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This book brings together technical expertise, best practices, case studies and ground-level application of the ideas for empowering the rural population of the world to live economically prosperous, environmentally sustainable, and socially progressive lives, on par or comparable with the quality of life enjoyed by the global urban population. The idea of Smart Villages takes on greater urgency in light of the investments made in this millennium on "Smart Cities", taking advantage of the technological advances, particularly in digital connectivity. These investments have and will continue to expand the urban-rural divide, unless similar investments are made in the villages as well. The book provides a much-needed guide for a holistic development of a Smart Village, by defining the need, developing the framework, and describing the delivery, complete with successful case studies. Contributors to the book, from Canada, USA, Africa and India bring years of academic, industry and governmental experience, including organization of several Smart Village conferences. The knowledge base in the book will be of great value to anyone interested in or active in rural planning, including governmental and non-governmental organizations, industrial solution providers, public healthcare professionals, public policy professionals and students, as well as rural communities around the world. Consolidates all the aspects of creating/developing a Smart Village; Delivers an effective tool-kit for practitioners in the area of Smart Villages; Provides a policy-based framework for the development of an ideal Smart Village; Illustrates, through case studies, the fulfillment of key requirements of a Smart Village; Brings together experts from around the world to share their vision of a Smart Village; Highlights the importance of balancing development with social/gender equity and cultural traditions.
Wind Energy for the Rest of Us straddles two--or more--worlds. The book is about wind energy. It's not just about small wind turbines. It's not just about large wind turbines. It's about the depth and breadth of wind energy, encompassing more than either type of wind turbine. It includes water-pumping windmills and sailing ships. It's a sprawling book, one minute discussing how to install small wind turbines safely, the next explaining how farmers in Indiana can earn millions by installing their own multimegawatt wind turbines. If it's a book hard to categorize, that suits its author, Paul Gipe, who likes to think he's hard to categorize after four decades at the frontiers of renewable energy. His book tells the story of modern wind energy in all its complexity and introduces a North American audience to the trailblazing electricity rebels who have launched a renewable energy revolution in Europe. The book debunks novel wind turbines their promoters claim will generate electricity "too cheap to meter," and rebukes revisionist historians who falsely argue that it was the aerospace industry that delivered today's modern wind turbines. Gipe explains why new wind turbines are part of a silent revolution that is changing the way we use wind energy. This revolution doesn't garner headlines, but is making wind turbines more cost-effective in more places than ever before, lessening the need for new transmission lines, obviating the need for storage, and fueling rapid growth. Gipe refutes many common myths surrounding wind energy and argues persuasively that wind turbines are productive, effective, and environmentally sound. Gipe argues that wind energy is too important to be left to electric utilities and their subsidiaries alone. Wind energy is also for the rest of us, he says. It is our resource. We can develop it and we can own it--ourselves.
This new edition of EIS: Installing Wiring Systems from the highly successful Electrical Installation Series covers all the information required to complete the Installing Wiring Systems unit as part of the Level 3 Diploma for City and Guilds (2357) and EAL equivalent qualifications. The nine studybooks in the series are endorsed by The Electrical Contractors Association (ECA) and cover all core Level 3 S/NVQ Diploma units and are mapped to the National Occupational Standards. The modular, hands-on approach is designed to clearly explain all the key concepts so learners gain all the necessary theoretical and practical skills required for each unit. The expert author team brings a wealth of industry knowledge and experience to each publication all brought to life by full-colour diagrams, images and photographs. Students can use one book per unit as a complete study resource to support learning in the classroom, at work and for personal study at home. These spiral bound, write-it studybooks are the ideal course companion for any aspiring electrician.
Nonlinear Heat Transfer: Mathematical Modeling and Analytical Methods addresses recent progress and original research in nonlinear science and its application in the area of heat transfer, with a particular focus on the most important advances and challenging applications. The importance of understanding analytical methods for solving linear and nonlinear constitutive equations is essential in studying engineering problems. This book provides a comprehensive range of (partial) differential equations, applied in the field of heat transfer, tackling a comprehensive range of nonlinear mathematical problems in heat radiation, heat conduction, heat convection, heat diffusion and non-Newtonian fluid systems. Providing various innovative analytical techniques and their practical application in nonlinear engineering problems is the unique point of this book. Drawing a balance between theory and practice, the different chapters of the book focus not only on the broader linear and nonlinear problems, but also applied examples of practical solutions by the outlined methodologies.
