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This book, the outgrowth of a graduate course the authors taught at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was designed to fill an
urgent need--the training of engineers in the production of
synthetic fuels to replace dwindling supplies of natural ones. The
authors presented synthetic fuels as a unified engineering subject,
while recognizing that many of its principles are well-understood
aspects of various engineering fields.
An international group of leading scientists from the field has
contributed to the 12th volume in this series, covering a range of
different types of solar cells and including a critical comparison
of the different techniques available for manufacturing the
In this handbook, the editors systematically present the maximum possible number of known eco-materials, including "cyclic" materials; materials for ecology and environmental protection; materials for society and human health; and materials for energy based on two main criteria: their sources and their functions. Eco-materials (also called "environmentally friendly materials" or "environmentally preferable" materials) are materials that enhance, or refrain from damaging, the environment throughout their life cycles. The chapters are written by global leaders in their fields. The book will cater to the strong and ever-increasing demand for energy, benign materials, and cost efficiency. Eco-materials is arguably one of the most important fields of modern science & technology.
Guidance Note 4: Protection Against Fire is a vital guide to an important safety aspect of working with electricity. It is aimed at everyone involved with fire safety in electrical installations, including consulting engineers, electrical installers, inspectors and technicians and has been fully updated to BS 7671:2018. The 18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations publishes in July 2018 and comes into effect on 1st January 2019. All new installations from this point must comply with BS 7671:2018.
The applications of electromagnetic phenomena within electrical engineering have been evolving and progressing at a fast pace. In contrast, the underlying principles have been stable for a long time and are not expected to undergo any changes. It is these electromagnetic field fundamentals that are the subject of discussion in this book with an emphasis on basic principles, concepts and governing laws that apply across the electrical engineering discipline.
"Electromagnetic Foundations of Electrical Engineering" begins with an explanation of Maxwell's equations, from which the fundamental laws and principles governing the static and time-varying electric and magnetic fields are derived. Results for both slowly- and rapidly-varying electromagnetic field problems are discussed in detail.
Key aspects: Offers a project portfolio, with detailed solutions included on the companion website, which draws together aspects from various chapters so as to ensure comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals. Provides end-of-chapter homework problems with a focus on engineering applications. Progresses chapter by chapter to increasingly more challenging topics, allowing the reader to grasp the more simple phenomena and build upon these foundations. Enables the reader to attain a level of competence to subsequently progress to more advanced topics such as electrical machines, power system analysis, electromagnetic compatibility, microwaves and radiation.
This book is aimed at electrical engineering students and faculty staff in sub-disciplines as diverse as power and energy systems, circuit theory and telecommunications. It will also appeal to existing electrical engineeringprofessionals with a need for a refresher course in electromagnetic foundations.
The new edition of this thoroughly considered textbook provides a reliable, accessible and comprehensive guide for students of photovoltaic applications and renewable energy engineering. Written by a group of award-winning authors it is brimming with information and is carefully designed to meet the needs of its readers. Along with exercises and references at the end of each chapter, it features a set of detailed technical appendices that provide essential equations, data sources and standards. The new edition has been fully updated with the latest information on photovoltaic cells, modules, applications and policy. Starting from basics with 'The Characteristics of Sunlight' the reader is guided step-by-step through semiconductors and p-n junctions; the behaviour of solar cells; cell properties and design; and PV cell interconnection and module fabrication. The book covers stand-alone photovoltaic systems; specific purpose photovoltaic systems; remote area power supply systems; grid-connected photovoltaic systems and water pumping. Applied Photovoltaics is highly illustrated and very accessible, providing the reader with all the information needed to start working with photovoltaics.
A Step-by-step Guide to Developing Innovative Computational
Tools for Shallow Geothermal Systems
This book addresses computational modeling of shallow geothermal systems in considerable detail, and provides researchers and developers in computational mechanics, geosciences, geology and geothermal engineering with the means to develop computational tools capable of modeling the complicated nature of heat flow in shallow geothermal systems in rather straightforward methodologies. Coupled conduction-convection models for heat flow in borehole heat exchangers and the surrounding soil mass are formulated and solved using analytical, semi-analytical and numerical methods. Background theories, enhanced by numerical examples, necessary for formulating the models and conducting the solutions are thoroughly addressed.
