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The third, revised edition of this popular textbook and reference, which has been translated into Russian and Chinese, expands the comprehensive and balanced coverage of nuclear reactor physics to include recent advances in understanding of this topic. The first part of the book covers basic reactor physics, including, but not limited to nuclear reaction data, neutron diffusion theory, reactor criticality and dynamics, neutron energy distribution, fuel burnup, reactor types and reactor safety. The second part then deals with such physically and mathematically more advanced topics as neutron transport theory, neutron slowing down, resonance absorption, neutron thermalization, perturbation and variational methods, homogenization, nodal and synthesis methods, and space-time neutron dynamics. For ease of reference, the detailed appendices contain nuclear data, useful mathematical formulas, an overview of special functions as well as introductions to matrix algebra and Laplace transforms. With its focus on conveying the in-depth knowledge needed by advanced student and professional nuclear engineers, this text is ideal for use in numerous courses and for self-study by professionals in basic nuclear reactor physics, advanced nuclear reactor physics, neutron transport theory, nuclear reactor dynamics and stability, nuclear reactor fuel cycle physics and other important topics in the field of nuclear reactor physics.
This book provides insights into the development and usage of coal in chemical engineering. The reactivity of coal in processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction, combustion and swelling is related to its structural properties. Using experimental findings and theoretical analysis, the book comprehensively answers three crucial issues that are fundamental to the optimization of coal chemical conversions: What is the structure of coal? How does the underlying structure determine the reactivity of different types of coal? How does the structure of coal alter during coal conversion? This book will be of interest to both individual readers and institutions involved in teaching and research into chemical engineering and energy conversion technologies. It is aimed at advanced- level undergraduate students. The text is suitable for readers with a basic knowledge of chemistry, such as first-year undergraduate general science students. Higher-level students with an in-depth understanding of the chemistry of coal will also benefit from the book. It will provide a useful reference resource for students and university-level teachers, as well as practicing engineers.
Providing a comprehensive analysis of CO2 compression, transportation processes and safety issues for post combustion CO2 capture applications for a 900 MW pulverized hard coal-fired power plant, this book assesses techniques for boosting the pressure of CO2 to pipeline pressure values with a minimal amount of energy. Four different types of compressors are examined in detail: a conventional multistage centrifugal compressor, integrally geared centrifugal compressor, supersonic shock wave compressor, and pump machines. The study demonstrates that the total compression power is closely related to the thermodynamic process and is not determined by compressor efficiency alone. Another problem addressed is that of CO2 pipeline transport from the compressor outlet site to a disposal site under heat transfer conditions. The book also features an analysis of simulations and models that are used to determine the maximum safe pipeline distance to subsequent booster stations as a function of inlet pressure, ambient temperature, thickness of the thermal insulation and ground-level heat flux conditions. This book focuses on compression as well as transportation processes with particular emphasis on the safety risks related to the transport of CO2. The most important problem in terms of environmental protection is ensuring precise and reliable hazard identification. As hazards can only be managed effectively if they are properly identified, problems involving the discharge and atmospheric dispersion of CO2 are also discussed.
Decentralized, off-grid power supplies such as micro-hydropower can be perceived as expensive investments by poor countries like Nepal. Can these investments be justified by the benefits that electricity brings to villages in remote mountainous regions? This book describes research into the development gains brought to such villages, measured in terms of progress towards achieving the millennium development goals. Indicators relating to income, education, gender equality, maternal and child health and environmental impact were measured in villages benefiting from micro-hydropower, compared with neighboring villages without an electricity supply.The cumulative development advantages were found to far outweigh the investment costs of a micro-hydropower system. The household income benefits and cost savings associated with an electricity supply were found to be considerable, and to outweigh the investment costs of micro-hydropower over the lifetime of an installation. Where businesses that exploited the new energy supply had been started, the income gains were even more marked. In addition, there were other significant development benefits in terms of education, gender equality and health."Decentralized Energy Access and the Millennium Development Goals" provides conclusive evidence of these transformative benefits and recommends that Nepal, and countries like it, scale up investments in its micro-hydropower program.