This new edition of EIS: Principles of Design, Installation and Maintenance from the highly successful Electrical Installation series covers all the information required to complete the Principles of Design, Installation and Maintenance unit as part of the Level 3 Diploma for City and Guilds (2357) and EAL equivalent qualifications. The nine studybooks are endorsed by The Electrical Contractors Association (ECA) and cover all core Level 3 S/NVQ Diploma units and are mapped to the National Occupational Standards. The modular, hands-on approach is designed to clearly explain all the key concepts so learners gain all the necessary theoretical and practical skills required for each unit. The expert author team brings a wealth of industry knowledge and experience to each publication all brought to life by full-colour diagrams, images and photographs. Students can use one book per unit as a complete study resource to support learning in the classroom, at work and for personal study at home. These spiral bound, write-it studybooks are the ideal course companion for any aspiring electrician.
In the multi-disciplinary field of wind energy, students and professionals can often be uncomfortable outside their own specialist areas. This essential textbook explains the key aspects of wind turbine technology and its application in a single readable text. Covering a broad range of multi-disciplinary topics, including everything from aerodynamics through to electrical and control theory, to structures, planning, economics, and policy, this reference is an excellent toolkit for undergraduate students, postgraduate students, and professionals in the field of wind energy. Key concepts, including more challenging ones such as rotational sampling of turbulence, vortex wake structures, and reactive power management, are explained using clear language and simplifying illustrations including experimental graphs, photos, and line drawings.
This new edition of EIS: Organising and Managing the Work Environment from the highly successful Electrical Installation Series covers all the information required to complete the Organising and Managing the Work Environment unit as part of the Level 3 Diploma for City and Guilds (2357) and EAL equivalent qualifications. The nine studybooks in the series are endorsed by The Electrical Contractors Association (ECA) and cover all core Level 3 VRQ and S/NVQ Diploma units and are mapped to the National Occupational Standards. The modular, hands-on approach is designed to clearly explain all the key concepts so learners gain all the necessary theoretical and practical skills required for each unit. The expert author team bring a wealth of industry knowledge and experience to each publication all brought to life by full-colour diagrams, images and photographs. Students can use one book per unit as a complete study resource to support learning in the classroom, at work and for personal study at home. These spiral bound, write-it studybooks are the ideal course companion for any aspiring electrician.
This book comprises selected proceedings of the ThEC15 conference. The book presents research findings on various facets of thorium energy, including exploration and mining, thermo-physical and chemical properties of fuels, reactor physics, challenges in fuel fabrication, thorium fuel cycles, thermal hydraulics and safety, material challenges, irradiation experiences, and issues and challenges for the design of advanced thorium fueled reactors. Thorium is more abundant than uranium and has the potential to provide energy to the world for centuries if used in a closed fuel cycle. As such, technologies for using thorium for power generation in nuclear reactors are being developed worldwide. Since there is a strong global thrust towards designing nuclear reactors with thorium-based fuel, this book will be of particular interest to nuclear scientists, reactor designers, regulators, academics and policymakers.
From the point of view of grid integration and operation, this monograph advances the subject of wind energy control from the individual-unit to the wind-farm level. The basic objectives and requirements for successful integration of wind energy with existing power grids are discussed, followed by an overview of the state of the art, proposed solutions and challenges yet to be resolved. At the individual-turbine level, a nonlinear controller based on feedback linearization, uncertainty estimation and gradient-based optimization is shown robustly to control both active and reactive power outputs of variable-speed turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. Heuristic coordination of the output of a wind farm, represented by a single equivalent turbine with energy storage to optimize and smooth the active power output is presented. A generic approximate model of wind turbine control developed using system identification techniques is proposed to advance research and facilitate the treatment of control issues at the wind-farm level. A supervisory wind-farm controller is then introduced with a view to maximizing and regulating active power output under normal operating conditions and unusual contingencies. This helps to make the individual turbines cooperate in such as way that the overall output of the farm accurately tracks a reference and/or is statistically as smooth as possible to improve grid reliability. The text concludes with an overall discussion of the promise of advanced wind-farm control techniques in making wind an economic energy source and beneficial influence on grid performance. The challenges that warrant further research are succinctly enumerated. Control and Operation of Grid-Connected Wind Farms is primarily intended for researchers from a systems and control background wishing to apply their expertise to the area of wind-energy generation. At the same time, coverage of contemporary solutions to fundamental operational problems will benefit power/energy engineers endeavoring to promote wind as a reliable and clean source of electrical power.
