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Discover a straightforward and holistic look at energy conversion and conservation processes using the exergy concept with this thorough text. Explains the fundamental energy conversion processes in numerous diverse systems, ranging from jet engines and nuclear reactors to human bodies. Provides examples for applications to practical energy conversion processes and systems that use our naturally occurring energy resources, such as fossil fuels, solar energy, wind, geothermal, and nuclear fuels. With more than one-hundred diverse cases and solved examples, readers will be able to perform optimizations for a cleaner environment, a sustainable energy future, and affordable energy generation. An essential tool for practicing scientists and engineers who work or do research in the area of energy and exergy, as well as graduate students and faculty in chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and physics.
This large reference work addresses a broad range of topics covering various aspects of spintronics science and technology, ranging from fundamental physics through materials properties and processing to established and emerging device technology and applications. It comprises a collection of chapters from a large international team of leading researchers across academia and industry, providing readers with an up-to-date and comprehensive review of this dynamic field of research. The opening chapters focus on the fundamental physical principles of spintronics in metals and semiconductors, including the theory of giant magnetoresistance and an introduction to spin quantum computing. Materials systems are then considered, with sections on metallic thin films and multilayers, magnetic tunnelling structures, hybrid materials including Heusler compounds, magnetic semiconductors, molecular spintronic materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene. A separate section describes the various methods used in the characterisation of spintronics materials, including spin-polarised photoemission, x-ray diffraction techniques and spin-polarised SEM. The third and final part of the Handbook contains chapters on spintronic device technology and applications, including spin valves, GMR and MTJ devices, MRAM technology, spin transistors and spin logic devices, spin torque devices, spin pumping and spin dynamics, and thermal effects in spintronics. Each chapter builds from the fundamentals through to the state-of-the-art, also considering the challenges faced by researchers and containing some indication of the direction that future work in the field is likely to take. This reference work will be an essential and long-standing resource for the spintronics community, whether in academic or industrial research.
In this volume, Professor N.F. Gray offers a comprehensive primer on climate change, sustainability, and how the two concepts are related. This book consists of fifteen chapters, each treating a specific aspect of the current global crisis, including scientific background as well as an up to date appraisal of the issue at hand. It covers the reasons behind climate change and the effect it will have on the planet and on the reader directly. Gray also presents readers with the means to assess their own environmental impact and details positive individual and community actions to address global warming. "Climate change," "global warming," and "sustainability" are phrases that almost everyone has heard, whether on the news or around the dinner table. The increasing frequency of major events such as droughts, severe storms, and floods are beginning to make these concepts inescapable, and being fully informed is an absolute necessity for students and indeed for us all. Nick Gray (PhD, ScD) is a founding member of the Environmental Sciences Unit (1979) at Trinity College Dublin, which was the first center for postgraduate research and training in environmental science and technology in Ireland. He has written a number of books and over 150 research papers and book chapters, and currently serves as the Director of the Trinity Centre for the Environment.
Simultaneous Multi-Pollutants Removal in Flue Gas by Ozone mainly introduces the multi-pollution control technology in flue gas by ozone oxidation. Based on the authors' recent research works, the book will provide readers with the updated fundamental research findings, comprised of the detail kinetic mechanisms between ozone and gas components in flue gas integrated with experimental and kinetic modeling work. The demonstration case of the multi-pollutant removal technology by ozone is also presented. The book is suitable for the researchers working in the areas of energy and environmental protection, and pollutant control technology. Zhihua Wang is a Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University; Kefa Cen is the Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering, and the director of Institute for Thermal Power Engineering of Zhejiang University; Junhu Zhou is a Qiushi Scholar Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University; Jianren Fan is the Cheung Kong Scholar Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization of Zhejiang University.