The book emphasizes two main aspects: mathematical modeling and computational procedures. In geothermics, both aspects are considerably challenging because of the involved geometry and physical processes. However, they are highly stimulating and inspiring. A good combination of mathematical modeling and computational procedures can greatly reduce the computational efforts. This book thoroughly treats this issue and introduces step-by-step methodologies for developing innovative computational models, which are both rigorous and computationally efficient.
PEM Fuel Cell Failure Mode Analysis presents a systematic analysis of PEM fuel cell durability and failure modes. It provides readers with a fundamental understanding of insufficient fuel cell durability, identification of failure modes and failure mechanisms of PEM fuel cells, fuel cell component degradation testing, and mitigation strategies against degradation.
The first several chapters of the book examine the degradation of various fuel cell components, including degradation mechanisms, the effects of operating conditions, mitigation strategies, and testing protocols. The book then discusses the effects of different contamination sources on the degradation of fuel cell components and explores the relationship between external environment and the degradation of fuel cell components and systems. It also reviews the correlation between operational mode, such as start-up and shut-down, and the degradation of fuel cell components and systems. The last chapter explains how the design of fuel cell hardware relates to failure modes.
Written by international scientists active in PEM fuel cell research, this volume is enriched with practical information on various failure modes analysis for diagnosing cell performance and identifying failure modes of degradation. This in turn helps in the development of mitigation strategies and the increasing commercialization of PEM fuel cells.
Prepare for electrical inspections based on the 2005 NEC(R) rules, and keep projects on track with self-inspections. Written by certified electrical inspectors and endorsed by the IAEI, Electrical Inspection Manual with Checklists spells out, point by point, the items inspectors are required to check, on the full range of electrical installations. Checklists in this edition are significantly revised with up-to-date NEC references, so you can always pinpoint relevant Code text. The Manual brings you 70+ checklists in all, covering more than 630 items. You'll know you're ready to pass inspections in residential, commercial, industrial, and special occupancies!
Electrical Installation Design Guide: Calculations for Electricians and Designers provides step-by-step guidance on the design of electrical installations. The guide will be useful for apprentices and trainees carrying out the calculations necessary for a basic installation and has been fully updated to BS 7671:2018. The 18th Edition IET Wiring Regulations publishes in July 2018 and comes into effect on 1st January 2019. All new installations from this point must comply with BS 7671:2018.
Ubiquitous in today's consumer-driven society, embedded systems use microprocessors that are hidden in our everyday products and designed to perform specific tasks. Effective use of these embedded systems requires engineers to be proficient in all phases of this effort, from planning, design, and analysis to manufacturing and marketing. Taking a systems-level approach, Real-Time Embedded Systems: Optimization, Synthesis, and Networking describes the field from three distinct aspects that make up the three major trends in current embedded system design. The first section of the text examines optimization in real-time embedded systems. The authors present scheduling algorithms in multi-core embedded systems, instruct on a robust measurement against the inaccurate information that can exist in embedded systems, and discuss potential problems of heterogeneous optimization. The second section focuses on synthesis-level approaches for embedded systems, including a scheduling algorithm for phase change memory and scratch pad memory and a treatment of thermal-aware multiprocessor synthesis technology. The final section looks at networking with a focus on task scheduling in both a wireless sensor network and cloud computing. It examines the merging of networking and embedded systems and the resulting evolution of a new type of system known as the cyber physical system (CPS). Encouraging readers to discover how the computer interacts with its environment, Real-Time Embedded Systems provides a sound introduction to the design, manufacturing, marketing, and future directions of this important tool.
Automatic generation control (AGC) is one of the most important control problems in the design and operation of interconnected power systems. Its significance continues to grow as a result of several factors: the changing structure and increasing size, complexity, and functionality of power systems, the rapid emergence (and uncertainty) of renewable energy sources, developments in power generation/consumption technologies, and environmental constraints. Delving into the fundamentals of power system AGC, Intelligent Automatic Generation Control explores ways to make the infrastructures of tomorrow smarter and more flexible. These frameworks must be able to handle complex multi-objective regulation optimization problems, and they must be highly diversified in terms of policies, control strategies, and wide distribution in demand and supply sources-all via an intelligent scheme. The core of such intelligent systems should be based on efficient, adaptable algorithms, advanced information technology, and fast communication devices to ensure that the AGC systems can maintain generation-load balance following serious disturbances. This book addresses several new schemes using intelligent control techniques for simultaneous minimization of system frequency deviation and tie-line power changes, which is required for successful operation of interconnected power systems. It also concentrates on physical and engineering aspects and examines several developed control strategies using real-time simulations. This reference will prove useful for engineers and operators in power system planning and operation, as well as academic researchers and students in field of electrical engineering.
