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This book covers the exchange of greenhouse gases in various ecosystems, biomes and climatic zones, and discusses the measurement, modelling and processes involved in these exchange dynamics. It reflects the growing body of knowledge on the characterization, feedback processes and interaction of greenhouse gases with ecosystems and the impact of human activities. Offering a compilation of selected case studies prepared by international researchers working in the field, it represents a valuable resource for researchers and students alike.
This widely respected and frequently consulted reference work provides a wealth of information and guidance on industrial chemistry and biotechnology. Industries covered span the spectrum from salt and soda ash to advanced dyes chemistry, the nuclear industry, the rapidly evolving biotechnology industry, and, most recently, electrochemical energy storage devices and fuel cell science and technology. Other topics of surpassing interest to the world at large are covered in chapters on fertilizers and food production, pesticide manufacture and use, and the principles of sustainable chemical practice, referred to as green chemistry. Finally, considerable space and attention in the Handbook are devoted to the subjects of safety and emergency preparedness. It is worth noting that virtually all of the chapters are written by individuals who are embedded in the industries whereof they write so knowledgeably.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Design and maintain highly stable electrical power systemsPower Plant Stability, Capacitors, and Grounding is filled with numerical solutions of differential equations to help you solve complex electrical problems regarding the stability of powergenerating systems. After an overview of fundamental electrical engineering concepts, the book focuses on power system stability, high-voltage capacitors, safety, and electrical substation grounding systems. Case studies, problems, and examples are worked out andexplained in great detail. The material presented in this practical guide is essential for the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the vast network of interconnected electrical power systems. Coverage includes: * Power system basic knowledge * Power system stability* Transient stability problem in a simple electrical network * Transient stability problem in a multimachine network * High-voltage AC capacitors * Substation grounding* Dangerous electric currents * Ground grid preliminarydesign * Principles of ground mat design * Ground mat design with nonuniform current distribution
This book provides state-of-the-art reviews, current research and prospects of producing hydrogen using bio, thermal and electrochemical methods and covers hydrogen separation, storage and applications. Hydrogen produced from biomass offers a clean and renewable energy source and a promising energy carrier that will supplement or replace fossil fuels in the future. The book is intended as a reference work for researchers, academics and industrialists working in the chemical and biological sciences, engineering, renewable resources and sustainability. Readers will find a wealth of information in the text that is both useful for the practical development of hydrogen systems and essential for assessing hydrogen production by bioelectrochemical, electrochemical, fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis and solar means, applied to many forms of biomass. Dr. Zhen Fang is Professor in Bioenergy, Leader and founder of biomass group, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden and is also adjunct Professor of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China. Dr. Richard L Smith, Jr. is Professor of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Research Center of Supercritical Fluid Technology, Tohoku University, Japan. Dr. Xinhua Qi is Professor of Environmental Science, Nankai University, China.
This book is a product of the initial phase of a broader study evaluating the voluntary and regulatory compliance protocols that are used to account for the contributions of forests in U.S.-based greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation programs. The research presented here is particularly concerned with these protocols' use of the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to describe forest conditions, ownership, and management scenarios, and is oriented towards providing regulators and other interested parties with an objective comparison of the options, uncertainties, and opportunities available to offset GHG emissions through forest management. Chapters focus on the protocols for recognizing forest carbon offsets in the California carbon cap-and-trade program, as described in the Compliance Offset Protocol; U.S. Forest Projects (California Air Resources Board, 2011). Readers will discover the protocols used for quantifying the offset of GHG emissions through forest-related project activity. As such, its scope includes a review of the current methods used in voluntary and compliance forest protocols, an evaluation of the metrics used to assign baselines and determine additionality in the forest offset protocols, an examination of key quantitative and qualitative components and assumptions, and a discussion of opportunities for modifying forest offset protocols, in light of the rapidly changing GHG-related policy and regulatory environment. Finally, the report also discusses accounting and policy issues that create potential barriers to participation in the California cap-and-trade program, and overall programmatic additionality in addressing the needs of a mitigation strategy.
This book will provide assistance to the broad range of readers involved in the crude oil import and production; renewable energy production; biomass analysis and bioconversion; greenhouse gas emissions; techno-economic analysis and government policies for implementing biofuels in India. This book presents important aspects on the large scale production of biofuels following a bio-refinery concept and its commercialization and sustainability issues. Hence, it is a useful resource to policy makers, policy analysts, techno-economic analysts and business managers who deal with commercialization and implementation of bio-based energy and other value-added products. The following features of this book attribute its distinctiveness: As a first uniquely focused scientific and technical literature on bioenergy production in the context of India. To its coverage of technological updates on biomass collection, storage and use, biomass processing, microbial fermentation, catalysis, regeneration, solar energy and monitoring of renewable energy and recovery process. To the technical, policy analysis, climate change, geo-political analysis of bioenergy and green transportation fuels at industrial scale.