Handbook of Green Engineering Technologies for Sustainable Smart Cities focuses on the complete exploration and presentation of green smart city applications, techniques, and architectural frameworks. It provides detailed coverage of urban sustainability spanning across various engineering disciplines. The book discusses and explores green engineering technologies for smart cities and covers various engineering disciplines and environmental science. It emphasizes techniques, application frameworks, tools, and case studies. All chapters play a part in the evolution of sustainable green smart cities and present how to solve environmental issues by applying modern industrial IoT solutions. This book will benefit researchers, smart city practitioners, academicians, university students, and policy makers.
The introduction of control theory in quantum mechanics has created a rich, new interdisciplinary scientific field, which is producing novel insight into important theoretical questions at the heart of quantum physics. Exploring this emerging subject, Introduction to Quantum Control and Dynamics presents the mathematical concepts and fundamental physics behind the analysis and control of quantum dynamics, emphasizing the application of Lie algebra and Lie group theory. To advantage students, instructors and practitioners, and since the field is highly interdisciplinary, this book presents an introduction with all the basic notions in the same place. The field has seen a large development in parallel with the neighboring fields of quantum information, computation and communication. The author has maintained an introductory level to encourage course use. After introducing the basics of quantum mechanics, the book derives a class of models for quantum control systems from fundamental physics. It examines the controllability and observability of quantum systems and the related problem of quantum state determination and measurement. The author also uses Lie group decompositions as tools to analyze dynamics and to design control algorithms. In addition, he describes various other control methods and discusses topics in quantum information theory that include entanglement and entanglement dynamics. Changes to the New Edition: New Chapter 4: Uncontrollable Systems and Dynamical Decomposition New section on quantum control landscapes A brief discussion of the experiments that earned the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physics Corrections and revised concepts are made to improve accuracy Armed with the basics of quantum control and dynamics, readers will invariably use this interdisciplinary knowledge in their mathematics, physics and engineering work.
This text discusses simulation process for circuits including clamper, voltage and current divider, transformer modeling, transistor as an amplifier, transistor as a switch, MOSFET modeling, RC and LC filters, step and impulse response to RL and RC circuits, amplitude modulator in a step-by-step manner for more clarity and understanding to the readers. It covers electronic circuits like rectifiers, RC filters, transistor as an amplifier, operational amplifiers, pulse response to a series RC circuit, time domain simulation with a triangular input signal, and modulation in detail. The text presents issues that occur in practical implementation of various electronic circuits and assist the readers in finding solutions to those issues using the software. Aimed at undergraduate, graduate students, and academic researchers in the areas including electrical and electronics and communications engineering, this book: Discusses simulation of analog circuits and their behavior for different parameters. Covers AC/DC circuit modeling using regular and parametric sweep methods. The theory will be augmented with practical electrical circuit examples that will help readers to better understand the topic. Discusses circuits like rectifiers, RC filters, transistor as an amplifier, and operational amplifiers in detail.
Improved knowledge in the field of technical objects operation and control helps manufacturers to decrease energy consumption and keep construction costs low. Moreover, it helps dealing effectively with environmental problems and switching to renewable forms of energy on the path of sustainable development of the society. The methods and technologies presented in this book will allow to improve the effectiveness of technical objects control and helps achieving safe, economical, high-quality usage of power engineering and information technologies. The book presents recent advances in power engineering, electric drives, transport systems, power electronics, cybersecurity and others. Vital issues of innovative small vehicles with using hydrogen fuel as well as boring rigs and underwater hydraulic transport pipelines are considered. The book offers a fresh look at energy-saving and energy efficiency in industry, new ideas in information technologies, paying much attention to interdisciplinary specification of the results obtained.
It was Eunice Newton Foote, an American scientist and women's rights campaigner living in Seneca Falls, New York, who first warned the world that an atmosphere heavy with carbon dioxide could send temperatures here on Earth soaring. This was back in 1856. At the time, no one paid much attention. Our Biggest Experiment tells Foote's story, along with stories of the many other scientists who helped to build our modern understanding of climate change. It also chronicles our energy system, from whale oil to kerosene and beyond -- the first steamships, wind turbines, electric cars, oil tankers and fridges. Alice Bell takes us back to climate change science's earliest steps in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, to the advancing realisation that global warming was a significant problem in the 1950s and right up to today, where we have seen the growth of the environmental movement, climate scepticism and political responses like the UN climate talks. As citizens of the twenty-first century, it can feel like history has dealt us a rather bad hand in the climate crisis. In many ways, this is true. Our ancestors have left us an almighty mess. But they left us tools for survival too, and Our Biggest Experiment tells both sides of the story. The message of the book is ultimately hopeful; harnessing the ingenuity and intelligence that has long driven the history of climate change research can mean a more sustainable and bearable future for humanity.