Taking a practical approach to the subject, Advanced Engineering Mathematics with MATLABr, Third Edition continues to integrate technology into the conventional topics of engineering mathematics. The author employs MATLAB to reinforce concepts and solve problems that require heavy computation. MATLAB scripts are available for download at www.crcpress.com Along with new examples, problems, and projects, this updated and expanded edition incorporates several significant improvements. New to the Third Edition * New chapter on Green's functions * New section that uses the matrix exponential to solve systems of differential equations * More numerical methods for solving differential equations, including Adams-Bashforth and finite element methods * New chapter on probability that presents basic concepts, such as mean, variance, and probability density functions * New chapter on random processes that focuses on noise and other random fluctuations Suitable for a differential equations course or a variety of engineering mathematics courses, the text covers fundamental techniques and concepts as well as Laplace transforms, separation of variable solutions to partial differential equations, the z-transform, the Hilbert transform, vector calculus, and linear algebra. It also highlights many modern applications in engineering to show how these topics are used in practice. A solutions manual is available for qualifying instructors.
Edited by Takashi Yamaguchi, Mitsuo Hirate, and Chee Khiang Pang, with contributions from pioneers known for their ground-breaking work, High-Speed Precision Motion Control discusses high-precision and fast servo controls in hard disk drives (HDDs). The chapter authors describe the control technologies they've developed, most of which have already been successfully applied to mass production of HDDs. As the proposed methodologies have been verified on commercial HDDs at the very least, these advanced control technologies can also be readily applied to precision motion control of other mechatronic systems, e.g., scanners, micro-positioners, photocopiers, atomic force microscopes (AFMs), etc. Each self-contained chapter progresses from concept to technique and presents application examples in automotive, aerospace, aeronautical, and manufacturing engineering. The control technologies are categorized into high-speed servo control, precision control, and environment-friendly control, making it easy to find an appropriate control technology according to their domain of application. The book also makes MATLAB (R)/SIMULINK (R) codes for benchmark problems available for download. The control technologies described range from fundamental classical control theories to advanced topics such as multi-rate control. The content contains a healthy balance between materials from the contributor's research works and that in the wider literature. The resulting resource empowers engineers and managers with the knowledge and know-how to make important decisions and policies.
Presents current research into electromagnetic computation theories with particular emphasis on Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method This book is the first to consolidate current research and to examine the theories of electromagnetic computation methods in relation to lightning surge protection. The authors introduce and compare existing electromagnetic computation methods such as the method of moments (MOM), the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC), the finite element method (FEM), the transmission-line modeling (TLM) method, and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The application of FDTD method to lightning protection studies is a topic that has matured through many practical applications in the past decade, and the authors explain the derivation of Maxwell s equations required by the FDTD, and modeling of various electrical components needed in computing lightning electromagnetic fields and surges with the FDTD method. The book describes the application of FDTD method to current and emerging problems of lightning surge protection of continuously more complex installations, particularly in critical infrastructures of energy and information, such as overhead power lines, air-insulated sub-stations, wind turbine generator towers and telecommunication towers. * Both authors are internationally recognized experts in the area of lightning study and this is the first book to present current research in lightning surge protection * Examines in detail why lightning surges occur and what can be done to protect against them * Includes theories of electromagnetic computation methods and many examples of their application * Accompanied by a sample printed program based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method written in C++ program
First published in 1992, Women's Employment and the Capitalist Family is an analysis of the contemporary political interest in the position of women. The author critically assesses much of the literature examining the rapidly changing lives of women and contributes to it by offering an explanation of women's labour-market participation. In particular, the book deals with the domestic labour market debate, the role of patriarchy theory, gender and labour-market theory, periodising the capitalist family and the specific position of working women in the British economy. Despite the theoretical stand-point, the book avoids technicalities and is accessible to a wide, interdisciplinary audience.
