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This book comprises the select proceedings of the ETAEERE 2016 conference. The book aims to shed light on different systems or machines along with their complex operation, behaviors, and linear-nonlinear relationship in different environments. It covers problems of multivariable control systems and provides the necessary background for performing research in the field of control and automation. Aimed at helping readers understand the classical and modern design of different intelligent automated systems, the book presents coverage on the control of linear and nonlinear systems, intelligent systems, stochastic control, knowledge-based systems applications, fault diagnosis and tolerant control, real-time control applications, etc. The contents of this volume will prove useful to researchers and professionals alike.
This book focuses on solar-energy-based renewable energy systems and discusses the generation of electric power using solar photovoltaics, as well as some new techniques, such as solar towers, for both residential and commercial needs. Such systems have played an important role in the move towards low-emission and sustainable energy sources. The book covers a variety of applications, such as solar water heaters, solar air heaters, solar drying, nanoparticle-based direct absorption solar systems, solar volumetric receivers, solar-based cooling systems, solar-based food processing and cooking, efficient buildings using solar energy, and energy storage for solar thermal systems. Given its breadth of coverage, the book offers a valuable resource for researchers, students, and professionals alike.
This volume contains a selection of revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in the 25th International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (IMECS 2017) which was held in Hong Kong, 15-17 March, 2017. Topics covered include electrical engineering, communications systems, engineering mathematics, engineering physics, and industrial applications. With contributions carefully chosen to represent the most cutting-edge research presented during the conference, the book offers the state of art in engineering technologies and physical science and applications, and also serves as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on engineering technologies and physical science and applications.
This book discusses different types of alternative fuels, including biodiesel, alcohol, synthetic fuels, compressed natural gas (CNG) and its blend with hydrogen, HCNG, and provides detailed information on the utilization of these alternative fuels in internal combustion (IC) engines. Further, it presents methods for production of these alternative fuels and explores advanced combustion techniques, such as low-temperature and dual-fuel combustion, using alternative fuels. It includes a chapter on the soot morphology of biodiesel, which focuses on the toxicity. There are also four chapters on hydrogen-fueled engines, which discuss use of hydrogen in IC engines and also provide important information on the methodologies. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and practicing engineers alike.
This book is designed as an introductory course for undergraduate students, in Electrical and Electronic, Mechanical, Mechatronics, Chemical and Petroleum engineering, who need fundamental knowledge of electrical circuits. Worked out examples have been presented after discussing each theory. Practice problems have also been included to enrich the learning experience of the students and professionals. PSpice and Multisim software packages have been included for simulation of different electrical circuit parameters. A number of exercise problems have been included in the book to aid faculty members.
This book focuses on the analytical modeling of fractional-slot concentrated-wound (FSCW) interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines and establishes a basis for their magnetic and electrical analysis. Aiming at the precise modeling of FSCW IPM machines' magnetic and electrical characteristics, it presents a comprehensive mathematical treatment of the stator magneto-motive force (MMF), the IPM rotor non-homogeneous magnetic saturation, and its airgap flux density. The FSCW stator spatial MMF harmonics are analytically formulated, providing a basis on which a novel heuristic algorithm is then proposed for the design of optimal winding layouts for multiphase FSCW stators with different slot/pole combinations. In turn, the proposed mathematical models for the FSCW stator and the IPM rotor are combined to derive detailed mathematical expressions of its operational inductances, electromagnetic torque, torque ripple and their respective subcomponents, as a function of the machine geometry and design parameters. Lastly, the proposed theories and analytical models are validated using finite element analysis and experimental tests on a prototype FSCW IPM machine.
