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This book focuses on solar-energy-based renewable energy systems and discusses the generation of electric power using solar photovoltaics, as well as some new techniques, such as solar towers, for both residential and commercial needs. Such systems have played an important role in the move towards low-emission and sustainable energy sources. The book covers a variety of applications, such as solar water heaters, solar air heaters, solar drying, nanoparticle-based direct absorption solar systems, solar volumetric receivers, solar-based cooling systems, solar-based food processing and cooking, efficient buildings using solar energy, and energy storage for solar thermal systems. Given its breadth of coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for researchers, students, and professionals alike.
This book discusses different types of alternative fuels, including biodiesel, alcohol, synthetic fuels, compressed natural gas (CNG) and its blend with hydrogen, HCNG, and provides detailed information on the utilization of these alternative fuels in internal combustion (IC) engines. Further, it presents methods for production of these alternative fuels and explores advanced combustion techniques, such as low-temperature and dual-fuel combustion, using alternative fuels. It includes a chapter on the soot morphology of biodiesel, which focuses on the toxicity. There are also four chapters on hydrogen-fueled engines, which discuss use of hydrogen in IC engines and also provide important information on the methodologies. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and practicing engineers alike.
Written by experts, this book is based on recent research findings in high-frequency isolated bidirectional DC-DC converters with wide voltage range. It presents advanced power control methods and new isolated bidirectional DC-DC topologies to improve the performance of isolated bidirectional converters. Providing valuable insights, advanced methods and practical design guides on the DC-DC conversion that can be considered in applications such as microgrid, bidirectional EV chargers, and solid state transformers, it is a valuable resource for researchers, scientists, and engineers in the field of isolated bidirectional DC-DC converters.
This book is designed as an introductory course for undergraduate students, in Electrical and Electronic, Mechanical, Mechatronics, Chemical and Petroleum engineering, who need fundamental knowledge of electrical circuits. Worked out examples have been presented after discussing each theory. Practice problems have also been included to enrich the learning experience of the students and professionals. PSpice and Multisim software packages have been included for simulation of different electrical circuit parameters. A number of exercise problems have been included in the book to aid faculty members.
This book focuses on the analytical modeling of fractional-slot concentrated-wound (FSCW) interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines and establishes a basis for their magnetic and electrical analysis. Aiming at the precise modeling of FSCW IPM machines' magnetic and electrical characteristics, it presents a comprehensive mathematical treatment of the stator magneto-motive force (MMF), the IPM rotor non-homogeneous magnetic saturation, and its airgap flux density. The FSCW stator spatial MMF harmonics are analytically formulated, providing a basis on which a novel heuristic algorithm is then proposed for the design of optimal winding layouts for multiphase FSCW stators with different slot/pole combinations. In turn, the proposed mathematical models for the FSCW stator and the IPM rotor are combined to derive detailed mathematical expressions of its operational inductances, electromagnetic torque, torque ripple and their respective subcomponents, as a function of the machine geometry and design parameters. Lastly, the proposed theories and analytical models are validated using finite element analysis and experimental tests on a prototype FSCW IPM machine.
Sensor networks are an essential component of the Internet of Things (IoT), and Multimedia Sensor Networks (MSNs) are the most important emerging area in sensor networks. However, multimedia sensing is characterized by diversified modes, large volumes of data, considerable heterogeneity, and complex computing, as a result of which the theory and methods for traditional sensor networks can't be applied to MSNs. Based on the authors' years of systematic research on related theory and methods, this book provides a comprehensive review of MSNs. The coverage ranges from networked sensing and fusion-based transmission, to route discovery and in-network computing. The book presents the most important scientific discoveries and fundamental theories on MSNs, while also exploring practical approaches and typical applications. Given its scope, it is especially suitable for students, researchers and practitioners interested in understanding scientific problems involved in characterizing multimedia sensing features, revealing the transmission mechanisms of MSNs, and constructing efficient in-network multimedia computing paradigms. In this book, readers will learn essential methods for achieving the optimal deployment of, efficient and reliable transmission, and timely information processing in MSNs.
Originally published in 1979, Solar Energy provides a tour of the world of solar energy and asks two key questions: is solar energy the key to the future of our energy needs and what are the facts and potential of this source of renewable power. The book examines solar energy from the past to modern plans for designing domestic solar housing, and looks at the sites and the technology applied to harness the Sun's power, such as the energy potential of windmills and the equatorial oceans. Behrman reports on the progress of scientists and manufacturers in making solar energy a viable competitor in the energy market, and studies the projections of a future energy crop for energy plantations.
