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Solar energy conversion plays a very important role in the rapid introduction of renewable energy, which is essential to meet future energy demands without further polluting the environment, but current solar panels based on silicon are expensive due to the cost of raw materials and high energy consumption during production. The way forward is to move towards thin-film solar cells using alternative materials and low-cost manufacturing methods. The photovoltaic community is actively researching thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), and dye-sensitised and organic materials. However, progress has been slow due to a lack of proper understanding of the physics behind these devices. This book concentrates on the latest developments and attempts to improve our understanding of solid-state device physics. The material presented is mainly experimental and based on CdTe thin-film solar cells. The author extends these new findings to CIGS thin-film solar cells and presents a new device design based on graded bandgap multi-layer solar cells. This design has been experimentally tested using the well-researched GaAs/AlGaAs system, and initial devices have shown impressive device parameters. These devices are capable of absorbing all radiation (UV, visible and infra-red) within the solar spectrum and combine "impact ionisation" and "impurity photovoltaic" effects. The improved device understanding presented in this book should impact and guide future photovoltaic device development and low-cost thin-film solar panel manufacture. This new edition features an additional chapter besides exercises and their solutions, which will be useful for academics teaching in this field.
With emphasis on power system protection from the network operator perspective, this classic textbook explains the fundamentals of relaying and power system phenomena including stability, protection and reliability. The fourth edition brings coverage up-to-date with important advancements in protective relaying due to significant changes in the conventional electric power system that will integrate renewable forms of energy and, in some countries, adoption of the Smart Grid initiative. New features of the Fourth Edition include: * an entirely new chapter on protection considerations for renewable energy sources, looking at grid interconnection techniques, codes, protection considerations and practices. * new concepts in power system protection such as Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) and system integrity protection (SIPS) -how to use WAMS for protection, and SIPS and control with WAMS. * phasor measurement units (PMU), transmission line current differential, high voltage dead tank circuit breakers, and relays for multi-terminal lines. * revisions to the Bus Protection Guide IEEE C37.234 (2009) and to the sections on additional protective requirements and restoration. Used by universities and industry courses throughout the world, Power System Relaying is an essential text for graduate students in electric power engineering and a reference for practising relay and protection engineers who want to be kept up to date with the latest advances in the industry.
This book presents a wide-ranging review of the latest research and development directions in thermal systems optimization using population-based metaheuristic methods. It helps readers to identify the best methods for their own systems, providing details of mathematical models and algorithms suitable for implementation. To reduce mathematical complexity, the authors focus on optimization of individual components rather than taking on systems as a whole. They employ numerous case studies: heat exchangers; cooling towers; power generators; refrigeration systems; and others. The importance of these subsystems to real-world situations from internal combustion to air-conditioning is made clear. The thermal systems under discussion are analysed using various metaheuristic techniques, with comparative results for different systems. The inclusion of detailed MATLAB (R) codes in the text will assist readers-researchers, practitioners or students-to assess these techniques for different real-world systems. Thermal System Optimization is a useful tool for thermal design researchers and engineers in academia and industry, wishing to perform thermal system identification with properly optimized parameters. It will be of interest for researchers, practitioners and graduate students with backgrounds in mechanical, chemical and power engineering.
The federal government has encouraged the development and use of alternative fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with aviation and to enhance economic development and energy security for the United States. To help achieve these goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the aviation industry is actively supporting alternative jet fuels. This book examines the role of the federal government in the development and use of alternative jet fuels; and key challenges to developing and using alternative jet fuels and actions that the federal government plans to or could take to help address those challenges.
Since 2004, the federal government has made efforts to facilitate demand-response activities, including expanding their use in wholesale electricity markets. Among these efforts, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued regulatory orders affecting Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO)entities that operate the transmission system and administer wholesale markets in some parts of the country. For example, FERC issued orders approving RTO rules for quantifying the extent of demand-response activities and compensating consumers for their demand-response activities. This book provides an update since 2004 and discusses federal efforts to facilitate demand-response activities; FERC efforts to collect and report data on demand response activities; changes in the extent of demand-response activities; key benefits and challenges of current efforts.
Learn how envelope tracking, polar modulation, and hybrid designs using these techniques, really work. The first physically based and coherent book to bring together a complete overview of such circuit techniques, this is an invaluable resource for practising engineers, researchers and graduate students working on RF power amplifiers and transmitters. Learn how to create more successful designs. * Step-by-step design guidelines and real world case studies show you how to put these techniques into practice * A survey of how various transistor technologies help you to choose which transistor type to use for best results * Detail on the test and measurement of all aspects of these designs explains how to measure what the circuit is actually doing and how to interpret measurement results.