This new edition of EIS: Fault Finding and Diagnosis from the highly successful Electrical Installation Series covers all the information required to complete the Fault Finding and Diagnosis unit as part of the Level 3 Diploma for City and Guilds (2357) and EAL equivalent qualifications. The nine studybooks in the series are endorsed by The Electrical Contractors Association (ECA) and cover all core Level 3 S/NVQ Diploma units and are mapped to the National Occupational Standards. The modular, hands-on approach is designed to clearly explain all the key concepts so learners gain all the necessary theoretical and practical skills required for each unit. The expert author team brings a wealth of industry knowledge and experience to each publication all brought to life by full-colour diagrams, images and photographs. Students can use one book per unit as a complete study resource to support learning in the classroom, at work and for personal study at home. These spiral bound, write-it studybooks are the ideal course companion for any aspiring electrician.
For courses in Control Theory Developing Problem-Solving Skills Through Integrated Design and Analysis The purpose of Dorf's Modern Control Systems, Thirteenth Edition is to present the structure of feedback control theory and to provide a sequence of exciting discoveries. The book demonstrates various real-world, global engineering problems while touching on evolving design strategies like green technology. Some of the themes at-hand include climate change, clean water, sustainability, waste management, emissions reduction, and minimizing energy. Throughout the text, students apply theory to the design and analysis of control systems. The Thirteenth Edition continues to explore the role of and need for automated and precise control systems in green engineering. Key examples of green engineering, such as wind turbine control and the modeling of a photovoltaic generator to achieve maximum power delivery, are discussed in detail. The text is organized around the concept of control systems theory in the context of frequency and time domains. Written to be equally useful for all engineering disciplines, it covers topics such as classical control, employing root locus design, frequency and response design using Bode and Nyquist plots.
The book presents machine learning as an approach to building models that learn from data, and that can be used to complement the existing modelling practice in aquatic and geotechnical environments. It provides concepts of learning from data, and identifies segmentation (clustering), classification, regression and control as the learning tasks. A unified methodology based on the concepts of machine learning, information theory and statistics is presented that can be followed to build models using data as well as expert knowledge. Several machine learning methods are used to extract features to build data-driven models in geotechnics. A set of regression models are built to predict sediment transport rates and assess harbour sedimentation. Controllers that replicate the control strategy of model-based optimal controllers of water systems are built for situations where fast and accurate decisions are needed. The models built demonstrate excellent performance; they may complement or even replace the existing models and can be used in practice. The performance of the models proves the effectiveness of the methodology and machine learning in general.
This new edition of EIS: Termination and Connection of Conductors from the highly successful Electrical Installation Series covers all the information required to complete the Termination and Connection of Conductors unit as part of the Level 3 Diploma for City and Guilds (2357) and EAL equivalent qualifications. The nine studybooks are endorsed by The Electrical Contractors Association (ECA) and cover all core Level 3 S/NVQ Diploma units and are mapped to the SummitSkills National Occupational Standards. The modular, hands-on approach is designed to clearly explain all the key concepts so learners gain all the necessary theoretical and practical skills required for each unit. The expert author team brings a wealth of industry knowledge and experience to each publication all brought to life by full-colour diagrams, images and photographs. Students can use one book per unit as a complete study resource to support learning in the classroom, at work and for personal study at home. These spiral bound, write-it studybooks are the ideal course companion for any aspiring electrician.
This book focuses on strategies to achieve economic diversification in Asian landlocked countries. It does so by analysing the impact of the Dutch disease, non-resource firm heterogeneity, trade logistics operations, trade facilitation, aid for trade, small and medium-sized enterprises, and foreign direct investment. Offering a wide range of expert views and opinions, research findings, information and data, the book will be of value to policy makers and students of trade and development economics.