The UK model of incentive regulation of power grids was at one time the most advanced, and elements of it were adopted throughout the EU. This model worked well, particularly in the context of limited investment and innovation, a single and strong regulatory authority, and limited coordination between foreign grid operators. This enlightening book demonstrates how the landscape has changed markedly since 2010 and that regulation has had to work hard to catch up and evolve. As the EU enters a wave of investment and an era of new services and innovation, this has created growing tensions between national regulatory authorities in terms of coordinating technical standards and distribution systems. This is being played out against an increasingly disruptive backdrop of digitization, new market platforms and novel business models. Electricity Network Regulation in the EU adopts a truly European approach to the complex issues surrounding the topic, focusing on the grey areas and critical questions that have traditionally been difficult to answer. Incentive regulation and grids are addressed simultaneously at the theoretical and practical level, providing the reader with fundamental concepts and concrete examples. This timely book is an invaluable read for energy practitioners working in utility companies, regulators and other public bodies. It will also appeal to academics involved in the world of electricity regulation. The book utilizes language that would make it suitable for interdisciplinary students, including engineering and law scholars. Contributors include: P. Bhagwat, J.-M. Glachant, S.Y. Hadush, L. Meeus, V. Rious, N. Rossetto, T. Schittekatte
The book addresses to the students and the teachers of mechanical and chemical engineering as well as practicing engineers Provides relevant property data in easily readable alphabetical form at different temperatures for: .Metals and alloys, liquids and gases of engineering interest .Building and insulating materials .Pure elements Heat transfer correlations in easily readable form with notations side by side for: .Conduction both steady and unsteady state .Both forced and natural convection under various flow configurations .Boiling and condensation .Radiation for various geometrical configurations .Radiation for surfaces and solar radiation .Heat exchangers of various configurations including storage type and finned type Mass transfer data for various combination of diffusing elements Provision of charts when the equations involved are long and complex Multicolour edition enhances clarity and readability
This book is a summary of a series of achievements made by the authors and colleagues in the areas of radio frequency power amplifier modeling (including neural Volterra series modeling, neural network modeling, X-parameter modeling), nonlinear analysis methods, and power amplifier predistortion technology over the past 10 years. The book is organized into ten chapters, which respectively describe an overview of research of power amplifier behavioral models and predistortion technology, nonlinear characteristics of power amplifiers, power amplifier behavioral models and the basis of nonlinear analysis, an overview of power amplifier predistortion, Volterra series modeling of power amplifiers, power amplifier modeling based on neural networks, power amplifier modeling with X-parameters, the modeling of other power amplifiers, nonlinear circuit analysis methods, and predistortion algorithms and applications. Blending theory with analysis, this book will provide researchers and RF/microwave engineering students with a valuable resource.
This reference text introduces latest mathematical modeling techniques and analysis for renewable energy systems. It comprehensively covers important topics including study of combustion characteristics of laser ignited gasoline-air mixture, hierarchical demand response controller, mathematical modeling of an EOQ for a multi-item inventory system, and integration and modeling of small-scale pumped storage with micro optimization model (HOMER). Aimed at graduate students and academic researchers in the fields of electrical engineering, environmental engineering, mechanical engineering, and civil engineering, this text: Discusses applied mathematical modeling techniques in renewable energy. Covers effective storage and generation of power through renewable energy generation sources. Provides real life applications and problems based on renewable energy. Covers new ways of applying mathematical techniques for applications in diverse areas of science and engineering.
Metaheuristics for Resource Deployment under Uncertainty in Complex Systems analyzes how to set locations for the deployment of resources to incur the best performance at the lowest cost. Resources can be static nodes and moving nodes while services for a specific area or for customers can be provided. Theories of modeling and solution techniques are used with uncertainty taken into account and real-world applications used. The authors present modeling and metaheuristics for solving resource deployment problems under uncertainty while the models deployed are related to stochastic programming, robust optimization, fuzzy programming, risk management, and single/multi-objective optimization. The resources are heterogeneous and can be sensors and actuators providing different tasks. Both separate and cooperative coverage of the resources are analyzed. Previous research has generally dealt with one type of resource and considers static and deterministic problems, so the book breaks new ground in its analysis of cooperative coverage with heterogeneous resources and the uncertain and dynamic properties of these resources using metaheuristics. This book will help researchers, professionals, academics, and graduate students in related areas to better understand the theory and application of resource deployment problems and theories of uncertainty, including problem formulations, assumptions, and solution methods.
This book presents a state-of-the-art compilation focusing on both technological and policy aspects of sustainable energy production and consumption, which deals with issues like the need for and planning of smart cities, alternative transport fuel options, sustainable power production, pollution control technologies etc. The book comprises contributions from experts from all over the world, and addresses energy sustainability from different viewpoints. Specifically, the book focuses on energy sustainability in the Indian scenario with a background of the global perspective. Contributions from academia, policy makers and industry are included to address the challenge from different perspectives. The contents of this book will prove useful to researchers, professionals, and policy makers working in the area of green and sustainable energy.
This book provides an overview of distributed control and distributed optimization theory, followed by specific details on industrial applications to smart grid systems. It discusses the fundamental analysis and design schemes for developing actual working smart grids and covers all aspects concerning the conventional and nonconventional methods of their use. Hybrid Intelligence for Smart Grid Systems provides an overview of a smart grid, along with its needs, benefits, challenges, and existing structure and describes the inverter topologies adopted for integrating renewable power, and provides an overview of its needs, benefits, challenges, and possible future technologies. This pioneering book is a must-read for researchers, engineering professionals, and students, giving them the tools needed to move from the concept of a smart grid to its actual design and implementation. Moreover, it will enable regulators, policymakers, and energy executives to understand the future of energy delivery systems towards safe, economical, high-quality power delivery in a dynamic and demanding environment.