Safety or protective grounding is of vital importance for the protection of individuals from electric shock and structures and industrial concerns from potentially damaging lightning and electrostatic discharges. To many electrical engineers the notion of grounding is nebulous and safety grounding is quite often confused with neutral grounding of the power supply. The main objective of this book is to give the reader a better understanding of safety grounding, why it is needed, where it is needed, and what are the requirements which must be met in order to have an effective grounding system. The text as a whole serves to provide the reader with the necessary background for a better appreciation of the various National and International Standards concerned with safety grounding. This book gives the reader a good understanding of the fundamentals of safety grounding. It is a practical guide that provides a comprehensive coverage of all types of grounding requirements and is intended for students and practicing electrical engineers alike. Summarizes the physiological effects of current on the human body and the effect of current duration Gives the various methods of measuring soil resistivity and measuring the resistance to ground of an electrode or grounding system Reviews different types of ground electrodes and the effect of their geometry and numbers on the resistance to ground Presents the components of a ground system, methods of improving soil resistivity, the types of welds and joints, the criteria for determining conductor cross-sections, galvanic corrosion, and a survey of the different grounding practices used at substations and the different types of grounding systems used for the protection of consumers Deals with electrostatic and lightning hazards that can cause serious damage and the measures used to protect against such damage Throughout the text frequent reference is made to various National and International Standards and their requirements as compliance with these standards is highly advised Asser A. Zaky, Ph.D., FIET, F.Inst.P., FIEEE, is Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering at University of Alexandria, Egypt.
Circular Economy (CE) is considered as one of the important strategies in addressing Sustainable Development Goals. Practicing Circular Economy provides an overview of CE, covering its evolution, describing the key concepts, programs, policies, and regulations. It illustrates several business opportunities over a hundred hand-picked case studies that encompass numerous sectors, various scales of operations and geographies. Another unique feature of the book is the activities listed in each chapter to invoke thoughts, frame assignments, and generate discussions. Each chapter lists key additional reading materials and takeaways. Aimed at mid- and senior-level managers, policy makers, investors, entrepreneurs, consultants, researchers, professors, and academic students involved in the subject of environmental management and sustainability, this book: Introduces the evolution of CE to clarify the key concepts and introduce some of the important global programs and initiatives CE economy with case studies Gives a global overview of adoption of CE covering countries such as India, Japan, Korea, China, EU, North America, Australia, and several more Includes information on methodologies followed, tools, and knowledge resources for practicing CE Provides insight to the business models with numerous case studies covering product design, manufacturing, and services and the role of innovation and financing Presents a comprehensive overview of opportunities in CE in sectors such as textile, steel, agriculture, and food Covers newly emerging paradigms of CE such as regional circular economy, circular supply chains, and sustainable procurement and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CE Practicing Circular Economy is thus an important resource for every circular economy practitioner and especially to those who aspire to make a career in circular economy.
Tribology and Sustainability brings a vision of promoting a greener, cleaner and eco-friendly environment by highlighting sustainable solutions in tribology via the development of self-lubricating materials, green additives in lubricants, natural fibre-reinforced materials and biomimetic approaches. Backed by supporting schematic diagrams, data tables and illustrations for easy understanding, the book focuses on recent advancements in tribology and sustainability. Global sustainability and regional requirements are addressed through chapters on natural composites, green lubricants, biomedical systems and wind energy systems, with a dedicated chapter on a global sustainability scenario. FEATURES Highlights sustainability via new tribological approaches and how such methods are essential Covers the theoretical aspects of various tribological topics concerning mechanical and material designs for energy-efficient systems Includes practical global sustainability based on the regional requirements of tribological research and sustainable impact Reviews the tribology of green lubricants, green additives and lightweight materials Discusses topics related to biomimetics and biotribology Tribology and Sustainability will assist researchers, professionals and graduate students in tribology, surface engineering, mechanical design and materials engineering, including mechanical, aerospace, chemical and environmental engineering.