This unique publication provides the only detailed, multinational guide to the cost of construction work across Africa. Thirteen chapters cover individual countries (Algeria, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa and Zambia) providing: key data on the main economic and construction indicators an outline of the national construction industry, covering structure, tendering and contract procedures, regulations and standards labour and materials cost data measured rates for a range of construction work items approximate estimating costs for a range of building types price index data and exchange rate movements against GBP sterling and US $ addresses of public and private construction related organisations. To facilitate country-to-country comparisons the book also includes a comparative data section and comparative regional information with figures given in national currencies, GBP sterling and US $. Extensively revised and thoroughly updated with additional reference to civil engineering and infrastructure projects, this book provides more supplementary information and includes costs based on locally-sourced materials to enable quick and useful comparisons. This new edition is the indispensible guide to African construction costs.
Renewable energy resources now play an essential role in the energy supply debate, and especially a new interest in wind energy has resulted in the intensified construction of wind farms. Thanks to the growing demand for renewable energy, offshore wind farms (OWFs) are increasingly gaining in popularity, since yields over sea are greater and more reliable than over land. Against this background it is becoming particularly urgent to determine whether and if so to what extent such OWF expansion affects our oceans and local climates. OWFs produce a downstream wind speed reduction, the so-called wind-wake effect, which impacts atmospheric boundary layers, alters local wind characteristics and in turn affects ocean dynamics. This book will help readers to understand in detail these OWF-induced changes in the atmosphere and ocean by analyzing model simulations and measurements. In this context, OWF-induced upwelling and downwelling are key aspects.
The indispensable guide to building costs in Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the UAE. Features detailed information across all sectors and by individual country, plus comparative information.
Increase in green, renewable and sustainable energy demand due to higher environmental impacts (e.g. Greenhouse gases emissions, climate change, etc.) on consumption of fossil fuel resource put down an extra pressure on government, researchers and industrialists. Among several available biofuel options, biohydrogen is considered as one of the best environmentally clean fuel and a strong candidate to fulfil the future demand of sustainable energy resource. Although, biohydrogen production technology and its use as a fuel is still in infancy stage. Selection of most sustainable production pathway, increase in production upto industrial scale and cost efficiency are some issue still persist with the biohydrogen research. "Biohydrogen Production: Sustainability of Current Technology and Future Perspective" is giving an insight for the sustainable production of biohydrogen at industrial scale. The process of biohydrogen production is complex and to opt the best suited production system for industrial scale is a frantic task. This book will provide an in depth information on all available technologies for biohydrogen production and feedstock options to choose upon. This book is also providing information on present status of the research in the field and possibility to change future fuel economy in to biohydrogen economy. Experts views provided in the chapters by renowned researchers from all over the globe in the field of biohydrogen research made this book a cornucopia of present research and future perspective of biohydrogen. This book is targeted at the researchers working on biohydrogen as well as the bioenergy scientist planning to move towards biohydrogen research. This book will provide a platform for motivation of researchers and industrialists for innovative ideas and thoughts to bring biohydrogen production at industrial scale.
This multi-disciplinary volume presents information on the
state-of-the-art in sustainable energy technologies key to tackling
the world s energy challenges and achieving environmentally benign
solutions. Its unique amalgamation of the latest technical
information, research findings and examples of successfully applied
new developments in the area of sustainable energy will be of keen
interest to engineers, students, practitioners, scientists and
researchers working with sustainable energy technologies. Problem
statements, projections, new concepts, models, experiments,
measurements and simulations from not only engineering and science,
but disciplines as diverse as ecology, education, economics and
information technology are included, in order to create a truly
holistic vision of the sustainable energy field. The
contributionsfeature coverage of topicsincluding solar and wind
energy, biomass and biofuels, waste-to-energy, renewable fuels,
geothermal and hydrogen power, efficiency gains in fossil fuels and
energy storage technologies including batteries and fuel
In contrast to traditional combustion, gasification technologies offer the potential for converting coal and low or negative-value feedstocks, such as petroleum coke and various waste materials into usable energy sources or chemicals. With a growing number of companies operating and marketing systems based on gasification concepts worldwide, this book combines the latest information and real-world experience in developing gasification technologies.