This book provides a self-contained introduction to the simulation of flow and transport in porous media, written by a developer of numerical methods. The reader will learn how to implement reservoir simulation models and computational algorithms in a robust and efficient manner. The book contains a large number of numerical examples, all fully equipped with online code and data, allowing the reader to reproduce results, and use them as a starting point for their own work. All of the examples in the book are based on the MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (MRST), an open-source toolbox popular popularity in both academic institutions and the petroleum industry. The book can also be seen as a user guide to the MRST software. It will prove invaluable for researchers, professionals and advanced students using reservoir simulation methods. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Nuclear power is not an option for the future but an absolute necessity. Global threats of climate change and lethal air pollution, killing millions each year, make it clear that nuclear and renewable energy must work together, as non-carbon sources of energy. Fortunately, a new era of growth in this energy source is underway in developing nations, though not yet in the West. Seeing the Light is the first book to clarify these realities and discuss their implications for coming decades. Readers will learn how, why, and where the new nuclear era is happening, what new technologies are involved, and what this means for preventing the proliferation of weapons. This book is the best work available for becoming fully informed about this key subject, for students, the general public, and anyone interested in the future of energy production, and, thus, the future of humanity on planet Earth.
Exploration seismology uses seismic imaging to form detailed images of the Earth's interior, enabling the location of likely petroleum targets. Due to the size of seismic datasets, sophisticated numerical algorithms are required. This book provides a technical guide to the essential algorithms and computational aspects of data processing, covering the theory and methods of seismic imaging. The first part introduces an extensive online library of MATLAB (R) seismic data processing codes maintained by the CREWES project at the University of Calgary. Later chapters then focus on digital signal theory and relevant aspects of wave propagation and seismic modelling, followed by deconvolution and seismic migration methods. Presenting a rigorous explanation of how to construct seismic images, it provides readers with practical tools and codes to pursue research projects and analyses. It is ideal for advanced students and researchers in applied geophysics, and for practicing exploration geoscientists in the oil and gas industry.
In this book, fundamentals of electrical drives are discussed. Dynamics of electrical drives; characteristics of dc and ac motors while starting, running and braking; determination of rating and heating of motors are described in detail. Drives used in various industries are discussed in a separate chapter 'Industrial Applications'. Solved examples and problems are given at the end of most of the chapters. The book acquaints students with the recent trends in the development of electric motors used as prime movers in electric drive systems. The chapter on 'Introduction to Solid State Controlled Drives' has been expanded to include sections on increasingly used 'Brushless dc motors' and 'Switched-reluctance motors'. A separate chapter on the more commonly used position control drive motors, namely, 'Stepper Motors' has been also incorporated.
Climate scientists have clarified the main causes of climate change, and the tight timescale within which humans must change behaviour, and implement effective solutions, wherever they are needed across the world. This book uncovers many of the powerful actions and uses them effectively to achieve sustainable human life, of improved quality, in a way that is affordable out of earned income for all humans, wherever they live. The ultimate solution to climate change lies not just in doing and consuming less but does instead entirely revolve around our ability to "out innovate" the problem. John F. Coplin, CBE, FREng, FCGI, has had a long and distinguished career in engineering and has operated and advised at all levels from heads of state, company chairs, engineering directors, government advisory boards, and on the shop floor. He is perfectly placed to take a wide-ranging approach, applying modern design and innovative engineering at a systemic level in order to provide novel approaches that will have far-reaching impact on reversing humankind's impact on this planet. His projections and solutions are based on facts, reasonable calculations, and science learnt from nature. Unafraid to challenge current thinking, John looks at solutions across multiple sectors, including aviation, cars and domestic local transport, clean and renewable energy, food and agriculture, and housing and communities, and describes the particular potential of hydrogen as fuel. The book is written in a language for all. It is small enough to be used is a practical guide to where some of the most useful improvements are to be found and as a way to start important conversations.
This comprehensive book addresses both the principles and practicalities of petroleum unitization by mapping out the evolution of and rationale for unitization in legislation and by providing much-needed guidance on the formulation of a legislative framework for effective regulatory governance of the unitization process. Drawing on his own extensive experience of the global petroleum industry and his insights into petroleum unitization in some 90 jurisdictions worldwide, Paul F. Worthington discusses the key elements of legislation for incorporation into petroleum unitization statutes, implementing regulations and production contracts. He provides a basis for legal drafting at all levels of this tripartite legislative framework as well as guidelines for compliance with good international petroleum practice. The Law on Petroleum Unitization: Legislating for Effective Regulatory Governance will prove essential reading for legal practitioners working in government ministries with a responsibility for energy affairs as well as for energy regulators, energy companies and those legal firms who provide unitization advice. Petroleum consultancies, negotiators and energy policy advisers within professional bodies and academia will also benefit from this book's thorough and incisive treatment of the subject matter.
