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The recommendations summarise the state of the art. Their aim is the proper exploitation of the ground for geothermal purposes without adversely affecting the ground or the groundwater on the one hand and the operation of the system and nearby buildings on the other. The recommendations should be used during consulting, design, installation and operation in order to achieve optimum and sustainable use of the ground at a specific location. Authorities responsible for supervising and approving projects can use the recommendations as a guide when taking decisions and making stipulations. The Geothermal Energy Study Group was set up in Bochum in 2004 and became the joint DGGV/DGGT study group in 2007. Some 20 specialists from universities, authorities and engineering consultants are active in the group and meet two or three times a year.
Get a firm handle on the engineering reliability process with this insightful and complete resource The newly and thoroughly revised 3rd Edition of Reliability Engineering delivers a comprehensive and insightful analysis of this crucial field. Accomplished author, professor, and engineer, Elsayed. A. Elsayed includes new examples and end-of-chapter problems to illustrate concepts, new chapters on resilience and the physics of failure, revised chapters on reliability and hazard functions, and more case studies illustrating the approaches and methodologies described within. The book combines analyses of system reliability estimation for time independent and time dependent models with the construction of the likelihood function and its use in estimating the parameters of failure time distribution. It concludes by addressing the physics of failures, mechanical reliability, and system resilience, along with an explanation of how to ensure reliability objectives by providing preventive and scheduled maintenance and warranty policies. This new edition of Reliability Engineering covers a wide range of topics, including: Reliability and hazard functions, like the Weibull Model, the Exponential Model, the Gamma Model, and the Log-Logistic Model, among others System reliability evaluations, including parallel-series, series-parallel, and mixed parallel systems The concepts of time- and failure-dependent reliability within both repairable and non-repairable systems Parametric reliability models, including types of censoring, and the Exponential, Weibull, Lognormal, Gamma, Extreme Value, Half-Logistic, and Rayleigh Distributions Perfect for first-year graduate students in industrial and systems engineering, Reliability Engineering, 3rd Edition also belongs on the bookshelves of practicing professionals in research laboratories and defense industries. The book offers a practical and approachable treatment of a complex area, combining the most crucial foundational knowledge with necessary and advanced topics.
Many governments worldwide are setting more stringent targets for reductions in energy use in government/public buildings. Buildings constructed more than 10 years ago account for a major share of energy used by the building stock. However, the funding and "know-how" (applied knowledge) available for owner-directed energy retrofit projects has not kept pace with new requirements. With typical retrofit projects, reduction of energy use varies between 10 and 20%, while actual executed renovation projects show that energy use reduction can exceed 50%, and can cost-effectively achieve the Passive House standard or even approach net zero-energy status (EBC Annex 61 2017a, Hermelink and Muller 2010; NBI 2014; RICS 2013; Shonder and Nasseri 2015; Miller and Higgins 2015; Emmerich et al. 2011).Building energy efficiency (EE) ranks first in approaches with resource efficiency potential with a total resource benefit of approximately $700 billion until 2030. EE is by far the cheapest way to cut CO2 emissions (McKinsey 2011, IPCC 2007). However, according to an IEA study (IEA 2014a), more than 80% of savings potential in building sector remains untapped. Thus, the share of deployed EE in the building sector is lower than in the Industry, Transport, and Energy generation sectors. Estimates for the deep renovation potentials show: EURO600-900bn investment potential, EURO1000-1300bn savings potential, 70% energy-saving potential, and 90% CO2 reduction potential.
First published in 2004. Featuring the latest information on the new technology involved in on-site power generation, this book incorporates an overview and further detailed investigations into the issues inherent in the development, use and future of microturbines.