This book explores various facets of the transition to renewable energy in the Arctic region. It critically examines the adverse effects of fossil fuel extraction and use, environmental and social impacts of climate change, and the possibility of a low carbon energy system through innovation and technology. Drawing together a diverse range of contributors and considering a range of new energy sources, this volume also looks at the scale of the transition challenges in the Arctic energy production and use, the necessary flexibility to balance energy demand and supply, the need of a more integrated energy infrastructure, and the new energy business models, health and safety, and quality standards for the region. Finally, it examines the transit and influence between Arctic and non-Arctic countries, in terms of growth, partnerships and new dynamics of a transitioning process to a sustainable energy system. Focusing on specific case studies that represent the most relevant energy projects in the region, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of energy policy and transitions, climate change, global business and sustainable development.
This level 3 qualification helps learners develop the knowledge and practical skills required to carry out inspection and testing on electrical installations. The qualification offers three pathways depending on the type of inspection and testing required or previous qualifications gained by learners. 2391 is intended for practising electricians who want to expand their skills and knowledge in the area of Initial Verification and/or Periodic Inspection and continue their professional development. The book will: Include guidelines and advice about sitting the exam Include practice examinations, with fully worked and 'model' answers Act as a valuable revision aid, to help students prepare for the full exam
An ideal power system operation is the pinnacle of safety, reliability, and efficiency. In Practical Power System Operation, Ebrahim Vaahedi addresses system operators viewpoints in handling power system operation issues, a holistic approach that electrical textbooks rarely take. The book covers developments in the energy landscape, energy management systems, and distribution management systems with practical applications that meet architecture and infra-structure requirements. Professional engineers and engineering students at all levels can benefit from an expert s unique perspective on efficient power systems. BC Hydro has included this book as part of the operator training material provided to new operators. If you are an instructor and would like the solutions manual for this text, please send a request to [email protected]
The Get Qualified series provides clear and concise guidance for people looking to work within the electrical industry. This book outlines why the inspection and testing of electrical installations is important, and what qualifications are required in order to test, inspect and certify. All you need to know about the subject of inspection is covered in detail, making this book the ideal guide for those who are new to the subject and experienced professionals alike. There are also sections on exam preparation, revision exercises and sample questions.
Recent technological developments have led to an increase in the domestic supply of natural gas. As a result, there is interest among some parties in exporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) to take advantage of international markets. This has placed new attention on the laws and regulations governing the export of natural gas as well as other fossil fuels. In most cases, export of fossil fuels requires federal authorisation of both the act of exporting the fuel and the facility that will be employed to export the fuel. This book discusses federal permitting and oversight of export of fossil fuels; new opportunities and uncertain outcomes of United States natural gas exports; United States coal exports; and coal as a key player in expanded United States energy exports.
This handbook aims at providing a comprehensive resource on solar energy. Primarily intended to serve as a reference for scientists, students and professionals, the book, in parts, can also serve as a text for undergraduate and graduate course work on solar energy. The book begins with availability, importance and applications of solar energy, definition of sun and earth angles and classification of solar energy as thermal and photon energy. It then goes onto cover day lighting parameters, laws of thermodynamics including energy and exergy analysis, photovoltaic modules and materials, PVT collectors, and applications such as solar drying and distillation. Energy conservation by solar energy and energy matrices based on overall thermal and electrical performance of hybrid system are also discussed. Techno-economic feasibility of any energy source is the backbone of its success and hence economic analysis is covered. Some important constants, such as exercises and problems increase the utility of the book as a text.
From the point of view of grid integration and operation, this monograph advances the subject of wind energy control from the individual-unit to the wind-farm level. The basic objectives and requirements for successful integration of wind energy with existing power grids are discussed, followed by an overview of the state of the art, proposed solutions and challenges yet to be resolved. At the individual-turbine level, a nonlinear controller based on feedback linearization, uncertainty estimation and gradient-based optimization is shown robustly to control both active and reactive power outputs of variable-speed turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. Heuristic coordination of the output of a wind farm, represented by a single equivalent turbine with energy storage to optimize and smooth the active power output is presented. A generic approximate model of wind turbine control developed using system identification techniques is proposed to advance research and facilitate the treatment of control issues at the wind-farm level. A supervisory wind-farm controller is then introduced with a view to maximizing and regulating active power output under normal operating conditions and unusual contingencies. This helps to make the individual turbines cooperate in such as way that the overall output of the farm accurately tracks a reference and/or is statistically as smooth as possible to improve grid reliability. The text concludes with an overall discussion of the promise of advanced wind-farm control techniques in making wind an economic energy source and beneficial influence on grid performance. The challenges that warrant further research are succinctly enumerated. Control and Operation of Grid-Connected Wind Farms is primarily intended for researchers from a systems and control background wishing to apply their expertise to the area of wind-energy generation. At the same time, coverage of contemporary solutions to fundamental operational problems will benefit power/energy engineers endeavoring to promote wind as a reliable and clean source of electrical power.