Gasification Technologies: A Primer for Engineers and Scientists discusses gasification techniques and the benefits of each technology, including gas clean-up technologies and those used in hybrid systems and fuel cells. It also accounts for the primary products that are recovered and explains how these products are purified and can be used as fuel or for applications in petrochemical processes. The book describes the conditions in which optimal value intermediate products can be recovered, focusing on key factors such as oxygen or air blown reactor, operating temperature, internal and external heating, and reactor design. The authors also establish how gasification can help meet renewable energy targets, address concerns about global warming, and contribute to a better carbon management or achieving Kyoto Protocol commitments.
Gasification Technologies provide a multidimensional and well-rounded examination of current technology, research, applications, and development challenges for the commercialization of this increasingly popular technology.
This new edition of EIS: Installing Wiring Systems from the highly successful Electrical Installation Series covers all the information required to complete the Installing Wiring Systems unit as part of the Level 3 Diploma for City and Guilds (2357) and EAL equivalent qualifications. The nine studybooks in the series are endorsed by The Electrical Contractors Association (ECA) and cover all core Level 3 S/NVQ Diploma units and are mapped to the National Occupational Standards. The modular, hands-on approach is designed to clearly explain all the key concepts so learners gain all the necessary theoretical and practical skills required for each unit. The expert author team brings a wealth of industry knowledge and experience to each publication all brought to life by full-colour diagrams, images and photographs. Students can use one book per unit as a complete study resource to support learning in the classroom, at work and for personal study at home. These spiral bound, write-it studybooks are the ideal course companion for any aspiring electrician.
This textbook is intended for an audience with little or no power engineering or renewable energy background. The book covers electric energy from alternative energy sources, including solar, wind, water, hydropower, geothermal, and ocean energy. Core issues discussed include wind and solar resource estimates and analysis, solar thermal systems, solar collectors, photovoltaics, wind turbines, geothermal energy, energy small hydropower, wave, tide and ocean energy, and characteristics of energy conversion, control, and electrical aspects. This is one of the most comprehensive textbooks for students, engineers, and professionals who study renewable energy. There are several questions and problems, presented with increasing difficulty, most of which focus on practical applications. The materials and problems are drawn from the author's extensive experience in renewable energy analysis, assessment, design, control, and the power electronics of wind and solar energy conversion systems. Each section of the book contains several solved examples, as well as practical and advanced discussions, that instill critical thinking and apply to industrial applications. The book is divided into eight chapters and covers the most important aspects of renewable energy sources and technologies.
The aim of this book is to summarize probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), and to demonstrate that NPPs can be considered a safe method of producing energy, even in light of the Fukushima accident. The book examines level 1 and 2 full power, low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment of WWER440 reactors, and summarizes the author s experience gained during the last 35 years. It provides useful examples taken from PSA training courses delivered by the author and organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Such training courses were organised in Argonne National Laboratory (Chicago, IL, USA), Abdus Salaam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Trieste, Italy) in Malaysia, Vietnam and Jordan to support experts from developing countries.
The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for NPPs (nuclear power plants) is an estimation of the risks in absolute terms and in comparison with other risks of the technical and the natural world. Plant-specific PSAs are being prepared for the NPPs and being applied for detection of weaknesses, design improvement and backfitting, incident analysis, accident management, emergency preparedness, prioritization of research & development and support of regulatory activities.
