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This essential handbook and ready reference offers a detailed
overview of the existing and currently researched technologies
available for the control of mercury in coal-derived gas streams
and that are viable for meeting the strict standards set by
environmental protection agencies.
The aim of this book is to familiarize the reader with the concept of electromagnetic time reversal, and introduce up-to-date applications of the concept found in the areas of electromagnetic compatibility and power systems. It is original in its approach to describing propagation and transient issues in power networks and power line communication, and is the result of the three main editors pioneering research in the area.
Design of Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines Subhamoy Bhattacharya, University of Surrey, UK Comprehensive reference covering the design of foundations for offshore wind turbines As the demand for green energy increases the offshore wind power industry is expanding at a rapid pace around the world. Design of Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines is a comprehensive reference which covers the design of foundations for offshore wind turbines, and includes examples and case studies. It provides an overview of a wind farm and a wind turbine structure, and examines the different types of loads on the offshore wind turbine structure. Foundation design considerations and the necessary calculations are also covered. The geotechnical site investigation and soil behavior/soil structure interaction are discussed, and the final chapter takes a case study of a wind turbine and demonstrates how to carry out step by step calculations. Key features: * New, important subject to the industry. * Includes calculations and case studies. * Accompanied by a website hosting software and data files. Design of Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines is a must have reference for engineers within the renewable energy industry and is also a useful guide for graduate students in this area.
The book is a review of essential skills that an entry-level or experienced engineer must be able to demonstrate on a job interview and perform when hired. It will help engineers prepare for interviews by demonstrating application of basic principles to practical problems. Hiring managers will find the book useful because it defines a common ground between the student's academic background and the company's product or technology-specific needs, thereby allowing managers to minimize their risk when making hiring decisions. Ten Essential Skills contains a series of "How to" chapters. Each chapter realizes a goal, such as designing an active filter or designing a discrete servo. The primary value of these chapters, however, is that they apply engineering fundamentals to practical problems. The book is a handy reference for engineers in their first years on the job. * Enables recent graduates in engineering to succeed in challenging technical interviews * Written in an intuitive, easy-to-follow style for the benefit of busy students and employers * Book focuses on the intersection between company-specific knowledge and engineering fundamentals * Companion website includes interview practice problems and advanced material
Get all the support needed for apprentices to complete the Level 3 Electrotechnical qualification that forms a key part of their apprenticeship. Developed in partnership with JTL, the leading training provider in the Electrotechnical industry, Apprenticeship Electrotechnical (Installation or Maintenance) (Level 3) Handbook B is designed to support both the City & Guilds and EAL Level 3 Electrotechnical qualifications. Written by expert JTL trainers, this book works together with Apprenticeship Electrotechnical (Installation or Maintenance) (Level 3) Handbook A to give apprentices all the support and knowledge they need to complete the Level 3 qualification so they can be confident they have the best support for their apprenticeship.
"Emerging Techniques in Power System Analysis" identifies the new challenges facing the power industry following the deregulation. The book presents emerging techniques including data mining, grid computing, probabilistic methods, phasor measurement unit (PMU) and how to apply those techniques to solving the technical challenges.
The book is intended for engineers and managers in the power industry, as well as power engineering researchers and graduate students.
Zhaoyang Dong is an associate professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China. Pei Zhang is program manager at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), USA.
There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however,
the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid
oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on
specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack
engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials
requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel
Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials
and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the
most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover
key materials in low-temperature fuel cells. The two books form
part of the ?Materials for Sustainable Energy & Development?
Written by experts in combustion technology, this is a unique and refreshing perspective on the current biofuel discussion, presenting the latest research in this important field. The emphasis throughout this reference is on applications, industrial perspectives and economics, focusing on new classes of biofuels such as butanols, levulinates, benzenoids and others. Clearly structured, each chapter presents a new class of biofuel and discusses such topics as production pathways, fuel properties and its impact on engines. The result is a fascinating, user-oriented overview of new classes of biofuels beyond bioethanol.
An easy read, balancing the pros and cons, this book surveys the energy issue from a broad scientific perspective while considering environmental, economic, and social factors. It explains the basic concepts, provides a historical overview of energy resources, assesses our unsustainable energy system based on fossil fuels, and shows that the energy crisis is not only a tough challenge, but also an unprecedented opportunity to become more concerned about the world in which we live and the society we have built up. By outlining the alternatives for today and the future, it gives an extensive overview on nuclear energy, solar thermal and photovoltaics, solar fuels, wind power, ocean energies and other renewables, highlighting the increasing importance of electricity and the long-term perspectives of a hydrogen-based economy. An excellent source of updated and carefully documented information on the entangled aspects of the energy issue, this book is a guide for scientists, students and teachers looking for ways out of the energy and climate crisis, and the problems and disparities generated during the fossil fuel era.