Michael Braungart and William McDonough propose a plan for our planet in this stunning new edition of their radical ecological manifesto. This book proposes a new vision for modern industry. Instead of our current wasteful and polluting methods of manufacturing, we could be taking nature as a model for making things. With the right redesign, objects that have come to the end of their useful lives should provide the basis for something new. In designing and producing products we need to stop worrying about being 'less bad' and start finding ways of actually being good. PATTERNS OF LIFE: SPECIAL EDITIONS OF GROUNDBREAKING SCIENCE BOOKS
Filling a gap in the literature, Electrotechnical Systems: Simulation with Simulink (R) and SimPowerSystems (TM) explains how to simulate complicated electrical systems more easily using SimPowerSystems (TM) blocks. It gives a comprehensive overview of the powerful SimPowerSystems toolbox and demonstrates how it can be used to create and investigate models of both classic and modern electrotechnical systems. Build from Circuit Elements and Blocks to System Models Building from simple to more complex topics, the book helps readers better understand the principles, features, and detailed functions of various electrical systems, such as electrical drives, power electronics, and systems for production and distribution of electrical energy. The text begins by describing the models of the main circuit elements, which are used to create the full system model, and the measuring and control blocks. It then examines models of semiconductor devices used in power electronics as well as models of DC and AC motors. The final chapter discusses the simulation of power production and transmission systems, including hydraulic turbine, steam turbine, wind, and diesel generators. The author also develops models of systems that improve the quality of electrical energy, such as active filters and various types of static compensators. Get a Deeper Understanding of Electrical Systems and How to Simulate Them A companion CD supplies nearly 100 models of electrotechnical systems created using SimPowerSystems. These encompass adaptations of SimPowerSystems demonstrational models, as well as models developed by the author, including many important applications related to power electronics and electrical drives, which are not covered by the demonstrational models. In addition to showing how the models can be used, he supplies the theoretical background for each. Offering a solid understanding of how electrical systems function, this book guides readers to use SimPowerSystems to create and investigate electrical systems, including those under development, more effectively.
This book presents a unique analysis of the sustainability performance of various renewable energy sources, based on Brazilian case studies. The evaluation also covers the potential held by regions with diverse socioeconomic and environmental characteristics and how they affect the development of each source. Considering that energy is essential to sustaining and improving modern society, the answer to the current energy dilemma lies in the development of a system that comprises multiple renewable, reliable, and sustainable energy sources. Brazil, which has a predominantly renewable electricity grid, has the privilege of being home to a range of different sustainable sources, although most of its electricity comes from hydroelectric power plants. With that in mind, this book has the primary objective of developing a performance evaluation system for important renewable sources in Brazil (solar, wind, and hydro), taking into account different scenarios and investor profiles. The analysis is based on the study of sustainability indicators related to the technical, economic, social and environmental aspects of the evaluated energy systems. As the availability of renewable sources is very location-specific, the scope of this book covers two Brazilian States with distinct characteristics. It makes it possible to determine which renewable energy source is most adequate from a sustainability perspective, and in light of the analyzed scope and investor profile.
Safety is a major concern of society and touches on many areas of human activity. One important component of safety is the reliability of equipment and systems and the actions of the professionals, who design, build and operate them. Modelling methods have been developed to assess the risk associated with taking decisions relating to the design, maintenance or operation of a system. Such models include the element of uncertainty inherent in the behaviour of any given system. There are a number of theories, techniques and methods available, continuously being developed and improved, which evaluate the safety and reliability of systems, ensuring that these are operated and managed in a way as to keep the associated risks within the boundaries of what is considered tolerable or acceptable. These proceedings highlight the theories and methods used to assess safety and reliability, presenting them as powerful tools for decision-making which can be used effectively to manage the daily risks to which modern society is exposed.
This book summarizes the authors' extensive experience and interdisciplinary approach to demonstrate how acquiring and integrating data using a variety of analytical equipment can provide better insights into unconventional shale reservoir rocks and their constituent components. It focuses on a wide range of properties of unconventional shale reservoirs, discussing the use of conventional and new analytical methods for detailed measurements of mechanical properties of both organic and inorganic constituent elements as well as of the geochemical characteristics of organic components and their origins. It also addresses the investigation of porosity, pore size and type from several perspectives to help us to define unconventional shale formation. All of these analyses are treated individually, but brought together to present the rock sample on a macro scale. This book is of interest to researchers and graduate students from various disciplines, such as petroleum, civil, and mechanical engineering, as well as from geoscience, geology, geochemistry and geophysics. The methods and approaches can be further extended to biology and medicine.