An easy read, balancing the pros and cons, this book surveys the energy issue from a broad scientific perspective while considering environmental, economic, and social factors. It explains the basic concepts, provides a historical overview of energy resources, assesses our unsustainable energy system based on fossil fuels, and shows that the energy crisis is not only a tough challenge, but also an unprecedented opportunity to become more concerned about the world in which we live and the society we have built up. By outlining the alternatives for today and the future, it gives an extensive overview on nuclear energy, solar thermal and photovoltaics, solar fuels, wind power, ocean energies and other renewables, highlighting the increasing importance of electricity and the long-term perspectives of a hydrogen-based economy. An excellent source of updated and carefully documented information on the entangled aspects of the energy issue, this book is a guide for scientists, students and teachers looking for ways out of the energy and climate crisis, and the problems and disparities generated during the fossil fuel era.
This handbook is dedicated to the next generation of automation engineers working in the fields of measurement, control, and safety, describing the sensors and detectors used in the measurement of process variables.
Compared to the conventional Rankine cycle using water, the ORC can create efficient expansion at low power, avoid superheater and offer higher thermal efficiency in low temperature application. Small-scale ORCs from several kWe to a few hundred kWe offer great potential for meeting the residential demand on heat and power, and are of growing interest in scientific and technical fields. However, one critical problem is the decreased device efficiency and cost-effectiveness that arises when the ORC is scaled down. In this thesis, the ORC is combined with low concentration-ratio solar collectors. The background, research trend, merits and importance of the solar ORC are described. To reduce the thermodynamic irreversibility and the cost of the system, three innovative solutions are proposed: solar ORC without heat transfer fluid (HTF), which employs two-stage collectors and heat storage units; hybrid solar power generation based on ORC and amorphous silicon cells; osmosis-driven solar ORC. Heat collection, storage and power conversion are optimized. The design, construction and test of a prototype are conducted, demonstrating the feasibility of the ORC for small-scale cogeneration. Special attention is paid to the variable operation and parameter design with respect to the condensation temperature.
This edited volume discusses scientific and technological aspects of the history of the oil and gas industry in national and international contexts. The search for oil for industrial uses began in the nineteenth century, the first drills made in Azerbaijan and the United States. This intense search for a substance to become one of the most important energy sources was, many times, based on skill as well as luck, resulting in knowledge and the development of prospecting and exploration technologies. The demand for oil improved expertise in geological science, in areas such as micropaleontology, stratigraphy or sedimentology and informed different disciplines such as geophysics. These contributions made possible not only the discovery of new oil fields but also new applications and methods of exploration. Beyond the scientific and technological aspects, an industry that grew to such considerable size also impacted the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and diplomatic issues in history. The book approaches these changes in different scales, countries, areas, and perspectives. This edited book appeals to researchers, student, practitioners in various fields from geology and geophysics to history. It is also an important resource for professionals in the oil and gas industry.
The NJATC's authoritative electrical experts train top-quality electrical workers across the country. This Third Edition text covers electrical safety requirements and safety-related work practices of OSHA and the National Fire Protection Association electrical safety in the workplace code, NFPA 70E (R). Specific topics include electrical safety culture, hazard awareness, lockout/tagout, justification and assessment of working in hazardous conditions, calculation of short-circuit currents, arc flash hazard analysis methods, PPE, equipment maintenance, and design considerations. Chapters explore calculations required to comply with NFPA 70E, and techniques that can be applied to significantly reduce or eliminate electrical hazards. Each chapter includes one real-life case study and recommendations for how these incidents could have been avoided. A must for electrical safety professionals, instructors, electrical workers, and contractors. Updated to reflect the 2012 Edition of NFPA 70E. New and exciting chapter features enhance learning and synthesis of the material. These include: * Chapter Outline lists the chapter's main topics, providing an overview of what will be learned. * Case Study begins each chapter with an official National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) case study. * References are listed for the reader to consult. * QR codes link the reader to expert online sources and references * Learning Objectives outline the main goals of the chapter - what the reader should understand upon completion. * Figures showcase photos and illustrations from leading electrical safety product manufacturers, reflecting current products and equipment. * Vocabulary terms are bolded and underlined in the chapter prose. Terms are defined at the end of the chapter and in the book's glossary. Definitions are from key sources such as NFPA 70E (R) and OSHA. * Calculations are displayed in an easy-to-read design and explained step-by-step, facilitating comprehension of equations and their application. * 70E Highlights emphasize important points of excerpts from NFPA 70E that directly relate to the material discussed at this point in the chapter. * Background Boxes include additional information or background information that may be beyond the chapter's scope, but helpful to the reader. * Quiz Questions conclude each chapter; multiple-choice questions help the student synthesize and apply the chapter's information.