This book presents analysis and design for a class of stochastic systems with semi-Markovian jump parameters. It explores systematic analysis of semi-Markovian jump systems via sliding mode control strategy which makes up the shortages in the analysis and design of stochastic systems. This text provides a novel estimation method to deal with the stochastic stability of semi-Markovian jump systems along with design of novel integral sliding surface. Finally, Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model approach is brought to deal with system nonlinearities and fuzzy sliding mode control laws are provided to ensure the stabilization purpose. Features: Presents systematic work on sliding mode control (SMC) of semi-Markvoain jump systems. Explores SMC methods, such as fuzzy SMC, adaptive SMC, with the presence of generally uncertain transition rates. Provides novel method in dealing with stochastic systems with unknown switching information. Proposes more general theories for semi-Markovian jump systems with generally uncertain transition rates. Discusses practical examples to verify the effectiveness of SMC theory in semi-Markovian jump systems. This book aims at graduate and postgraduate students and for researchers in all engineering disciplines, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and applied mathematics, control engineering, signal processing, process control, control theory and robotics.
A side-effect of numerous anthropogenic activities involves unfavourable changes in the natural environment. The acquisition of natural resources, especially fossil fuels, solid waste and wastewater production, as well as emission of gases and particulate matter from industrial plants and means of transport contribute to disturbances in the natural cycles of elements between different parts of the environment. Local changes lead to global effects, changing the composition of atmosphere, its capacity for absorbing the infrared radiation and temperature, which has further repercussions in the form of weather anomalies, melting glaciers, flooding, migration or extinction of species, social problems, etc. These global changes can be mitigated by local remedial actions, simultaneously taken all over the world, including Poland. Only the joint efforts of communities from different countries can be successful in preserving the world as we know it for the future generations. Realisation of this task requires the cooperation of experts across many fields of science, environmental engineering being one of most relevant. It comprises the engineering actions taken to preserve the balance of the natural environment or restore it if degradation has occurred. This monograph presents several key issues related to the actions aimed at mitigating the negative impact on the environment connected with the acquisition and transport of energy, management of municipal and industrial wastes, as well as the impact of the industry on the aquatic and soil environment. This book is dedicated to academics, engineers, and students involved in environmental engineering, who are following the advances in the research on environmental aspects of energy production and waste management.
Programming and Interfacing with Arduino provides an in-depth understanding of the Arduino UNO board. It covers programming concepts, working and interfacing of sensors, input/output devices, communication modules, and actuators with Arduino UNO board. This book contains a large number of programming examples along with the description and interfacing details of hardware with Arduino UNO board. It discusses important topics, including SPI communication protocol, I2C communication protocol, light-emitting diode, potentiometer, analog-to-digital converter, pulse width modulation, temperature sensor LM35, humidity and temperature sensor DHT11, motor driver L293D, LED interfacing and programming, and push-button interfacing and programming. Aimed at senior undergraduate students and professionals in areas such as electrical engineering, electronics, and communication engineering, this text: Discusses construction and working of sensors, including ultrasonic sensor, temperature sensor, and optical sensor. Covers construction, working, programming, and interfacing of IO devices. Discusses programming, interfacing construction, and working of relay with the Arduino board for controlling high-voltage devices. Covers interfacing diagram of devices with the Arduino board. Provides videos demonstrating the implementation of programs on the Arduino board.
Passive House Details introduces the concepts, principles, and design processes of building ultralow-energy buildings. The objective of this book is to provide design goals, research, analysis, systems, details, and inspiring images of some of the most energy-efficient, carbon-neutral, healthy, and satisfying buildings currently built in the region. Other topics included: heat transfer, moisture management, performance targets, and climatic zones. Illustrated with more than 375 color images, the book is a visual catalog of construction details, materials, and systems drawn from projects contributed from forty firms. Fourteen in-depth case studies demonstrate the most energy-efficient systems for foundations, walls, floors, roofs, windows, doors, and more.
Intelligent Control of Connected Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles presents the development of real-time intelligent control systems for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, which involves control-oriented modelling, controller design, and performance evaluation. The controllers outlined in the book take advantage of advances in vehicle communications technologies, such as global positioning systems, intelligent transportation systems, geographic information systems, and other on-board sensors, in order to provide look-ahead trip data. The book contains simple and efficient models and fast optimization algorithms for the devised controllers to address the challenge of real-time implementation in the design of complex control systems. Using the look-ahead trip information, the authors of the book propose intelligent optimal model-based control systems to minimize the total energy cost, for both grid-derived electricity and fuel. The multilayer intelligent control system proposed consists of trip planning, an ecological cruise controller, and a route-based energy management system. An algorithm that is designed to take advantage of previewed trip information to optimize battery depletion profiles is presented in the book. Different control strategies are compared and ways in which connecting vehicles via vehicle-to-vehicle communication can improve system performance are detailed. Intelligent Control of Connected Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles is a useful source of information for postgraduate students and researchers in academic institutions participating in automotive research activities. Engineers and designers working in research and development for automotive companies will also find this book of interest. Advances in Industrial Control reports and encourages the transfer of technology in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology has an impact on all areas of the control discipline. The series offers an opportunity for researchers to present an extended exposition of new work in all aspects of industrial control.