There are three levels of PSA, being performed for full power and low power operation and shutdown operating modes of the plant: Level 1 PSA, Level 2 PSA and Level 3 PSA. The nuclear regulatory authorities do not require the level 3 PSA for NPPs in the member countries of the European Union. So, only limited number of NPPs has available the level 3 PSA in Europe. However, in the light of the Fukushima accident the performance of such analyses is strongly recommended in the future. This book is intended for professionals working in the nuclear industry, and researchers and students interested in nuclear research.
This book constitutes the third part of the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Life System Modeling and Simulation, LSMS 2014, and of the International Conference on Intelligent Computing for Sustainable Energy and Environment, ICSEE 2014, held in Shanghai, China, in September 2014. The 159 revised full papers presented in the three volumes of CCIS 461-463 were carefully reviewed and selected from 572 submissions. The papers of this volume are organized in topical sections on computational intelligence in utilization of clean and renewable energy resources, including fuel cell, hydrogen, solar and winder power, marine and biomass; intelligent modeling, control and supervision for energy saving and pollution reduction; intelligent methods in developing electric vehicles, engines and equipment; intelligent computing and control in distributed power generation systems; intelligent modeling, simulation and control of power electronics and power networks; intelligent road management and electricity marketing strategies; intelligent water treatment and waste management technologies; integration of electric vehicles with smart grid.
Covers all your testing and inspection needs to help you pass your exams on City & Guilds 2391 and EAL 600/4338/6 and 600/4340/4 and Part P courses. Entirely up to date with the 18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations Step-by-step descriptions and photographs of the tests show exactly how to carry them out Completion of inspection and test certification and periodic reporting Fault finding techniques Testing 3 phase and single phase motors Supporting video footage of the tests contained in this book are available on the companion website This book covers everything you need to learn about inspection and testing, with clear reference to the latest updates to the legal requirements and wiring regulations. It answers all of your questions on the basics of inspection and testing, using clear and easy to remember language, along with sample questions and scenarios as they will be encountered in the exams. Christopher Kitcher tells you what tests are needed and describes them in a step-by-step manner with the help of colour photographs and the accompanying website. All of the theory required for passing the inspecting and testing element of all electrical installation qualifications along with the AM2, City & Guilds 2391 certificate and the EAL 600/4338/6 and 600/4340/4 qualifications is contained within this easy-to-follow guide - along with some top tips to help you pass the exam itself. With a strong focus on the practical element of inspection and testing for NVQs or apprenticeships, this is also an ideal reference tool for experienced electricians and those working in allied industries on domestic and industrial installations. www.routledge.com/cw/kitcher provides a large bank of helpful video demonstrations, multiple choice questions to test your learning, and further supporting materials.
This work is primarily a technical guide to the design and production of solar installations in regions where heating is an issue of upmost importance. A climate is defined as cold when the average annual temperature is lower than 10 degrees Celsius, and becomes severe if temperatures become extreme or vary significantly over the day or over the year. This affects about half the populations of developing countries.
This new edition of EIS: Organising and Managing the Work Environment from the highly successful Electrical Installation Series covers all the information required to complete the Organising and Managing the Work Environment unit as part of the Level 3 Diploma for City and Guilds (2357) and EAL equivalent qualifications. The nine studybooks in the series are endorsed by The Electrical Contractors Association (ECA) and cover all core Level 3 VRQ and S/NVQ Diploma units and are mapped to the National Occupational Standards. The modular, hands-on approach is designed to clearly explain all the key concepts so learners gain all the necessary theoretical and practical skills required for each unit. The expert author team bring a wealth of industry knowledge and experience to each publication all brought to life by full-colour diagrams, images and photographs. Students can use one book per unit as a complete study resource to support learning in the classroom, at work and for personal study at home. These spiral bound, write-it studybooks are the ideal course companion for any aspiring electrician.