The book will be useful for those who are interested in Power Systems, Control Systems and Electrical Machines, especially Synchronous machines. It provides comprehensive and in-depth information on Dynamics and Transient Stability aspects. The books covers Power Systems Modeling, Application of Frequency Domain, Time Domain Techniques and Lyapunov Direct Method for Analysis of Dynamical Behaviour of Power Systems subjected to small and large disturbances. The application of techniques has been stressed rather than description of the theoretical basis of these techniques. Several illustrative examples have been presented wherever necessary.
Most technology companies understand the importance of reliability when it comes to product development. The testing tools, analysis methods, etc. The problem with the implementation of reliability often doesnt come from the engineers; it often comes from the organizational leaders. The leaders dont translate all the factors of the program, time to market, cost point, features, and reliability to the teams in the same manner that the company holds these goals. The result is released products that dont match the carefully crafted product specifications when in the customers hands. This book shows senior leadership how to build a culture that is both centered around reliability and can generate impressive profits. They dont have to compromise. Leadership will see how their actions affect product development in a new light. They will be introduced to new methods that will immediately enable them to have those crafted product specifications translate into matching highly reliable products. This book will also be a breath of fresh air for reliability engineers and managers; they will see their daily struggle identified, clearly summarized, and methods for advancing their passionate struggle. New methods that they can incorporate and promote in their organizations will be clearly explained so they can begin this process.
Master the art of vibration monitoring of induction motors with this unique guide to on-line condition assessment and fault diagnosis, building on the author's fifty years of investigative expertise. It includes: *Robust techniques for diagnosing of a wide range of common faults, including shaft misalignment and/or soft foot, rolling element bearing faults, sleeve bearing faults, magnetic and vibrational issues, resonance in vertical motor drives, and vibration and acoustic noise from inverters. *Detailed technical coverage of thirty real-world industrial case studies, from initial vibration spectrum analysis through to fault diagnosis and final strip-down. *An introduction to real-world vibration spectrum analysis for fault diagnosis, and practical guidelines to reduce bearing failure through effective grease management. This definitive book is essential reading for industrial end-users, engineers, and technicians working in motor design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring. It will also be of interest to researchers and graduate students working on condition monitoring.
Reflecting the author's years of industry and teaching experience, Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachinery features many innovative problems and their systematically worked solutions. To understand fundamental concepts and various conservation laws of fluid mechanics is one thing, but applying them to solve practical problems is another challenge. The book covers various topics in fluid mechanics, turbomachinery flowpath design, and internal cooling and sealing flows around rotors and stators of gas turbines. As an ideal source of numerous practice problems with detailed solutions, the book will be helpful to senior-undergraduate and graduate students, teaching faculty, and researchers engaged in many branches of fluid mechanics. It will also help practicing thermal and fluid design engineers maintain and reinforce their problem-solving skills, including primary validation of their physics-based design tools.
This book combines the experience and achievements in engineering practice of the China Academy of Space Technology, Xi'an, with a focus on the field of high-power multipactor over recent decades. It introduces the main concepts, theories, methods and latest technologies of multipactor simulation, at both the theoretical level and as a process of engineering, while providing a comprehensive introduction to the outstanding progress made in the research technology of multipactor numerical simulation in China. At the same time, a three-dimensional numerical simulation method of multipactor for typical high-power microwave components of spacecraft is introduced. This book is an essential volume for engineers in the field of high-power microwave technology. It can also be used as a reference for researchers in related fields, or as a teaching reference book for graduate students majoring in Astronautics at colleges and universities.
Sustainable world economy requires a steady supply of crude oil without any production constraints. Thus, the ever-increasing energy demand of the entire world can be mostly met through the enhanced production from crude oil from existing reservoirs. With the fact that newer reservoirs with large quantities of crude oil could not be explored at a faster pace, it will be inevitable to produce the crude oil from matured reservoirs at an affordable cost. Among alternate technologies, the chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique has promising potential to recover residual oil from matured reservoirs being subjected to primary and secondary water flooding operations. Due to pertinent complex phenomena that often have a combinatorial role and influence, the implementation of chemical EOR schemes such as alkali/surfactant/polymer flooding and their combinations necessitates upon a fundamental understanding of the potential mechanisms and their influences upon one another and desired response variables. Addressing these issues, the book attempts to provide useful screening criteria, guidelines, and rules of thumb for the identification of process parametric sets (including reservoir characteristics) and response characteristics (such as IFT, adsorption etc.,) that favor alternate chemical EOR systems. Finally, the book highlights the relevance of nanofluid/nanoparticle for conventional and unconventional reservoirs and serves as a needful resource to understand the emerging oil recovery technology. Overall, the volume will be of greater relevance for practicing engineers and consultants that wish to accelerate on field applications of chemical and nano-fluid EOR systems. Further, to those budding engineers that wish to improvise upon their technical know-how, the book will serve as a much-needed repository.
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