This book is a comprehensive and objective guide to understanding hydrogen as a transportation fuel. The effects that pursuing different vehicle technology development paths will have on the economy, the environment, public safety and human health are presented with implications for policy makers, industrial stakeholders and researchers alike. Using hydrogen as a fuel offers a possible solution to satisfying global mobility needs, including sustainability of supply and the potential reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This book focuses on research issues that are at the intersection of hydrogen and transportation, since the study of vehicles and energy-carriers is inseparable. It concentrates on light duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), set in the context of other competing technologies, the larger energy sector and the overall economy. The book is invaluable for researchers and policy makers in transportation policy, energy economics, systems dynamics, vehicle powertrain modeling and simulation, environmental science and environmental engineering.
One of the greatest challenges facing human civilization is the provision of secure, affordable energy without causing catastrophic environmental damage. As the world's largest economy, and as a world leader in energy technologies, the United States is a particularly important case. In the light of increased competition from other countries (particularly China), growing concerns about the local and global environmental impacts of the energy system, an ever-present interest in energy security, and the realization that technological innovation takes place in a complex ecosystem involving a wide range of domestic and international actors, this volume provides a comprehensive and analytical assessment of the role that the US government should play in energy technology innovation. It will be invaluable for policy makers in energy innovation and for researchers studying energy innovation, future energy technologies, climate-change mitigation, and innovation management. It will act as a supplementary textbook for courses on energy and innovation.
VSC-FACTS-HVDC: Modelling, Analysis and Simulation in Power Grids provides comprehensive coverage of VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC systems within the context of high-voltage Smart Grids modelling and simulation. Readers are presented with an examination of the advanced computer modelling of the VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC systems for steady-state, optimal solutions, state estimation and transient stability analyses, including numerous case studies and practical examples. Key features: Wide-ranging treatment of the VSC achieved by assessing basic operating principles, topology structures, control algorithms and utility-level applications. Details advanced models of VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC equipment, suitable for a wide range of power network-wide studies, such as power flows, optimal power flows, state estimation and dynamic simulations. Contains numerous case studies and practical examples, including cases of multi-terminal VSC-HVDC systems. MATLAB software and Power System Computer Aided Design (PSCAD) scripts are provided to enable the reader to gain hands-on experience. Detailed coverage of electromagnetic transient studies of VSC-FACTS and VSC-HVDC systems using the de-facto industry standard PSCAD /EMTDC simulation package. An essential guide for utility engineers, academics, and research students as well as industry managers, engineers in equipment design and manufacturing, and consultants.
In this essential reference, both students and practitioners in the field will find an accessible discussion of electric power generation with gas turbine power plants, using quantitative and qualitative tools. Beginning with a basic discussion of thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles from a second law perspective, the material goes on to cover with depth an analysis of the translation of the cycle to a final product, facilitating quick estimates. In order to provide readers with the knowledge they need to design turbines effectively, there are explanations of simple and combined cycle design considerations, and state-of-the-art, performance prediction and optimization techniques, as well as rules of thumb for design and off-design performance and operational flexibility, and simplified calculations for myriad design and off-design performance. The text also features an introduction to proper material selection, manufacturing techniques, and construction, maintenance, and operation of gas turbine power plants.
The book deals with the fundamentals, theoretical bases, and design methodologies of conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). The design methodology is described in mathematical terms, step-by-step, and the topics are approached from the overall drive train system, not just individual components. Furthermore, in explaining the design methodology of each drive train, design examples are presented with simulation results.
Differential protection is a fast and selective method of
protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants
for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric
The versatility of organic photovoltaics is already well known and this completely revised, updated, and enlarged edition of a classic provides an up-to-date overview of this hot topic. The proven structure of the successful first edition, divided into the three key aspects of successful device design: materials, device physics, and manufacturing technologies, has been retained. Important aspects such as printing technologies, substrates, and electrode systems are covered. The result is a balanced, comprehensive text on the fundamentals as well as the latest results in the area that will set R&D trends for years to come. With its combination of both academic and commercial technological views, this is an optimal source of information for scientists, engineers, and graduate students already actively working in this field, and looking for comprehensive summaries on specific topics.