In recognition of the fact that billions of people in the developing world do not have access to clean energies, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative to achieve universal energy access by 2030. Although electricity grid extension remains the most prevalent way of providing access, it is now recognized that the central grid is unlikely to reach many remote areas in the near future. At the same time, individual solutions like solar home systems tend to provide very limited services to consumers. Mini-grids offer an alternative by combining the benefits of a grid-based solution with the potential for harnessing renewable energies at the local level. The purpose of this book is to provide in-depth coverage of the use of mini-grids for rural electrification in developing countries, taking into account the technical, economic, environmental and governance dimensions and presenting case studies from South Asia.
This book reports on research carried out by a consortium of British and Indian researchers on off-grid electrification in South Asia. It provides state-of-the art technical knowledge on mini-grids and micro-grids including renewable energy integration (or green mini-grids), smart systems for integration with the central grid, and standardization of systems. It also presents essential analytical frameworks and approaches that can be used to analyze the mini-grids comprehensively including their techno-economic aspects, financial viability and regulatory issues. The case studies drawn from South Asia demonstrate the application of the framework and showcase various successful efforts to promote mini-grids in the region. It also reports on the design and implementation of a demonstration project carried out by the team in a cluster of villages in Odisha (India).
The book's multi-disciplinary approach facilitates understanding of the relevant practical dimensions of mini-grid systems, such as demand creation (through interventions in livelihood generation and value chain development), financing, regulation, and smart system design. Its state-of-the art knowledge, integrated methodological framework, simulation exercises and real-life case analysis will allow the reader to analyze and appreciate the mini-grid-related activities in their entirety. The book will be of interest to researchers, graduate students, practitioners and policy makers working in the area of rural electrification in developing countries.
High Temperature Gas Dynamics is a primer for scientists, engineers, and students who would like to have a basic understanding of the physics and the behavior of high-temperature gases. It is a valuable tool for astrophysicists as well. The first chapters treat the basic principles of quantum and statistical mechanics and how to derive thermophysical properties from them. Special topics are included that are rarely found in other textbooks, such as the thermophysical and transport properties of multi-temperature gases and a novel method to compute radiative transfer. Furthermore, collision processes between different particles are discussed. Separate chapters deal with the production of high-temperature gases and with electrical emission in plasmas, as well as related diagnostic techniques. This new edition adds over 100 pages and includes the following updates: several sections on radiative properties of high temperature gases and various radiation models, a section on shocks in magneto-gas-dynamics, a section on stability of 2D ionized gas flow, and additional practical examples, such as MGD generators, Hall and ion thrusters, and Faraday generators.
An essential guide to the stability and control of power systems integrating large-scale renewable energy sources The rapid development of smart grids and the integration of large scale renewable energy have added daunting new layers of complexity to the long-standing problem of power system stability control. This book offers a systematic stochastic analysis of these nonlinear problems and provides comprehensive countermeasures to improve power system performance and control with large-scale, hybrid power systems. Power system stability analysis and control is by no means a new topic. But the integration of large scale renewable energy sources has added many new challenges which must be addressed, especially in the areas of time variance, time delay, and uncertainties. Robust, adaptive control strategies and countermeasures are the key to avoiding inadequate, excessive, or lost loads within hybrid power systems. Written by an internationally recognized innovator in the field this book describes the latest theory and methods for handling power system angle stability within power networks. Dr. Jing Ma analyzes and provides control strategies for large scale power systems and outlines state-of-the-art solutions to the entire range of challenges facing today's power systems engineers. Features nonlinear, stochastic analysis of power system stability and control Offers proven countermeasures to optimizing power system performance Focuses on nonlinear time-variance, long time-delays, high uncertainties and comprehensive countermeasures Emphasizes methods for analyzing and addressing time variance and delay when integrating large-scale renewable energy Includes rigorous algorithms and simulations for the design of analysis and control modeling Power System Wide-area Stability Analysis and Control is must-reading for researchers studying power system stability analysis and control, engineers working on power system dynamics and stability, and graduate students in electrical engineering interested in the burgeoning field of smart, wide-area power systems.
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