Despite the length of time it has been around, its importance, and vast amounts of research, combustion is still far from being completely understood. Issues regarding the environment, cost, and fuel consumption add further complexity, particularly in the process and power generation industries. Dedicated to advancing the art and science of industrial combustion, The John Zink Hamworthy Combustion Handbook, Second Edition: Volume 3 - Applications offers comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of equipment used in the process and power generation industries. Under the leadership of Charles E. Baukal, Jr., top engineers and technologists from John Zink Hamworthy Combustion examine industry applications such as process burners, boiler burners, process flares, thermal oxidizers, and vapor control. This volume builds on the concepts covered in the first two volumes and shows how they are used in combustion applications. The book also features a wealth of color illustrations, photographs, and tables throughout. What's New in This Edition Expanded to three volumes, with Volume 3 focusing on important industry applications Extensive updates and revisions throughout, reflecting new standards, energy sources, processes, and conservation concerns Expanded coverage of flares and new coverage of biogas flares and flare gas recovery Information on vapor combustors Discussion of pollution control equipment Expanded coverage of commercial and utility boiler burners Chapters on process and air heaters More material on thermal oxidizers A new chapter on marine and offshore applications The third of three volumes in the new, expanded edition of the bestselling handbook, this volume helps you broaden your knowledge of industrial combustion applications to better meet the challenges of this field. For the other volumes in the set, see The John Zink Hamworthy Combustion Handbook, Second Edition: Three-Volume Set.
Covers all your testing and inspection needs to help you pass your exams on City & Guilds 2391 and EAL 600/4338/6 and 600/4340/4 and Part P courses. Entirely up to date with the 18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations Step-by-step descriptions and photographs of the tests show exactly how to carry them out Completion of inspection and test certification and periodic reporting Fault finding techniques Testing 3 phase and single phase motors Supporting video footage of the tests contained in this book are available on the companion website This book covers everything you need to learn about inspection and testing, with clear reference to the latest updates to the legal requirements and wiring regulations. It answers all of your questions on the basics of inspection and testing, using clear and easy to remember language, along with sample questions and scenarios as they will be encountered in the exams. Christopher Kitcher tells you what tests are needed and describes them in a step-by-step manner with the help of colour photographs and the accompanying website. All of the theory required for passing the inspecting and testing element of all electrical installation qualifications along with the AM2, City & Guilds 2391 certificate and the EAL 600/4338/6 and 600/4340/4 qualifications is contained within this easy-to-follow guide - along with some top tips to help you pass the exam itself. With a strong focus on the practical element of inspection and testing for NVQs or apprenticeships, this is also an ideal reference tool for experienced electricians and those working in allied industries on domestic and industrial installations. www.routledge.com/cw/kitcher provides a large bank of helpful video demonstrations, multiple choice questions to test your learning, and further supporting materials.
The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water, and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth's global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This volume is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. Recent advances are highlighted and opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in water purification, clean energy, greenhouse gas management, materials supply/utilization and manufacturing are discussed. Also, societal perspectives are addressed and an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development is provided.This book offers a thematic collection of papers previously published in the Journal of Nanoparticle Research."
This book introduces advanced methods of computational and information systems allowing readers to better understand the state-of-the-art design and implementation technology needed to maintain and enhance the safe operation of nuclear power plants. The subjects dealt with in the book are (i) Full digital instrumentation and control systems and human machine interface technologies (ii) Risk monitoring methods for large and complex plants (iii) Condition monitors for plant components (iv) Virtual and augmented reality for nuclear power plants and (v) Software reliability verification and validation for nuclear power plants. The target readers of this book are Ph.D. students, researchers and engineers in the field of nuclear power engineering.
This book presents the design and development of an Internet of Things (IoT) enabled, smart sensor to detect nitrate contamination in natural water. It considers three different sensors designed, fabricated and configured for nitrate detection: a Graphite/PDMS and Si-based MEMS sensors, and aFR4-based sensor. It also introduces a selective polymer material developed by means of the ion imprinting polymerization technique that was used as a coating on the Si-based MEMS sensor. Further, the book discusses the development of a smart sensing system that can be used to remotely monitor the nitrate concentration in any water. Fully explaining all the techniques used, the book is of interest to engineers, researchers and scientists working in the field of the water-quality measurement.