This Handbook presents a complete and rigorous overview of the fundamentals, methods and applications of the multidisciplinary field of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), providing an exhaustive, one-stop reference work and a state-of-the-art description of GNSS as a key technology for science and society at large. All global and regional satellite navigation systems, both those currently in operation and those under development (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS/NAVIC, SBAS), are examined in detail. The functional principles of receivers and antennas, as well as the advanced algorithms and models for GNSS parameter estimation, are rigorously discussed. The book covers the broad and diverse range of land, marine, air and space applications, from everyday GNSS to high-precision scientific applications and provides detailed descriptions of the most widely used GNSS format standards, covering receiver formats as well as IGS product and meta-data formats. The full coverage of the field of GNSS is presented in seven parts, from its fundamentals, through the treatment of global and regional navigation satellite systems, of receivers and antennas, and of algorithms and models, up to the broad and diverse range of applications in the areas of positioning and navigation, surveying, geodesy and geodynamics, and remote sensing and timing. Each chapter is written by international experts and amply illustrated with figures and photographs, making the book an invaluable resource for scientists, engineers, students and institutions alike.
Bridging the gap between basic science and technological
applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar
thermal applications. Clearly divided into three major parts, the
contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications
and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the
fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives
of the plastics industry and
Campbell's Atlas of Oil and Gas Depletion, Second Edition, is the product of a half-century of critical analysis and updating of data on the status of oil and gas depletion by country, region and the world as a whole. Separate analyses of conventional and non-conventional oil and gas, which are depleting at different rates and costs, show when these critical energy sources peak and decline. The Atlas also summarizes the history and political circumstances of each country to assess the impact on oil and gas production and reserves. It contrasts the First Half of the Oil Age, which saw the rapid expansion of the world economy, allowing the population to grow six-fold, with the Second Half, which will witness a general contraction as these easy, high-density energy supplies dwindle. The transition threatens to be a time of great economic, financial and political tensions. The Atlas, which has been compiled and updated by prominent geologist, former oil company executive, and oil analyst Colin Campbell since the 1960s, addresses the need for a reliable and comprehensive database on a subject essential to governments, industry, academia, and the population as a whole as we attempt to adapt to these critically changing circumstances.
Is the automobility regime experiencing a transition towards sustainability? To answer that question, this book investigates stability and change in contemporary transport systems. It makes a socio-technical analysis of transport systems, exploring the strategies and beliefs of crucial actors such as car manufacturers, local and national governments, citizens, car drivers, transport planners and civil society. Two guiding questions are: Will we see a greening of cars, based on technological innovations that sustain the existing car-based system? Or is something more radical desirable and likely, such as the development of travel regimes in which car use is less dominant?
A unique approach to understanding the foundations of statistical quality control with a focus on the latest developments in nonparametric control charting methodologies Statistical Process Control (SPC) methods have a long and successful history and have revolutionized many facets of industrial production around the world. This book addresses recent developments in statistical process control bringing the modern use of computers and simulations along with theory within the reach of both the researchers and practitioners. The emphasis is on the burgeoning field of nonparametric SPC (NSPC) and the many new methodologies developed by researchers worldwide that are revolutionizing SPC. Over the last several years research in SPC, particularly on control charts, has seen phenomenal growth. Control charts are no longer confined to manufacturing and are now applied for process control and monitoring in a wide array of applications, from education, to environmental monitoring, to disease mapping, to crime prevention. This book addresses quality control methodology, especially control charts, from a statistician's viewpoint, striking a careful balance between theory and practice. Although the focus is on the newer nonparametric control charts, the reader is first introduced to the main classes of the parametric control charts and the associated theory, so that the proper foundational background can be laid. Reviews basic SPC theory and terminology, the different types of control charts, control chart design, sample size, sampling frequency, control limits, and more Focuses on the distribution-free (nonparametric) charts for the cases in which the underlying process distribution is unknown Provides guidance on control chart selection, choosing control limits and other quality related matters, along with all relevant formulas and tables Uses computer simulations and graphics to illustrate concepts and explore the latest research in SPC Offering a uniquely balanced presentation of both theory and practice, Nonparametric Methods for Statistical Quality Control is a vital resource for students, interested practitioners, researchers, and anyone with an appropriate background in statistics interested in learning about the foundations of SPC and latest developments in NSPC.