This level 3 qualification helps learners develop the knowledge and practical skills required to carry out inspection and testing on electrical installations. The qualification offers three pathways depending on the type of inspection and testing required or previous qualifications gained by learners. 2391 is intended for practising electricians who want to expand their skills and knowledge in the area of Initial Verification and/or Periodic Inspection and continue their professional development. The book will: Include guidelines and advice about sitting the exam Include practice examinations, with fully worked and 'model' answers Act as a valuable revision aid, to help students prepare for the full exam
This book presents an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the production and use of microalgal biomass and bioproducts for energy generation. It also offers extensive information on engineering approaches to energy production, such as process integration and process intensification in harnessing energy from microalgae. Issues related to the environment, food, chemicals and energy supply pose serious threats to nations' success and stability. The challenge to provide for a rapidly growing global population has made it imperative to find new technological routes to increase the production of consumables while also bearing in mind the biosphere's ability to regenerate resources. Microbial biomass is a bioresource that provides effective solutions to these challenges. Divided into eight parts, the book explores microalgal production systems, life cycle assessment and the bio-economy of biofuels from microalgae, process integration and process intensification applied to microalgal biofuels production. In addition, it discusses the main fuel products obtained from microalgae, summarizing a range of useful energy products derived from algae-based systems, and outlines future developments. Given the book's breadth of coverage and extensive bibliography, it offers an essential resource for researchers and industry professionals working in renewable energy.
The latest volume in the well-established AMN series, this ready reference provides an up-to-date, self-contained summary of recent developments in the technologies and systems for thermoelectricity. Following an initial chapter that introduces the fundamentals and principles of thermoelectricity, subsequent chapters discuss the synthesis and integration of various bulk thermoelectric as well as nanostructured materials. The book then goes on to discuss characterization techniques, including various light and mechanic microscopy techniques, while also summarizing applications for thermoelectric materials, such as micro- and nano-thermoelectric generators, wearable electronics and energy conversion devices. The result is a bridge between industry and scientific researchers seeking to develop thermoelectric generators.
This book examines the visions, fantasies, frames, discourses, imaginaries, and expectations associated with six state-of-the-art energy systems-nuclear power, hydrogen fuel cells, shale gas, clean coal, smart meters, and electric vehicles-playing a key role in current deliberations about low-carbon energy supply and use. Visions of Energy Futures: Imagining and Innovating Low-Carbon Transitions unveils what the future of energy systems could look like, and how their meanings are produced, often alongside moments of contestation. Theoretically, it analyzes these technological case studies with emerging concepts from various disciplines: utopianism (history of technology), symbolic convergence (communication studies), technological frames (social construction of technology), discursive coalitions (discourse analysis and linguistics), sociotechnical imaginaries (science and technology studies), and the sociology of expectations (innovation studies, future studies). It draws from these cases to create a synthetic set of dichotomies and frameworks for energy futures based on original data collected across two global epistemic communities- nuclear physicists and hydrogen engineers-and experts in Eastern Europe and the Nordic region, stakeholders in South Africa, and newspapers in the United Kingdom. This book is motivated by the premise that tackling climate change via low-carbon energy systems and practices is one of the most significant challenges of the twenty-first century, and that success will require not only new energy technologies, but also new ways of understanding language, visions, and discursive politics. The discursive creation of the energy systems of tomorrow are propagated in polity, hoping to be realized as the material fact of the future, but processed in conflicting ways with underlying tensions as to how contemporary societies ought to be ordered. This book will be essential reading for students and scholars of energy policy, energy and environment, and technology assessment.
The aim of the two-set series is to present a very detailed and up-to-date reference for researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of mechanical, refrigeration, chemical, nuclear and electronics engineering on the important topic of two-phase heat transfer and two-phase flow. The scope of the first set of 4 volumes presents the fundamentals of the two-phase flows and heat transfer mechanisms, and describes in detail the most important prediction methods, while the scope of the second set of 4 volumes presents numerous special topics and numerous applications, also including numerical simulation methods.Practicing engineers will find extensive coverage to applications involving: multi-microchannel evaporator cold plates for electronics cooling, boiling on enhanced tubes and tube bundles, flow pattern based methods for predicting boiling and condensation inside horizontal tubes, pressure drop methods for singularies (U-bends and contractions), boiling in multiport tubes, and boiling and condensation in plate heat exchangers. All of these chapters include the latest methods for predicting not only local heat transfer coefficients but also pressure drops.Professors and students will find this 'Encyclopedia of Two-Phase Heat Transfer and Flow' particularly exciting, as it contains authored books and thorough state-of-the-art reviews on many basic and special topics, such as numerical modeling of two-phase heat transfer and adiabatic bubbly and slug flows, the unified annular flow boiling model, flow pattern maps, condensation and boiling theories, new emerging topics, etc.