This extensively updated second edition of the already valuable reference targets research chemists and engineers who have chosen a career in the complex and essential petroleum industry, as well as other professionals just entering the industry who seek a comprehensive and accessible resource on petroleum processing. The handbook describes and discusses the key components and processes that make up the petroleum refining industry. Beginning with the basics of crude oils and their nature, it continues with the commercial products derived from refining and with related issues concerning their environmental impact. More in depth coverage of many topics previously covered in the first edition, such as hydraulic fracturing or fracking as it is often termed, help ensure this reference remains a relevant and up-to- date resource. At its core is a complete overview of the processes that make up a modern refinery, plus a brief history of the development of processes. Also described in detail are design techniques, operations and in the case of catalytic units, the chemistry of the reaction routes. These discussions are supported by calculation procedures and examples, which enable readers to use today's simulation-software packages. The handbook also covers off-sites and utilities, as well as environmental and safety aspects relevant to the industry. The chapter on refinery planning covers both operational planning and the decision making procedures for new or revamped processes. Major equipment used in the industry is reviewed along with details and examples of the process specifications for each. An extensive glossary and dictionary of the terms and expressions used in petroleum refining, plus appendices supplying data such as converging factors and selected crude oil assays, as well as an example of optimizing a refinery configuration using linear programming are all included to aid the reader. The 2nd edition of the Handbook of Petroleum Processing is an indispensable desk reference for chemists and engineers as well as an essential part of the libraries of universities with a chemical engineering faculty and oil refineries and engineering firms performing support functions or construction.
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of fundamental topics related to blockchain. Throughout, the authors explore different vital issues and specific areas of blockchain. For convenience, the authors present the elementary description, visualize the working procedure of blockchain paradigm, and highlight the areas it can be applied in real life. They explain the blockchain process from a diverse perspective i.e. distributed Internet of Things (IoT), interdependent networks, intelligent mining, etc. They also analyze the interconnection of a blockchain network and such novel research areas to show a pathway towards a new research direction. This book also holds the core challenges and open research issues of blockchain technology, considering existing applications. Chapters include consensus mechanisms of blockchain, blockchain applicability in centralized and decentralized internet of things, blockchain interoperability from the perspective of interdependent networks, and blockchain for resource-constrained devices. Specifies the importance of theoretical methods in dealing with problems in the context of blockchain for interdependent decision making; Provides a comprehensive investigation of blockchain algorithms and the recently developed methods based on this algorithm; Provides basics and mathematical foundations needed to learn and deploy blockchain.
Improved knowledge in the field of technical objects operation and control helps manufacturers to decrease energy consumption and keep construction costs low. Moreover, it helps dealing effectively with environmental problems and switching to renewable forms of energy on the path of sustainable development of the society. The methods and technologies presented in this book will allow to improve the effectiveness of technical objects control and helps achieving safe, economical, high-quality usage of power engineering and information technologies. The book presents recent advances in power engineering, electric drives, transport systems, power electronics, cybersecurity and others. Vital issues of innovative small vehicles with using hydrogen fuel as well as boring rigs and underwater hydraulic transport pipelines are considered. The book offers a fresh look at energy-saving and energy efficiency in industry, new ideas in information technologies, paying much attention to interdisciplinary specification of the results obtained.
Introduction to AI techniques for Renewable Energy System Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques play an essential role in modeling, analysis, and prediction of the performance and control of renewable energy. The algorithms used to model, control, or predict performances of the energy systems are complicated, involving differential equations, enormous computing power, and time requirements. Instead of complex rules and mathematical routines, AI techniques can learn critical information patterns within a multidimensional information domain. Design, control, and operation of renewable energy systems require a long-term series of meteorological data such as solar radiation, temperature, or wind data. Such long-term measurements are often non-existent for most of the interest locations or, wherever they are available, they suffer from several shortcomings, like inferior quality of data, and in-sufficient long series. The book focuses on AI techniques to overcome these problems. It summarizes commonly used AI methodologies in renewal energy, with a particular emphasis on neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. It outlines selected AI applications for renewable energy. In particular, it discusses methods using the AI approach for prediction and modeling of solar radiation, seizing, performances, and controls of the solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Features Focuses on a significant area of concern to develop a foundation for the implementation of renewable energy system with intelligent techniques Showcases how researchers working on renewable energy systems can correlate their work with intelligent and machine learning approaches Highlights international standards for intelligent renewable energy systems design, reliability, and maintenance Provides insights on solar cell, biofuels, wind, and other renewable energy systems design and characterization, including the equipment for smart energy systems This book, which includes real-life examples, is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students and academicians studying AI techniques used in renewal energy systems.