Topics on CO2 sequestration and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from process engineering and materials for clean energy are covered. Papers addressing sustainable technologies in extractive metallurgy, materials processing and manufacturing industries with reduced energy consumption and CO2 emission are also included, as well as industrial energy efficient technologies including innovative ore beneficiation, smelting technologies, recycling and waste heat recovery. The book also carries contributions from all areas of non-nuclear and non-traditional energy sources, including renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, etc. The book also emphasizes novel mineral beneficiation, processing, and extraction techniques leading to waste minimization of critical rare-earth materials used in energy systems (e.g., magnets, display and lighting devices).
This book presents a state-of-the-art compilation focusing on both technological and policy aspects of sustainable energy production and consumption, which deals with issues like the need for and planning of smart cities, alternative transport fuel options, sustainable power production, pollution control technologies etc. The book comprises contributions from experts from all over the world, and addresses energy sustainability from different viewpoints. Specifically, the book focuses on energy sustainability in the Indian scenario with a background of the global perspective. Contributions from academia, policy makers and industry are included to address the challenge from different perspectives. The contents of this book will prove useful to researchers, professionals, and policy makers working in the area of green and sustainable energy.
Thermodynamic degradation science is a new and exciting discipline. This book merges the science of physics of failure with thermodynamics and shows how degradation modeling is improved and enhanced when using thermodynamic principles. The author also goes beyond the traditional physics of failure methods and highlights the importance of having new tools such as Mesoscopic noise degradation measurements for prognostics of complex systems, and a conjugate work approach to solving physics of failure problems with accelerated testing applications. Key features: Demonstrates how the thermodynamics energy approach uncovers key degradation models and their application to accelerated testing. Demonstrates how thermodynamic degradation models accounts for cumulative stress environments, effect statistical reliability distributions, and are key for reliability test planning. Provides coverage of the four types of Physics of Failure processes describing aging: Thermal Activation Processes, Forced Aging, Diffusion, and complex combinations of these. Coverage of numerous key topics including: aging laws; Cumulative Accelerated Stress Test (CAST) Plans; cumulative entropy fatigue damage; reliability statistics and environmental degradation and pollution. Thermodynamic Degradation Science: Physics of Failure, Accelerated Testing, Fatigue and Reliability Applications is essential reading for reliability, cumulative fatigue, and physics of failure engineers as well as students on courses which include thermodynamic engineering and/or physics of failure coverage.
This book discusses the active and passive radar cross section (RCS) estimation and techniques to examine the low observable aerospace platforms. It begins with the fundamentals of RCS, followed by the dielectric, magnetic and metamaterials parameters of the constituent materials and then explains various methods and the emerging trends followed in this area of study. The RCS estimation of phased array including the mutual coupling effect is also presented in detail in the book. The active RCS reduction is carefully touched upon through the performance of phased arrays, sidelobe cancellers and mitigation of multipath effect. Providing information on various adaptive algorithms like least mean square (LMS), recursive least square (RLS) and weighted least square algorithms, the authors also mention the recent developments in the area of embedded antennas, conformal load bearing antenna, metamaterials and frequency selective surface (FSS) based RCS reduction.
This book examines the nature of emergence in context of man-made (i.e. engineered) systems, in general, and system of systems engineering applications, specifically. It investigates emergence to interrogate or explore the domain space from a modeling and simulation perspective to facilitate understanding, detection, classification, prediction, control, and visualization of the phenomenon. Written by leading international experts, the text is the first to address emergence from an engineering perspective. "System engineering has a long and proud tradition of establishing the integrative view of systems. The field, however, has not always embraced and assimilated well the lessons and implications from research on complex adaptive systems. As the editors' note, there have been no texts on Engineering Emergence: Principles and Applications. It is therefore especially useful to have this new, edited book that pulls together so many of the key elements, ranging from the theoretical to the practical, and tapping into advances in methods, tools, and ways to study system complexity. Drs. Rainey and Jamshidi are to be congratulated both for their vision of the book and their success in recruiting contributors with so much to say. Most notable, however, is that this is a book with engineering at its core. It uses modeling and simulation as the language in which to express principles and insights in ways that include tight thinking and rigor despite dealing with notably untidy and often surprising phenomena." - Paul K. Davis, RAND and Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School The first chapter is an introduction and overview to the text. The book provides 12 chapters that have a theoretical foundation for this subject. Includes 7 specific example chapters of how various modeling and simulation paradigms/techniques can be used to investigate emergence in an engineering context to facilitate understanding, detection, classification, prediction, control and visualization of emergent behavior. The final chapter offers lessons learned and the proposed way-ahead for this discipline.