A comprehensive overview of nonlinear H control theory for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems, Nonlinear H -Control, Hamiltonian Systems and Hamilton-Jacobi Equations covers topics as diverse as singular nonlinear H -control, nonlinear H -filtering, mixed H2/ H -nonlinear control and filtering, nonlinear H -almost-disturbance-decoupling, and algorithms for solving the ubiquitous Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equations. The link between the subject and analytical mechanics as well as the theory of partial differential equations is also elegantly summarized in a single chapter. Recent progress in developing computational schemes for solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation (HJE) has facilitated the application of Hamilton-Jacobi theory in both mechanics and control. As there is currently no efficient systematic analytical or numerical approach for solving them, the biggest bottle-neck to the practical application of the nonlinear equivalent of the H -control theory has been the difficulty in solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs partial differential-equations (or inequalities). In light of this challenge, the author hopes to inspire continuing research and discussion on this topic via examples and simulations, as well as helpful notes and a rich bibliography. Nonlinear H -Control, Hamiltonian Systems and Hamilton-Jacobi Equations was written for practicing professionals, educators, researchers and graduate students in electrical, computer, mechanical, aeronautical, chemical, instrumentation, industrial and systems engineering, as well as applied mathematics, economics and management.
Essential background reading for engineers and scientists working in such fields as communications, control, signal, and image processing, radar and sonar, radio astronomy, seismology, remote sensing, and instrumentation. The book can be used as a textbook for a single course, as well as a combination of an introductory and an advanced course, or even for two separate courses, one in signal detection, the other in estimation.
The intensive exploration of natural resources has begun to take a heavy toll on the environment, economic models appear to have been worn out, and major cultural and technological transformations are underway. The energy issue is particularly important in the context of the technological and economic transformations that are in progress and which will be consolidated in the near future. In the search for environmental sustainability, renewable energy is the key. Brazil, with its potential in terms of available agricultural land, excellent weather conditions, and considerable levels of specific technological development, stands out as a target for investment and great opportunity in the sector. The Brazilian Renewable Energy Yearbook - Renergy - in its first edition, maps out the renewable energy sector in Brazil, identifying potential, obstacles, and perspectives. Besides the now traditional ethanol and biodiesel, this yearbook presents a structured and holistic vision of an economic sector that will create profound transformation in the global economy. Renowned professionals have written technical articles on the role played by biomass, small hydroelectric plants and wind and solar energy in Brazil's energy matrix. Other points, such as logistical challenges and investments in land for greenfield projects are also presented. Information and analysis can also be found on biofuels, carbon credits, and governmental policy on other continents, as well as, finally, energetic analysis. The Renewable Energy Yearbook is a strategic planning tool which, in providing the most reliable information, will be of great use to investors, professionals in the area, researchers, academics, and others. English & Portuguese bi-lingual edition; available in hardback and CD-ROM.
This third edition of Basic Electrical Engineering provides a comprehensive coverage of the principles of electrical engineering for both electrical as well as non-electrical undergraduate students of engineering. Bsides an exhaustive coverage of topics such as network theory and analysis, magnetic circuits and energy conversion, ac and dc machines, basic analogue instruments, and power systems, the book also covers new topics based on review feedback including Millman's Theorem and Compensation Theorem for DC excitation. The book provides a chapter overview and recapitulation of important formulae in every chapter. It enables quick understanding of concepts through a wealth of well-illustrated figures and solved examples. It also supports numerous chapter-end exercises and multiple choice questions.
Nature offers abundant renewable resources that can be used to partially replace fossil fuels and commodity chemicals but issues of cost, technology readiness levels, and compatibility with existing distribution networks remain huge challenges. Cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel are the most immediately obvious target fuels, with hydrogen, methane and butanol as other potentially viable products. This book continues to bridge the technology gap and focus on critical aspects of lignocellulosic biomolecules and the respective mechanisms regulating their bioconversion to liquid fuels into energy and value-added products of industrial significance. This book is a collection of reviews elucidating several broad-ranging areas of progress and challenges in the utilization of sustainable resources of renewable energy, especially in biofuels. This book comes just at a time when government and industries are accelerating their efforts in the exploration of alternative energy resources, with expectations of the establishment of long-term sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based liquid fuels. Apart from liquid fuel this book also emphasizes the use of sustainable resources for value-added products, which may help in revitalizing the biotechnology industry at a broader scale. This book also provides a comprehensive review of basic literature and advance research methodologies to graduate students studying environmental microbiology, chemical engineering, bio-economy and microbial biotechnology.
