are described, while the Bayesian and Dempster-Shafer approaches to data fusion are discussed in more detail. ITS Sensors and Architectures for Traffic Management and Connected Vehicles suits the needs of personnel in transportation institutes and highway agencies, and students in undergraduate or graduate transportation engineering courses.
This fourth volume in the book series on Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law focuses on human perspectives regarding the development and use of nuclear energy; the need for regional solutions; and recent activities towards prohibiting and abolishing nuclear weapons. Jonathan L. Black-Branch is Dean of Law and Professor of International and Comparative Law; Bencher of the Law Society of Manitoba; JP and Barrister (England & Wales); Barrister & Solicitor (Manitoba); and, Chair of the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on Nuclear Weapons, Non- Proliferation & Contemporary International Law. Dieter Fleck is Former Director International Agreements & Policy, Federal Ministry of Defence, Germany; Member of the Advisory Board of the Amsterdam Center for International Law (ACIL); and Rapporteur of the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on Nuclear Weapons, Non- Proliferation & Contemporary International Law.
Updated and expanded, the third edition of Photonics Rules of Thumb represents an evolving, idiosyncratic, and eclectic toolbox intended to allow any engineer, scientist, manager, marketeer, or technician (regardless of specialty) to make rapid and accurate guesses at solutions in a wide range of topics during system design, modeling, or fabrication. This book will help any electro-optics team to make quick assessments, generally requiring no more than a calculator, so that they can quickly find the right solution for a design problem. This book has been assembled to introduce anyone working in the optics and photonics community to a wide range of critical topics through simple calculations, graphics, equations, and explanations. Useful design principles and rules, simple-to-implement calculations, and numerous graphs and tables of important basic information allow you to rapidly pinpoint trouble spots, ask the right questions at meetings, and are perfect for quick checks of last-minute specifications or performance feature additions. Offering a convenient arrangement according to specialty, this unique reference spans the spectrum of photonics. Eighteen chapters cover optics, atmospherics, radiometry, focal plane arrays, degraded visual environments, economics, and photogrammetry, as well as technologies related to security and surveillance systems, infrared, lasers, electro-optics, phenomenologies, self-driving vehicles, and many others.
This biannual conference in Pahang, Malaysia, is a clearing house for many of the latest research findings in a highly multidisciplinary field. The contributions span a host of academic disciplines which are themselves rapidly evolving, making this collection of 91 selected papers an invaluable snapshot of an arena of pure and applied science that produces many versatile innovations. The book covers a multitude of topics ranging from the sciences (pure and applied) to technology (computing and engineering) and on to social science disciplines such as business, education and linguistics.
The papers have been carefully chosen to represent the leading edge of the current research effort and come from individuals and teams working right around the globe. They are a trusted point of reference for academicians and students intending to pursue higher-order research projects in relevant fields and form a major contribution to the international exchange of ideas and strategies in the various technological and social science disciplines. It is the sheer scope of this volume that ensures its relevance in a scientific climate with a marked trend towards disciplinary synthesis.
A unique combination of theoretical knowledge and practical analysis experience Derived from Yoshihide Hases Handbook of Power Systems Engineering, 2nd Edition, this book provides readers with everything they need to know about power system dynamics. Presented in three parts, it covers power system theories, computation theories, and how prevailed engineering platforms can be utilized for various engineering works. It features many illustrations based on ETAP to help explain the knowledge within as much as possible. Recompiling all the chapters from the previous book, Power System Dynamics with Computer Based Modeling and Analysis offers nineteen new and improved content with updated information and all new topics, including two new chapters on circuit analysis which help engineers with non-electrical engineering backgrounds. Topics covered include: Essentials of Electromagnetism; Complex Number Notation (Symbolic Method) and Laplace-transform; Fault Analysis Based on Symmetrical Components; Synchronous Generators; Induction-motor; Transformer; Breaker; Arrester; Overhead-line; Power cable; Steady-State/Transient/Dynamic Stability; Control governor; AVR; Directional Distance Relay and R-X Diagram; Lightning and Switching Surge Phenomena; Insulation Coordination; Harmonics; Power Electronics Applications (Devices, PE-circuit and Control) and more. Combines computer modeling of power systems, including analysis techniques, from an engineering consultants perspective Uses practical analytical software to help teach how to obtain the relevant data, formulate what-if cases, and convert data analysis into meaningful information Includes mathematical details of power system analysis and power system dynamics Power System Dynamics with Computer-Based Modeling and Analysis will appeal to all power system engineers as well as engineering and electrical engineering students.
THE DIGITAL INFORMATION AGE SECOND EDITION by bestselling author Roman Kuc is designed for students considering electrical engineering as a major, and non-engineering majors interested in understanding digital communication systems. Communication between humans and smart devices takes place through sensors and actuators, with logic circuits manipulating binary data to implement useful tasks. The text then examines the basic problem of communicating audio and video data over a network connecting computers and smart devices. System operation is described from analog-to-digital conversion, signals that encode data, through the processing that extracts data from noise-corrupted signals and error correction techniques, to data packet transmission over wired and wireless networks. Basic topics from probability and digital signal processing are presented as needed and illustrated with relevant examples. Ideas are illustrated and extended by problems and projects completed in Excel, with sophistication that evolves along with the course, starting with spreadsheet formulas and graphs, through macros, to simple Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) programming that produces animations that simulate system operation. The accrued facility with Excel techniques is a course outcome valued by students in all majors.
The book presents a thorough overview of the latest trends and challenges in renewable energy technologies applications for water desalination, with an emphasis on environmental concerns and sustainable development. Emphasis is on the various uses of renewable energy, as well as economics & scale-up, government subsidies & regulations, and environmental concerns. It provides an indication on how renewable energy technologies are rapidly emerging with the promise of economic and environmental viability for desalination. Further it gives a clear indication on how exactly to accelerate the expansion and commercialization of novel water production systems powered by renewable energies and in what manner environmental concerns may be minimized. This book is all-inclusive and wide-ranging and directed at decision makers in government, industry and the academic world as well as students.
This complete reference book covers topics in heat and mass
transfer, containing extensive information in the form of
interesting and realistic examples, problems, charts, tables,
illustrations, and more. Heat and Mass Transfer emphasizes
practical processes and provides the resources necessary for
performing accurate and efficient calculations.
This thorough and highly relevant volume examines exergy, energy and the environment in the context of energy systems and applications and as a potential tool for design, analysis, optimization. It further considers their role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing for sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered.
Photovoltaics have received increasing attention in the last decade from the research community as well as industry. The PV market has grown at compound annual rates of 20-40%, and new technologies such as thin films based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ge)Se2 have taken a hold in the market. Tremendous research and development innovation in photovoltaics is occurring around the world. Symposium C, 'Advanced Materials Processing for Scalable Solar-Cell Manufacturing', at the 2011 MRS Spring Meeting held April 25-29 in San Francisco, California, provided a forum for exploring advanced materials processing for manufacturing of solar photovoltaics, with new research highlighted by academia and industry (start-ups and large companies) alike.
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