This book focuses on novel reduced cell and stack models for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and planar solid oxide fuel cells (P-SOFCs) that serve to reduce the computational cost by two orders of magnitude or more with desired numerical accuracy, while capturing both the average properties and the variability of the dependent variables in the 3D counterparts. The information provided can also be applied to other kinds of plate-type fuel cells whose flow fields consist of parallel plain channels separated by solid ribs. These fast and efficient models allow statistical sensitivity analysis for a sample size in the order of 1000 without prohibitive computational cost to be performed to investigate not only the individual, but also the simultaneous effects of a group of varying geometrical, material, and operational parameters. This provides important information for cell/stack design, and to illustrate this, Monte Carlo simulation of the reduced P-SOFC model is conducted at both the single-cell and stack levels.
Biofuels are currently in the middle of a heated academic and public policy debate. Biofuel production has increased fivefold in the past decade and is expected to further double by 2020. Most of this expansion will happen in developing nations. This volume is the first of its kind, providing a comprehensive overview of the biofuel debate in developing countries. The chapters are written by a multidisciplinary team of experts, exposing the key drivers and impacts of biofuel production and use. The book covers impacts as diverse as air pollution, biodiversity loss, deforestation, energy security, food security, greenhouse gas emissions, land use change, rural development, water consumption, and other socioeconomic issues. Its wide focus accommodates examples from countries in Africa, America, and Asia. As such, this book will become an indispensable companion to academics, practitioners, and policy makers who wish to know more about biofuel issues in the developing world.
A comprehensive review of the current status and challenges for natural gas and shale gas production, treatment and monetization technologies Natural Gas Processing from Midstream to Downstream presents an international perspective on the production and monetization of shale gas and natural gas. The authors review techno-economic assessments of the midstream and downstream natural gas processing technologies. Comprehensive in scope, the text offers insight into the current status and the challenges facing the advancement of the midstream natural gas treatments. Treatments covered include gas sweeting processes, sulfur recovery units, gas dehydration and natural gas pipeline transportation. The authors highlight the downstream processes including physical treatment and chemical conversion of both direct and indirect conversion. The book also contains an important overview of natural gas monetization processes and the potential for shale gas to play a role in the future of the energy market, specifically for the production of ultra-clean fuels and value-added chemicals. This vital resource: Provides fundamental chemical engineering aspects of natural gas technologies Covers topics related to upstream, midstream and downstream natural gas treatment and processing Contains well-integrated coverage of several technologies and processes for treatment and production of natural gas Highlights the economic factors and risks facing the monetization technologies Discusses supply chain, environmental and safety issues associated with the emerging shale gas industry Identifies future trends in educational and research opportunities, directions and emerging opportunities in natural gas monetization Includes contributions from leading researchers in academia and industry Written for Industrial scientists, academic researchers and government agencies working on developing and sustaining state-of-the-art technologies in gas and fuels production and processing, Natural Gas Processing from Midstream to Downstream provides a broad overview of the current status and challenges for natural gas production, treatment and monetization technologies.
In this book, the authors present current research in the study of bioenergy systems and their biological sources and environmental impact. Topics discussed include the assessment of sustainability of bioenergy systems; soil loss as a forgotten aspect of biofuel production; effective biocatalysts for lignocellulosic biofuel by a proteomics study of fungal secretome; enhancing the interface between agricultural production, and tree biomass/bioenergy systems to improve farm-scale productivity in Western Australia; hydrogen and ethanol comparison as fuels for internal combustion engines; and hydrogen production by mixed cultures.
Updated for the first time since 1996, the 2013 Petrochemicals Chart includes new technologies, an easy-to-use design, and expanded end-use application. The 2013 Petrochemicals Chart allows for quick and simple identification of the sequence of petrochemicals from oil, gas, and coal to base chemicals, derivatives, and end-uses.
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE TO THE 2011 NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODEWritten by a Master Electrician, 2011 National Electrical Code Chapter-by-Chapter offers an in-depth analysis of the NEC with particular attention to the order in which various elements appear. This practical resource provides the knowledge you need to pass the Master Electrician's License Exam the first time by helping you understand the structure and logic of the NEC rather than memorize all the details. Material that appears outside the NEC main body, including the index, annexes, and Article 90, is also discussed in this essential handbook. 2011 National Electrical Code Chapter-by-Chapter covers: General Wiring and Protection Wiring Methods and Materials Equipment for General Use Special Occupancies Special Equipment Special Conditions Communications Systems Tables
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