This book presents select peer-reviewed proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in VLSI and Embedded Systems (AVES 2019) held at SVNIT, Surat, Gujarat, India. The book covers cutting-edge original research in VLSI design, devices and emerging technologies, embedded systems, and CAD for VLSI. With an aim to address the demand for complex and high-functionality systems as well as portable consumer electronics, the contents focus on basic concepts of circuit and systems design, fabrication, testing, and standardization. This book can be useful for students, researchers as well as industry professionals interested in emerging trends in VLSI and embedded systems.
OPEC and the World's Energy Future offers a complete account of OPEC's past, present, and possible future in relation to economic, political, and technological changes. It focuses on the impacts of recent international political and economic developments and analyzes the factors affecting OPEC as well as the world oil market. Offers readers a thorough understanding of the interplay among international economics, politics, and technological advances and their effect on the world oil market Describes the continued importance of oil and gas as major sources of energy throughout the world Examines OPEC's history and merits, highlights differences among OPEC members, and discusses OPEC's relations with the outside world Illustrates the impact of new technologies and how they may challenge and change the organization in the near and long term Aimed at policy makers, managers, scientists, and technologists in the oil and gas industry, this work offers readers a thorough understanding of the interplay among international economics, politics, and technological advances and their effect on the world oil market.
This collection addresses the pressing needs for sustainable technologies with reduced energy consumption and environmental pollutions and the development and application of alternative sustainable energy to maintain a green environment and efficient and long-lasting energy supply. Contributors represent both industry and academia and focus on new and efficient energy technologies including innovative ore beneficiation, smelting technologies, and recycling and waste heat recovery, as well as emerging novel energy solutions. The volume also covers a broad range of mature and new technological aspects of sustainable energy ecosystems, processes that improve energy efficiency, reduce thermal emissions, and reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse emissions. Authors also explore the valorization of materials and their embodied energy including byproducts or coproducts from ferrous and nonferrous industries, batteries, electronics, and other complex secondary materials.
Accurate, fast, and reliable fault classification techniques are an important operational requirement in modern-day power transmission systems. Application of Signal Processing Tools and Neural Network in Diagnosis of Power System Faults examines power system faults and conventional techniques of fault analysis. The authors provide insight into artificial neural networks and their applications, with illustrations, for identifying power system faults. Wavelet transform and its application are discussed as well as an elaborate method of Stockwell transform. The authors also employ probabilistic neural networks (PNN) and back propagation neural networks (BPNN) to identify the different types of faults and determine their corresponding locations, respectively. Both PNN and BPNN are presented in detail, and their applications are illustrated through simple programming in MATLAB (R). Furthermore, their applications in fault diagnosis are discussed through multiple case studies. FEATURES Explores methods of fault identification through programming and simulation in MATLAB (R) Examines signal processing tools and their applications with examples Provides knowledge of artificial neural networks and their application with illustrations Uses PNN and BPNN to identify the different types of faults and obtain their corresponding locations Discusses the programming of signal processing using wavelet transform and Stockwell transform This book is designed for engineering students and for practitioners. Readers will find methods of programming and simulation of any network in MATLAB (R) as well as ways to extract features from a signal waveform by using a suitable signal processing toolbox and by application of artificial neural networks.
There currently is no in-depth book dedicated to the challenge of the Internet of Everything and Big Data technologies in smart cities. Humankind today is confronting a critical worldwide portability challenge and the framework that moves cities must keep pace with the innovation. Internet of Everything and Big Data: Major Challenges in Smart Cities reviews the applications, technologies, standards, and other issues related to smart cities. This book is dedicated to addressing the major challenges in realizing smart cities and sensing platforms in the era of Big Data cities and Internet of Everything. Challenges vary from cost and energy efficiency to availability and service quality. This book examines security issues and challenges, addresses the total information science challenges, covers exploring and creating IoT environment-related sales adaptive systems, and investigates basic and high-level concepts using the latest techniques implemented by researchers and businesses. The book is written for analysts, researchers, and specialists who are working on the future generation of the technologies. It will serve as a valuable guide for those in the industry, and students as well.