The third edition of this bestseller examines the principles of artificial intelligence and their application to engineering and science, as well as techniques for developing intelligent systems to solve practical problems. Covering the full spectrum of intelligent systems techniques, it incorporates knowledge-based systems, computational intelligence, and their hybrids. Using clear and concise language, Intelligent Systems for Engineers and Scientists, Third Edition features updates and improvements throughout all chapters. It includes expanded and separated chapters on genetic algorithms and single-candidate optimization techniques, while the chapter on neural networks now covers spiking networks and a range of recurrent networks. The book also provides extended coverage of fuzzy logic, including type-2 and fuzzy control systems. Example programs using rules and uncertainty are presented in an industry-standard format, so that you can run them yourself. The first part of the book describes key techniques of artificial intelligence-including rule-based systems, Bayesian updating, certainty theory, fuzzy logic (types 1 and 2), frames, objects, agents, symbolic learning, case-based reasoning, genetic algorithms, optimization algorithms, neural networks, hybrids, and the Lisp and Prolog languages. The second part describes a wide range of practical applications in interpretation and diagnosis, design and selection, planning, and control. The author provides sufficient detail to help you develop your own intelligent systems for real applications. Whether you are building intelligent systems or you simply want to know more about them, this book provides you with detailed and up-to-date guidance. Check out the significantly expanded set of free web-based resources that support the book at: http://www.adrianhopgood.com/aitoolkit/
Drying processes are among the most energy-consuming operations in industry. Flame spray drying (FSD) is a novel approach to reduce the energy supply needed for the spray drying process. Flame Spray Drying: Equipment, Mechanism, and Perspectives describes FSD technology and current developments in flame techniques and evaluates potential industrial implementation. Details advantages of FSD in terms of energy consumption and reduced drying time Promotes applications of biofuels for the drying process Analyzes the FSD method from CFD modelling to product quality Evaluates potential safety and product degradation risks Provides examples of potential applications of the FSD technique in drying of different materials This book describes an important new technique that is useful to chemical and process engineering researchers, professionals, and students working with drying technologies.
This reference text discusses principles, design, and applications of various types of multiplier-cum-divider circuits (MCDs), and covers applications of operational amplifiers to perform as MCDs circuits The text covers principles of multiplying circuits, dividing circuits, square rooting, and vector magnitude circuits in detail. It discusses how multiplier-cum-divider circuits are developed with saw tooth and triangular waves. It covers important topics including non-linear op-amp circuits, triangular wave referenced multiplier-cum-divider with multiplexes, saw tooth wave referenced MCD with analog switches, peak responding MCD with analog switches and triangular wave referenced MCD with analog switches. The text will be useful for senior undergraduate, graduate students, and professionals in the fields of electrical engineering, and electronics and communication engineering.
This book is part of a two-volume work that offers a unique blend of information on realistic evaluations of catalyst-based synthesis processes using green chemistry principles and the environmental sustainability applications of such processes for biomass conversion, refining, and petrochemical production. The volumes provide a comprehensive resource of state-of-the-art technologies and green chemistry methodologies from researchers, academics, and chemical and manufacturing industrial scientists. The work will be of interest to professors, researchers, and practitioners in clean energy catalysis, green chemistry, chemical engineering and manufacturing, and environmental sustainability. This volume focuses on the potentials, recent advances, and future prospects of catalysis for biomass conversion and value-added chemicals production via green catalytic routes. Readers are presented with a mechanistic framework assessing the development of product selective catalytic processes for biomass and biomass-derived feedstock conversion. The book offers a unique combination of contributions from experts working on both lab-scale and industrial catalytic processes and provides insight into the use of various catalytic materials (e.g., mineral acids, heteropolyacid, metal catalysts, zeolites, metal oxides) for clean energy production and environmental sustainability.
This book addresses the underexposed political dimensions of bioeconomy promotion. Who wins and who loses? How are institutions being shaped, and by whom? Drawing from experiences since the earlier days of biofuels promotion, it explores in unprecedented detail the global drive away from fossil fuels and towards a biomass-based economy. Multipurpose agriculture gains ever more traction as countries create new bio-based value chains - or, rather, value webs. Governance, in this regard, proves to be key for steering developments towards inclusive agri-food-biomass systems instead of fueling just a handful of "flex crops" ridden with social equity and other environmental issues. Based on a rich global-level analysis of bioeconomy promotion and three in-depth case studies of key emerging economies (Brazil, India and Indonesia), the book also innovatively examines sustainability politics in Global South democracies. Ultimately, this book is about finding the politics for a fairer bioeconomy in the years and decades to come.