Far from being separate entities, many social and engineering systems can be considered as complex network systems (CNSs) associated with closely linked interactions with neighbouring entities such as the Internet and power grids. Roughly speaking, a CNS refers to a networking system consisting of lots of interactional individuals, exhibiting fascinating collective behaviour that cannot always be anticipated from the inherent properties of the individuals themselves. As one of the most fundamental examples of cooperative behaviour, consensus within CNSs (or the synchronization of complex networks) has gained considerable attention from various fields of research, including systems science, control theory and electrical engineering. This book mainly studies consensus of CNSs with dynamics topologies - unlike most existing books that have focused on consensus control and analysis for CNSs under a fixed topology. As most practical networks have limited communication ability, switching graphs can be used to characterize real-world communication topologies, leading to a wider range of practical applications. This book provides some novel multiple Lyapunov functions (MLFs), good candidates for analysing the consensus of CNSs with directed switching topologies, while each chapter provides detailed theoretical analyses according to the stability theory of switched systems. Moreover, numerical simulations are provided to validate the theoretical results. Both professional researchers and laypeople will benefit from this book.
This book contains the most important formulas and more than 190 completely solved problems from Kinetics and Hydrodynamics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Kinematics of a Point - Kinetics of a Point Mass - Dynamics of a System of Point Masses - Kinematics of Rigid Bodies - Kinetics of Rigid Bodies - Impact - Vibrations - Non-Inertial Reference Frames - Hydrodynamics
This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader's understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining. This book will appeal to graduate students and scholars across diverse disciplines, including nuclear engineering, laser physics, quantum electronics, gaseous electronics, optics, photonics, space systems engineering, materials, thermodynamics, chemistry and physics.
Polymer Electrolytes for Energy Storage Devices offers a detailed explanation of recent progress and challenges in polymer electrolyte research for energy storage devices. The influence of these electrolyte properties on the performance of different energy storage devices is discussed in detail. Features: * Discusses a variety of energy storage systems and their workings and a detailed history of LIBs * Covers a wide range of polymer-based electrolytes including PVdF, PVdF-co-HFP, PAN, blend polymeric systems, composite polymeric systems, and polymer ionic liquid gel electrolytes * Provides a comprehensive review of biopolymer electrolytes for energy storage applications * Suitable for readers with experience in batteries as well as newcomers to the field This book will be of high value to researchers and engineers working on the development of next-generation energy storage devices, including materials, chemical, electrical, and mechanical engineers, as well as those involved in related disciplines.
The recommendations summarise the state of the art. Their aim is the proper exploitation of the ground for geothermal purposes without adversely affecting the ground or the groundwater on the one hand and the operation of the system and nearby buildings on the other. The recommendations should be used during consulting, design, installation and operation in order to achieve optimum and sustainable use of the ground at a specific location. Authorities responsible for supervising and approving projects can use the recommendations as a guide when taking decisions and making stipulations. The Geothermal Energy Study Group was set up in Bochum in 2004 and became the joint DGGV/DGGT study group in 2007. Some 20 specialists from universities, authorities and engineering consultants are active in the group and meet two or three times a year.
Many governments worldwide are setting more stringent targets for reductions in energy use in government/public buildings. Buildings constructed more than 10 years ago account for a major share of energy used by the building stock. However, the funding and "know-how" (applied knowledge) available for owner-directed energy retrofit projects has not kept pace with new requirements. With typical retrofit projects, reduction of energy use varies between 10 and 20%, while actual executed renovation projects show that energy use reduction can exceed 50%, and can cost-effectively achieve the Passive House standard or even approach net zero-energy status (EBC Annex 61 2017a, Hermelink and Muller 2010; NBI 2014; RICS 2013; Shonder and Nasseri 2015; Miller and Higgins 2015; Emmerich et al. 2011).Building energy efficiency (EE) ranks first in approaches with resource efficiency potential with a total resource benefit of approximately $700 billion until 2030. EE is by far the cheapest way to cut CO2 emissions (McKinsey 2011, IPCC 2007). However, according to an IEA study (IEA 2014a), more than 80% of savings potential in building sector remains untapped. Thus, the share of deployed EE in the building sector is lower than in the Industry, Transport, and Energy generation sectors. Estimates for the deep renovation potentials show: EURO600-900bn investment potential, EURO1000-1300bn savings potential, 70% energy-saving potential, and 90% CO2 reduction potential.