This book aims to offer a thorough study and reference textbook on electrical machines and drives. The basic idea is to start from the pure electromagnetic principles to derive the equivalent circuits and steady-state equations of the most common electrical machines (in the first parts). Although the book mainly concentrates on rotating field machines, the first two chapters are devoted to transformers and DC commutator machines. The chapter on transformers is included as an introduction to induction and synchronous machines, their electromagnetics and equivalent circuits. Chapters three and four offer an in-depth study of induction and synchronous machines, respectively. Starting from their electromagnetics, steady-state equations and equivalent circuits are derived, from which their basic properties can be deduced. The second part discusses the main power-electronic supplies for electrical drives, for example rectifiers, choppers, cycloconverters and inverters. Much attention is paid to PWM techniques for inverters and the resulting harmonic content in the output waveform. In the third part, electrical drives are discussed, combining the traditional (rotating field and DC commutator) electrical machines treated in the first part and the power electronics of part two. Field orientation of induction and synchronous machines are discussed in detail, as well as direct torque control. In addition, also switched reluctance machines and stepping motors are discussed in the last chapters. Finally, part 4 is devoted to the dynamics of traditional electrical machines. Also for the dynamics of induction and synchronous machine drives, the electromagnetics are used as the starting point to derive the dynamic models. Throughout part 4, much attention is paid to the derivation of analytical models. But, of course, the basic dynamic properties and probable causes of instability of induction and synchronous machine drives are discussed in detail as well, with the derived models for stability in the small as starting point. In addition to the study of the stability in the small, a chapter is devoted to large-scale dynamics as well (e.g. sudden short-circuit of synchronous machines). The textbook is used as the course text for the Bachelor's and Master's programme in electrical and mechanical engineering at the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Ghent University. Parts 1 and 2 are taught in the basic course 'Fundamentals of Electric Drives' in the third bachelor. Part 3 is used for the course 'Controlled Electrical Drives' in the first master, while Part 4 is used in the specialised master on electrical energy.
The offshore wind sector s trend towards larger turbines, bigger wind farm projects and greater distance to shore has a critical impact on grid connection requirements for offshore wind power plants. This important reference sets out the fundamentals and latest innovations in electrical systems and control strategies deployed in offshore electricity grids for wind power integration. Includes: * All current and emerging technologies for offshore wind integration and trends in energy storage systems, fault limiters, superconducting cables and gas-insulated transformers * Protection of offshore wind farms illustrating numerous system integration and protection challenges through case studies * Modelling of doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) and full-converter wind turbines structures together with an explanation of the smart grid concept in the context of wind farms * Comprehensive material on power electronic equipment employed in wind turbines with emphasis on enabling technologies (HVDC, STATCOM) to facilitate the connection and compensation of large-scale onshore and offshore wind farms * Worked examples and case studies to help understand the dynamic interaction between HVDC links and offshore wind generation * Concise description of the voltage source converter topologies, control and operation for offshore wind farm applications * Companion website containing simulation models of the cases discussed throughout Equipping electrical engineers for the engineering challenges in utility-scale offshore wind farms, this is an essential resource for power system and connection code designers and pratitioners dealing with integation of wind generation and the modelling and control of wind turbines. It will also provide high-level support to academic researchers and advanced students in power and renewable energy as well as technical and research staff in transmission and distribution system operators and in wind turbine and electrical equipment manufacturers.
Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in its second English edition, this material has been in use for two decades in Germany, and has benefited from many practical improvements and the authors' teaching experience over the years. New to this edition are the extra supplementary examples available online as well as the TM-tools necessary to work with this method.
The safe operation of plants is of paramount importance in the chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries. Best practice in process and plant safety allows both the prevention of hazards and the mitigation of consequences. Safety Technology is continuously advancing to new levels and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is already successfully established as a tool to ensure the safe operation of industrial plants. With CFD tools, a great amount of knowledge can be gained as both the necessary safety measures and the economic operation of plants can be simultaneously determined. Young academics, safety experts and safety managers in all parts of the industry will henceforth be forced to responsibly judge these new results from a safety perspective. This is the main challenge for the future of safety technology. This book serves as a guide to elaborating and determining the principles, assumptions, strengths, limitations and application areas of utilizing CFD in process and plant safety, and safety management. The book offers recommendations relating to guidelines, procedures, frameworks and technology for creating a higher level of safety for chemical and petrochemical plants. It includes modeling aids and concrete examples of industrial safety measures for hazard prevention.
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