This book addresses the science and technology of the gasification process and the production of electricity, synthetic fuels and other useful chemicals. Pursuing a holistic approach, it covers the fundamentals of gasification and its various applications. In addition to discussing recent advances and outlining future directions, it covers advanced topics such as underground coal gasification and chemical looping combustion, and describes the state-of-the-art experimental techniques, modeling and numerical simulations, environmentally friendly approaches, and technological challenges involved. Written in an easy-to-understand format with a comprehensive glossary and bibliography, the book offers an ideal reference guide to coal and biomass gasification for beginners, engineers and researchers involved in designing or operating gasification plants.
The bright future of green IoT will change our tomorrow environment to become healthier and green, with very high quality of service that is socially, environmentally, and economically sustainable. This book covers the most recent advances in IoT, it discusses Smart City implementation, and offers both quantitative and qualitative research. It focuses on greening things such as green communication and networking, green design and implementations, green IoT services and applications, energy saving strategies, integrated RFIDs and sensor networks, mobility and network management, the cooperation of homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, smart objects, and green localization. This book with its wide range of related topics in IoT and Smart City, will be useful for graduate students, researchers, academicians, institutions, and professionals that are interested in exploring the areas of IoT and Smart City.
Safety or protective grounding is of vital importance for the protection of individuals from electric shock and structures and industrial concerns from potentially damaging lightning and electrostatic discharges. To many electrical engineers the notion of grounding is nebulous and safety grounding is quite often confused with neutral grounding of the power supply. The main objective of this book is to give the reader a better understanding of safety grounding, why it is needed, where it is needed, and what are the requirements which must be met in order to have an effective grounding system. The text as a whole serves to provide the reader with the necessary background for a better appreciation of the various National and International Standards concerned with safety grounding. This book gives the reader a good understanding of the fundamentals of safety grounding. It is a practical guide that provides a comprehensive coverage of all types of grounding requirements and is intended for students and practicing electrical engineers alike. Summarizes the physiological effects of current on the human body and the effect of current duration Gives the various methods of measuring soil resistivity and measuring the resistance to ground of an electrode or grounding system Reviews different types of ground electrodes and the effect of their geometry and numbers on the resistance to ground Presents the components of a ground system, methods of improving soil resistivity, the types of welds and joints, the criteria for determining conductor cross-sections, galvanic corrosion, and a survey of the different grounding practices used at substations and the different types of grounding systems used for the protection of consumers Deals with electrostatic and lightning hazards that can cause serious damage and the measures used to protect against such damage Throughout the text frequent reference is made to various National and International Standards and their requirements as compliance with these standards is highly advised Asser A. Zaky, Ph.D., FIET, F.Inst.P., FIEEE, is Emeritus Professor of Electrical Engineering at University of Alexandria, Egypt.
Featuring recognized academic and industrial experts in this cutting-edge field, this book reviews single cell oils (SCO) currently in the market. The text mainly focuses on the production of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Arachidonic acid, and Docosahexaenoinc acid. All chapters provide up to date references for navigating the vast amount of historic data available in the field. The authors provide real world examples of the commercial development and applications of various SCO in a variety of fields, from food ingredients and disease treatment to aquaculture and fish farming. The highlight of the book is perhaps the first chapter in which Colin Ratledge, a world renowned expert in SCO and lipid biochemistry, gives an interesting and informative overview on the history of SCO development, together with his perspectives on the future of this industry in light of competition arising from genetically modified plant oils. Zvi Cohen, a renowned expert in PUFA-producing microalgae, describes some of his metabolic studies on PUFA production and TAG biosynthesis. Chapter 10 deals with EPA-producing microalgae and some cultivation strategies for their large scale production. This chapter includes a number of tables summarizing the various organisms under investigation which I found to be of great use. Since the development of EPA single cell oils is still in its infancy, this chapter is quite helpful for researchers thinking along those lines.