Forget the speculation of pundits and media personalities. For anyone asking "Now what?" the answer is out there. You just have to know where to look. In his 2005 book, The Long Emergency, James Howard Kunstler described the global predicaments that would pitch the USA into political and economic turmoil in the 21st century-the end of affordable oil, climate irregularities, and flagging economic growth, to name a few. Now, he returns with a book that takes an up-close-and-personal approach to how real people are living now-surviving The Long Emergency as it happens. Through his popular blog, Clusterf*ck Nation, Kunstler has had the opportunity to connect with people from across the country. They've shared their stories with him-sometimes over years of correspondence-and in Living in the Long Emergency: Global Crisis, the Failure of the Futurists, and the Early Adapters Who Are Showing Us the Way Forward, he shares them with us, offering an eye-opening and unprecedented look at what's really going on "out there" in the US-and beyond. Kunstler also delves deep into his past predictions, comparing and contrastingt hem with the way things have unfolded with unflinching honesty. Further, he turns an eye to what's ahead, laying out the strategies that will help all of us as we navigate this new world. With personal accounts from a Vermont baker, homesteaders, a building contractor in the Baltimore ghetto, a white nationalist, and many more, Living in the Long Emergency is a unique and timely exploration of how the lives of everyday Americans are being transformed, for better and for worse, and what these stories tell us both about the future and about human perseverance.
The bright future of green IoT will change our tomorrow environment to become healthier and green, with very high quality of service that is socially, environmentally, and economically sustainable. This book covers the most recent advances in IoT, it discusses Smart City implementation, and offers both quantitative and qualitative research. It focuses on greening things such as green communication and networking, green design and implementations, green IoT services and applications, energy saving strategies, integrated RFIDs and sensor networks, mobility and network management, the cooperation of homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, smart objects, and green localization. This book with its wide range of related topics in IoT and Smart City, will be useful for graduate students, researchers, academicians, institutions, and professionals that are interested in exploring the areas of IoT and Smart City.
Photovoltaics from Milliwatts to Gigawatts: Understanding Market and Technology Drivers toward Terawatts Timothy Bruton, TMB Consulting, UK An essential guide through the rapid evolution of PV technology Photovoltaics from Milliwatts to Gigawatts: Understanding Market and Technology Drivers toward Terawatts covers the history of silicon based PV, from the earliest discoveries to present and future practice. Divided into 9 chapters, the book includes the following topics: Early History; The 1973 Oil crisis and the drive for alternative energies; The emergence in the 1980 s of the off grid PV market, the significant small scale PV consumer market and the establishment of a manufacturing industry; Advantages of silicon for solar cells; The evolution of PV installations; The history of the incentive programme for PV; Difficulties of alternative technologies in challenging silicon dominance; Current status of the silicon manufacturing technology and The future. Key features: * An authoritative first-hand account of an emerging technology from laboratory to global significance for electricity generation by an industry expert. * Provides a framework for policy makers on future trends in the PV industry. * Examines the lessons learnt from the interaction of research laboratories, major industry and government. * Signposts the route to future high efficiency silicon solar cells giving new researchers a background for further development. * Highlights the critical success factors for the emerging alternative manufacturing technologies. An essential PV guide aimed at researchers and students in electrical engineering and physical sciences through the rapid evolution of PV technology to commercial viability and the challenges ahead for increased performance, efficiency and global deployment.
Addressing the sustainable energy crisis in an objective manner, this enlightening book analyzes the relevant numbers and organizes a plan for change on both a personal level and an international scale--for Europe, the United States, and the world. In case study format, this informative reference answers questions surrounding nuclear energy, the potential of sustainable fossil fuels, and the possibilities of sharing renewable power with foreign countries. While underlining the difficulty of minimizing consumption, the tone remains positive as it debunks misinformation and clearly explains the calculations of expenditure per person to encourage people to make individual changes that will benefit the world at large. If you've thrown your hands up in despair thinking no solution is possible, then read this book - it's an honest, realistic, and humorous discussion of all our energy options.
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