Features * Offers a hands-on tutorial on interactive dynamic-system modeling and simulation * Includes examples from physics, aerospace engineering, population dynamics, and physiology * Contains hints for selecting integration rules and step size * Provides a complete, industrial-strength simulation program package on an accompanying CD-ROM New to This Edition * Introduces a new vectorizing compiler for fast vector operations and parameter-influence studies * Incorporates a new treatment of the difference equation programs for modeling sampled-data control systems with digital controllers * Presents improved versions of several classical simulation programs to illustrate useful programming tricks Summary Showing you how to use personal computers for modeling and simulation, Interactive Dynamic-System Simulation, Second Edition provides a practical tutorial on interactive dynamic-system modeling and simulation. It discusses how to effectively simulate dynamical systems, such as aerospace vehicles, power plants, chemical processes, control systems, and physiological systems. Written by a pioneer in simulation, the book introduces dynamic-system models and explains how software for solving differential equations works. After demonstrating real simulation programs with simple examples, the author integrates a new treatment of the difference equation programs needed to model sampled-data control systems with digital controllers. Subsequent chapters provide detailed programming know-how. These chapters cover library, table-lookup, user-definable, limiter, switching, and noise functions; an experiment-protocol scripting language; powerful vector and matrix operations; and classical simulation programs that illustrate a number of useful programming tricks. The final chapter shows how experiment-protocol scripts and compiled DYNAMIC program segments can quickly solve mathematical problems, including fast graph plotting, Fourier transforms
A comprehensive reference to renewable energy technologies with a focus on power generation and integration into power systems This book addresses the generation of energy (primarily electrical) through various renewable sources. It discusses solar and wind power two major resources that are now in use in small as well as large-scale power production and their requirements for effectively using advanced control techniques.In addition, the book looks at theintegration of renewable energy in the power grid and its ability to work in a micro grid. Operation and Control of Renewable Energy Systems describes the numerous types of renewable energy sources available and the basic principles involving energy conversion, including the theory of fluid mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics. Chapter coverage includes the theory of power electronics and various electric power generators, grid scale energy storage systems, photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal energy conversion technology, horizontal and vertical wind turbines for power generation, and more. * Covers integration into power systems with an emphasis on microgrids * Introduces a wide range of subjects related to renewable energy systems, including energy storage, microgrids, and battery technologies * Includes tutorial materials such as up-to-date references for wind energy, grid connection, and power electronics plus worked examples and solutions Operation and Control of Renewable Energy Systems is the perfect introduction to renewable energy technologies for undergraduate and graduate students and can also be very useful to practicing engineers.
Renewable fuels, such as wind, solar, biomass, tides, and
geothermal, are inexhaustible, indigenous, and often free. However,
capturing them and transforming them into electricity, hydrogen, or
clean transporation fuels often is not. Green Energy: Technology,
Economics, and Policy addresses how to approach and apply
technology, economics, and policy to bring down the costs involved
with renewables, the most important challenge faced in the green
era. Intended for students and professionals in resources, energy
and environmental engineering and in economic fields focusing on
Highlighting the capabilities, limitations, and benefits of wind power, Wind Turbine Technology gives you a complete introduction and overview of wind turbine technology and wind farm design and development. It identifies the critical components of a wind turbine, describes the functional capabilities of each component, and examines the latest performance parameters and procurement specifications for these components. From cutting-edge design aspects to experimental data, this comprehensive reference contains eight chapters-each dedicated to a specific design aspect of wind turbine technology. It examines potential wind turbine installation configurations, along with the structural requirements for the tower and nacelle. The book also: Presents site wind speed prediction techniques Addresses the integration of wind farms into the electrical power system, including power quality and system stability Describes wind speed frequency distribution and the structure of turbulence Details design and analysis techniques, as well as the functions of wind turbine controllers The book uses a conventional nomenclature and consistent sets of symbols and units throughout to present the information in a manner that's easy to understand. It also explains how to compare electrical energy generation costs from wind turbine installation with those of other renewable energy sources.
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