This book introduces readers to novel, efficient and user-friendly software tools for power systems studies, to issues related to distributed and dispersed power generation, and to the correlation between renewable power generation and electricity demand. Discussing new methodologies for addressing grid stability and control problems, it also examines issues concerning the safety and protection of transmission and distribution networks, energy storage and power quality, and the application of embedded systems to these networks. Lastly, the book sheds light on the implications of these new methodologies and developments for the economics of the power industry. As such, it offers readers a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art research on modern electricity transmission and distribution networks.
This book provides state-of-the-art reviews, the latest research, prospects and challenges of the production of platform chemicals such as C6 sugars, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, gamma-valerolactone, xylitol, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, levulinic acid, ethanol and others from sustainable biomass resources using processes that include heterogeneous catalysis, ionic liquids, hydrothermal/solvothermal, electrochemical and fermentation methods. It also discusses the application of these chemicals and their derivatives for synthesizing commodity chemicals via various routes. Intended as a reference resource for researchers, academicians and industrialists in the area of energy, chemical engineering and biomass conversion, it provides a wealth of information essential for assessing the production and application of various biomass-derived platform chemicals using biological, chemical and electrochemical techniques.
A summary of the results achieved in the geological-structural mapping, by potential fields and airborne gamma spectrometry data, of the units of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the western regions (Havana-Matanzas), central (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara-Sancti Spiritus) and central-eastern (Camaguey-Las Tunas-Holguin) of Cuba is presented. In addition, the structural- tectonic regionalization with hydrocarbon exploration purposes, focusing mapping of possible new oil-gas targets in the regions of Land Blocks 9, 23 and 17-18 are detailed in this volume. In certain case study locations (Majaguillar, North Motembo, Guamutas and Maniabon) reconnaissance work by a profile of Redox Complex (complex of unconventional geophysical-geochemical exploration techniques) was performed with positive results. In an attempt to contribute to the geological-structural mapping of the metamorphic massif Isla de la Juventud, with emphasis on acid magmatism, the gravi-magnetometric data is used. According to the results, the presumed post metamorphic granitic bodies of low density are located, mainly, in the central and southwestern part of the massif. The granitic bodies apparently were introduced through the system of longitudinal faults (syn metamorphic) and transverse (post metamorphic) at the end of the process multyfolding and metamorphism of the massif sequences, taking a leading role the deep longitudinal fracture zones of sublatitudinal direction in the central and southern part of the massif. On the map of the magnetic field vertical derivative the anomalies, basically, reflected the direction and limits of the folded tectonic structure, the development area of volcanogenic rocks, the presumed development zones of migmatitic rocks and tectonised rocks in North and center of the massif, respectively, and the prevailing direction of the main tectonic dislocations.
Design, Deployment and Operation of a Hydrogen Supply Chain introduces current energy system and the challenges that may hinder the large-scale adoption of hydrogen as an energy carrier. It covers the different aspects of a methodological framework for designing a HSC, including production, storage, transportation and infrastructure. Each technology's advantages and drawbacks are evaluated, including their technology readiness level (TRL). The multiple applications of hydrogen for energy are presented, including use in fuel cells, combustion engines, as an alternative to natural gas and power to gas. Through analysis and forecasting, the authors explore deployment scenarios, considering the dynamic aspect of HSCs. In addition, the book proposes methods and tools that can be selected for a multi-criteria optimal design, including performance drivers and economic, environmental and societal metrics. Due to its systems-based approach, this book is ideal for engineering professionals, researchers and graduate students in the field of energy systems, energy supply and management, process systems and even policymakers.
Wind Turbine Foundations (ICE Themes) presents fourteen chapters covering the latest international research and case studies on offshore wind farm foundations. Chapters encompass field observations on sites in several countries as well as computational and laboratory studies. Ground conditions vary from soft clay to dense sand. Key features of this book include (1) broad coverage of the subject including monopile foundations, axial loaded piles and suction caissons; (2) international scope with authors from Australia, Ireland, Tanzania, Norway, Greece, China and the United Kingdom; and (3) an overview of key issues. This book, which has been edited by two leading experts in the field is an ideal resource for engineers and researchers seeking an overview of the latest research in this exciting area.
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