This uniquely effective guide will help you master the 2017 National Electrical Code (R). The author uses highly detailed, technically accurate illustrations to make even the most complex aspects of the code easier to understand and apply, translating the often complicated language of the 2017 NEC (R) into clear, simple instructions and helpful visuals. A logical organization of topics lets you explore fundamental concepts before progressing to requirements for various dwellings, from one-family homes to multi-family housing, commercial locations, and special occupancies. In addition, a convenient, modular format makes it easy to reference relevant information as needed. The Seventh Edition of this trusted text combines accurate, up-to-date coverage of changes to the 2017 NEC, numerous new and updated illustrations, and an innovative learning approach perfect for today's visual learners, creating an indispensable resource for students and professionals alike.
This volume comprises select proceedings of ETAEERE-2016. The volume offers state-of-the-art chapters on energy management systems (EMS), renewable energy resources, micro-generation, green communications architectures and frameworks, green computing and education as well as energy-aware process optimization. The contents covers a wide variety of topics and aspects including management of renewable energy systems and environmental challenges. The contents of this volume will be useful to researchers and practicing engineers working in the areas of smart grids and renewable energy generation, distribution, and management.
The book presents a collection of peer-reviewed articles from the International Conference on Innovations in Cyber Physical Systems (ICICPS 2020). The conference provided opportunities for the presentation of new research results and discussion about them. It was also an opportunity to generation of new ideas in all CPS aspects, including theory, tools, applications, systems, test-beds and field deployments. The range of topics explored is wide, and covers security, control, optimization, machine learning, game theory, mechanism design, mobile and cloud computing, model-based design, verification, data mining/analytics, signal processing, and human-in-the-loop shared or supervisory control. This book will be useful to researchers, students, industrialist, developers, and practitioners alike.
The book covers recent trends in the field of devices, wireless communication and networking. It presents the outcomes of the International Conference in Communication, Devices and Networking (ICCDN 2018), which was organized by the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Sikkim, India on 2-3 June, 2018. Gathering cutting-edge research papers prepared by researchers, engineers and industry professionals, it will help young and experienced scientists and developers alike to explore new perspectives, and offer them inspirations on addressing real-world problems in the field of electronics, communication, devices and networking.
The advances in semiconductor detectors, scintillators, photodetectors such as SiPM, and readout electronics in the past decades have led to significant progress in terms of performance and greater choice of the detection tools in many applications. This second edition of Radiation Detection Systems presents the state-of-the-art in the design of detectors and integrated circuit design, in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. The material in the book has been divided into two volumes. The first volume on Sensor Materials, Systems, Technology and Characterization Measurements puts more emphasis on sensor materials, detector and front electronics technology and designs as well as system optimization for different applications. It also includes characterization measurements of the developed detection systems. The second volume on Medical Imaging, Industrial Testing and Security Applications is devoted to more specific applications of detection systems in medical imaging, industrial testing and security applications. However, there is an unavoidable certain overlap in topics between both volumes. With its combined coverage of new materials and innovative new system approaches, as well as a succinct overview of recent developments, this two volumes set is an invaluable tool for any engineer, professional, or student working in electronics or an associated field.
This new Routledge Pocket Book provides a user-friendly guide to the latest amendments to the 18th Edition of IET Wiring Regulations (BS 7671:2018). This Pocket Book contains topic-based chapters that link areas of working practice with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. The requirements of the Regulations are presented in an informal, easy-to-read style that strips away confusion. Packed with useful hints and tips that highlight the most important or mandatory requirements, the book is a concise reference on all aspects of the 18th edition of the IET Wiring Regulations. This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders and Students.
Currently, the reliance on fossil fuels raises concerns on the increasing global energy demand, the rapid anthropogenic climate changes and growing environmental problems. The grand challenge is to search for viable carbon-neutral sources of renewable energy. Nanomaterials are arguably the base that integrates nanotechnology, information technology, and biotechnology; the major drivers of technological development today. Over the past decades, the understanding of form-function relations surrounding nanomaterials has significantly brightened the prospects of the transition from fossil fuels to solar fuels. This book introduces the latest developments in nanomaterials aimed at the applications in clean energy areas. It overviews the close link between nanomaterials development and energy applications from the experience and perspective of the authors. It discusses the bottom-up synthesis and interface engineering of new materials of different dimensions and describes their applications in future energy devices such as secondary batteries, novel solar cells, luminescent devices, and water splitting electrolyzers. .
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