This book presents a comprehensive review of energy research studies from authors around the globe, including recent research in determining potential energy and environmental impacts; sustainable development and environmentally friendly systems; helping agriculture and horticulture through technology, energy efficiency and environmental protection; clean and green energy technologies; heat pump features, characteristics and refrigerants; a passive system for energy needs in green houses; design and operation of low consumption passive human comfort solutions; and the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass for better yield of bioethanol production.
We are facing a crisis that threatens the sustainability of the entire planet. Civilisation has been defined up to now by how efficiently we handle our energy needs. The focus on short-term and tangibles obscures the true vision of technology users. Perpetual justifications of progressively less efficient technologies as panaceas has become a rampant source of the profoundest disinformation. No sector has fallen bigger victim to this disinformation campaign than the petroleum industry. Today, the most efficient naturally processed fuel (fossil fuel) production is synonymous with unsustainability and compatibility with nature and the environment. Accompanying this slogan is the environmentalists' drumbeat about "renewable" energy. Everywhere people are sold on the idea that even genetically altered vegetable oil is sustainable and efficient whereas natural crude oil exploitation is not. With this slogan, it has become fashionable to replace the agricultural industry with "renewable" energy production and try to replace fossil fuel energy with nuclear energy. The industry that single-handedly served mankind a globalisation panacea on a silver platter has now become a villain worthy of being replaced with the makers of nuclear bombs and DDT. Similarly, carbon dioxide -- the essence of life and energy, through photosynthesis -- has become the other villain that must be "sequestered" and possibly replaced by hydrogen and even radioactive nuclear spent fuel.
This book examines the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Latin America, with a particular focus on Brazil. Drawing on historical developments and theoretical reflections alike, it introduces readers to the state of the art in Brazilian CSR. The authors present a range of regulatory and entrepreneurial frameworks that form the basis for business and CSR activities in Brazil. In a number of detailed case studies from various Brazilian institutions and enterprises, the book provides revealing insights into the practice of sustainable and responsible business conduct in this country. Subsequent chapters show the effects of anti-corruption laws, which have since informed corporations' compliance agendas, and discuss recent, massive corruption scandals. Generally speaking, the book provides a highly informative and practice-oriented resource that successfully reconciles an ostensible contradiction - corporate social responsibility and Brazil.
Do you know your fission from your fusion? You will have heard of Einstein's theory of relativity and his synonymous equation E=mc2, but do you really understand what they mean? With renewable energy a hot topic of conversation, arm yourself with the 50 most significant theories and developments that will allow you to contribute to any debate about this integral force in the universe. 30-Second Energy charts the fascinating and fundamental topics behind this phenomenon that resides in everywhere and in everything. Exploring energy as it is best understood - by example - discover how it cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed, and how plankton and other ocean-dwelling organisms can be used to power your car. From the nuclear fusion reactor at the heart of the sun to the elusive dark energy which makes up most of the content of the universe, each topic is summarized in just half a minute using no more than two pages, 300 words and one picture.
Covering technical design and construction aspects as well as financial analysis and risk assessment, this professional reference work provides a comprehensive overview of solar power technology. Whether or not you have a technology background, this essential guide will help you to understand the design, construction, financial analysis, and risk assessment of solar power technology. The first two chapters present an uncomplicated overview of solar power technology physics, solar cell technology, applications, and equipment. In subsequent chapters, readers are introduced to fundamental econometric analysis in such a way that will allow anyone, whether or not they have a background in finance, to become familiar with the fundamental costing and financing of large scale solar power programs. This book is essential reading for anyone involved with solar power project development, and is suitable for both graduate students and professionals.
Reduction in refining activity in the Northeast, as reflected in recently announced plans to idle over 50% of the regional refining capacity, is likely to impact supplies of petroleum products. The transition period as supply sources shift could be problematic for Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD), gasoline, and jet fuel supplies. Prolonged uncertainty over the coming months with regard to the disposition and operation of important logistical assets such as pipelines, ports and storage would compound adjustment challenges. Reduced short-term product supply flexibility due to longer delivery times and potential transportation bottlenecks for sources outside the region could also increase price volatility. This book explores potential developments of Northeast refinery reductions with a focus on alternative supply options; available pipeline capacity, implications for regional transportation fuels markets, heating oil supply and prices in the Northeast, and fuel security for the military.
This SpringerBrief reviews currently applied and potential solutions for improving the efficiency and quality of rural electricity supply in India, a major bottleneck for agricultural development. It provides background on the current state of supply and reviews recent and ongoing research and development projects. One selected project, designed and conducted by the authors, is outlined in detail. The research findings, project implementation, and evaluation are intended to provide development practitioners, policy makers, and applied researchers with experience from the field. At the core of this Brief is the integration of technical and social solutions, emphasizing the role of collective action, and the merits and demerits of small-scale, technically simple measures.
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