This short open access book investigates the role of renewable energy in East Africa to provide policy-relevant inputs for the achievement of a cost-effective electrification process in the region. For each country, the authors review the current situation in the domestic power sector, adopt a GIS-based approach to plot renewable energy resources potential, and review currently planned projects and projects under development, as well as the key domestic renewables regulations. Based on such information, least-cost 100% electrification scenarios by 2030 are then modelled and comparative results over the required capacity additions and investment are reported and discussed. The authors also inquire into some of the key technological, economic, policy, cooperation, and financing challenges to the development of a portfolio of renewables to promote energy access in a sustainable way, including a discussion of the challenges and opportunities that might stem from the interaction between local RE potential and natural gas resources currently under development in the region. To conclude, policy recommendations based on the book's results and targeted at international cooperation and development institutions, local policymakers, and private stakeholders in the region are elaborated.
The aim of the two-set series is to present a very detailed and up-to-date reference for researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of mechanical, refrigeration, chemical, nuclear and electronics engineering on the important topic of two-phase heat transfer and two-phase flow. The scope of the first set of 4 volumes presents the fundamentals of the two-phase flows and heat transfer mechanisms, and describes in detail the most important prediction methods, while the scope of the second set of 4 volumes presents numerous special topics and numerous applications, also including numerical simulation methods.Practicing engineers will find extensive coverage to applications involving: multi-microchannel evaporator cold plates for electronics cooling, boiling on enhanced tubes and tube bundles, flow pattern based methods for predicting boiling and condensation inside horizontal tubes, pressure drop methods for singularies (U-bends and contractions), boiling in multiport tubes, and boiling and condensation in plate heat exchangers. All of these chapters include the latest methods for predicting not only local heat transfer coefficients but also pressure drops.Professors and students will find this 'Encyclopediaa of Two-Phase Heat Transfer and Flow' particularly exciting, as it contains authored books and thorough state-of-the-art reviews on many basic and special topics, such as numerical modeling of two-phase heat tranfser and adiabatic bubbly and slug flows, the unified annular flow boiling model, flow pattern maps, condensation and boiling theories, new emerging topics, etc.
The analysis of energy systems is of paramount importance in modern societies, since it is fundamental to guarantee a sustainable economic development. It combines technical and economic research with a specific focus on quantitative modelling, in order to optimize the modalities of energy demand and supply globally. The book covers major advanced topics related to the analysis of energy by considering different aspects, namely management, planning and policies. The most recent trends, such as smart grids, transition from fossil fuels to renewables based energy systems and distributed generation, are also discussed in this book. Intended to be a collection of various contributions from experts all around the world, it includes latest research results, innovations and methodologies about the analysis of energy systems. The book also focuses to contribute to the current debate related to the evolution of energy systems, by discussing in an open way the pro's and con's without any pre-constitute point of view. Title is aimed to be a reference for the academic community, students and professionals with a wider interdisciplinary background. Key Features: Presents integration of renewable sources with conventional energy systems. Topic is addressed from a multidisciplinary point of view, i.e. economy, technical, modelling, planning. Investigates management and planning aspects of future energy supplies. Multidimensional nature of energy systems is highlighted and discussed. Contributes towards implementing policy measures to reduce primary energy consumptions and carbon footprint.
This book presents a comprehensive review of energy research studies from authors across the globe, including recent research in solar ground radiation in greenhouses; the energy outlook in Malaysia; biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts; digital control system stimulation for nuclear reactor neutronic parameters; strategies to increase the viability of power generation using renewable energy sources; the current state of CPV in Spain as an alternative for producing solar electricity and evaluation of a new combined power generation system under CO2 emission constraints.
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