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This volume presents state-of-the art methods for the synthesis, design, assembly, post synthesis processing, and application of synthetic DNA to modern biotechnology. Chapters are divided into three general sections focusing on protocols for the computational design of synthetic DNA sequences, the synthesis, assembly and cloning of synthetic DNA, and post-synthesis error reduction strategies. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Synthetic DNA: Methods and Protocols aims to help researchers further their research on manipulate DNA sequences.
Designed to help you quickly learn or review normal anatomy and confirm variants, Imaging Anatomy: Chest, Abdomen, Pelvis provides detailed views of anatomic structures in successive imaging slices in each standard plane of imaging. Axial, coronal, sagittal, and 3D reconstructions accompany highly accurate and detailed medical drawings, assisting you in making an accurate diagnosis. Comprehensive coverage of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, combined with an orderly, easy-to-follow structure, make this unique title unmatched in its field. Includes all relevant imaging modalities, 3D reconstructions, and highly accurate and detailed medical drawings that illustrate the fine points of the imaging anatomy Depicts common anatomic variants and covers common pathological processes as a part of its comprehensive coverage Provides a detailed overview of airway and interstitial network anatomy-the basis for understanding and diagnosing interstitial lung disease Features representative pathologic examples to highlight the effect of disease on human anatomy Includes plain radiography, the latest generation of multi-planar advanced cross-sectional MR and CT, ultrasound for pelvis/renal/liver/gallbladder, barium for GI tract, and much more Offers state of the art, detailed pelvic floor imaging and perianal/perirectal fistula imaging using high-resolution CT and MR, including 3T MR Expert Consult eBook version included with purchase. This enhanced eBook experience allows you to search all of the text, figures, images, and references from the book on a variety of devices.
This book offers a critical review of the pelvic sciences-past, present and future-from an anatomical and physiological perspective and is intended for researchers, medical practitioners and paramedical therapists in the fields of urology, gynecology and obstetrics, proctology, physiotherapy, as well as for patients. The book starts with a "construction plan" of the pelvis and shows its structural consequences. The historical background of pelvic studies proceeds from medieval and early Italian models to the definitive understanding of the pelvic anatomy in the Seventeenth century. During these eras of pelvic research, concepts and approaches developed that are illustrated with examples from comparative anatomy and from mutations, also with regard to the biomechanics of pelvic structures. Perceptions of the pelvis as an important element in sexual arousal and mating conduct are discussed, as well as attitudes to circumcision, castration and other mutilations, in its anthropological, social context. The anatomy and physiology of the pelvic wall and its organs as well as the development of these pelvic organs are covered as a prerequisite to understanding, for example, the spread of pelvic carcinoma and male and female bladder muscle function. Connective pelvic tissue is examined in its reinforcing capacity for pelvic structures, but also as a "hiding place" for infections. Innervations and reflexes relayed through the pelvic nerves are discussed in order to explain incontinence, sphincter function and the control of smooth and striated muscles in the pelvis. Catheters and drugs acting on pelvic function are described, and a critical review of alternative clinical methods for treating pelvic dysfunctions is provided.
Defining organs at risk is a crucial task for radiation oncologists when aiming to optimize the benefit of radiation therapy, with delivery of the maximum dose to the tumor volume while sparing healthy tissues. This book will prove an invaluable guide to the delineation of organs at risk of toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy. The first and second sections address the anatomy of organs at risk, discuss the pathophysiology of radiation-induced damage, and present dose constraints and methods for target volume delineation. The third section is devoted to the radiological anatomy of organs at risk as seen on typical radiotherapy planning CT scans, with a view to assisting the radiation oncologist to recognize and delineate these organs for each anatomical region - head and neck, mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis. The book is intended both for young radiation oncologists still in training and for their senior colleagues wishing to reduce intra-institutional variations in practice and thereby to standardize the definition of clinical target volumes.
This book, featuring more than 180 high spatial resolution images obtained with state-of-the-art MDCT and MRI scanners, depicts in superb detail the anatomy of the temporal bone, recognized to be one of the most complex anatomic areas. In order to facilitate identification of individual anatomic structures, the images are presented in the same way in which they emanate from contemporary imaging modalities, namely as consecutive submillimeter sections in standardized slice orientations, with all anatomic landmarks labeled. While various previous publications have addressed the topic of temporal bone anatomy, none has presented complete isotropic submillimeter 3D volume datasets of MDCT or MRI examinations. The Temporal Bone MDCT and MRI Anatomy offers radiologists, head and neck surgeons, neurosurgeons, and anatomists a comprehensive guide to temporal bone sectional anatomy that resembles as closely as possible the way in which it is now routinely reviewed, i.e., on the screens of diagnostic workstations or picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).
This book covers the basics of evoked spinal cord potentials (SCPs) with reference to studies in animals. Many illustrations help the reader grasp the neurophysiological and neuropharmacological background of spinal cord functions. Case studies offer insight into monitoring and diagnosing spinal cord dysfunctions and spinal cord diseases. The book is intended for students in clinical neurophysiology, neurosurgery, neurology, orthopedics and neuroanesthesia.
A new era for liver anatomy has dawned. With the development of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) in the 1990s, precise volume-rendered 3-D images could be constructed, leading to new observations. Liver anatomy has since been reevaluated from the standpoint of portal segmentation and drainage veins and includes a reclassification of the liver. Better surgical results and fewer complications have supported the rationale for the new liver anatomy. Based on the work and spirit of Team Chiba from Chiba University, this publication is a testament to the collaboration, perseverance, and innovation in the field of liver anatomy. With high regard for the early pioneers in this field, Team Chiba can be credited with pioneering its own antiviral treatment, percutaneous ethanol injection therapy, radiation therapy, and US-guided hepatic resections. It is the team's hope that the new liver anatomy will find acceptance worldwide and will contribute to the advancement of the health and welfare of mankind.
This volume details a valuable collection of protocols and reviews, such as emerging experimental and theoretical approaches. These approaches have resulted in a substantial improvement in the understanding of chromosome architecture. Chromosome Architecture: Methods and Protocols guides readers through cutting-edge interdisciplinary methods which allow for an understanding of architecture of chromosomes with exceptionally enhanced resolution, both in terms of space and time. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Chromosome Architecture: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study of this vital field.
This volume presents a series of protocols and methods, some of which are not widely used by researchers/practitioners, and will aid in the execution of different laboratory techniques. Forensic DNA Typing Protocols, Second Edition is arranged into a series of related chapters. Chapter 1-3 examines two different aspects of RNA analysis for body fluid identification. Chapters 4-7 focuses on the storage of biological materials and the extraction of DNA from hard tissues. Chapters 8-10 present methods for monitoring the quality of DNA extracts, and steps to aid in the purification of DNA. Chapters 11-16 talk about methods on non-standard markers, such as INDELs, Y chromosome STRs, and mitochondrial DNA. Detailed procedures and data analysis for phenotypes and ancestry are explored in Chapter 17-19. The last chapter (20) looks at the application of DNA typing to the identification of non-human material to species level. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Practical and thorough, Forensic DNA Typing Protocols, Second Edition, is a valuable resource for forensic specialists, researchers, and anyone interested in the field of forensic science.
The early Upper Palaeolithic human fossils from the Mladec ? (Lautsch) cave (German Furst Johann's Hohle) are among the most valuable inventories of the Vienna's Natural History Museum (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien). They are closely associated with the early history of the - seum, the Anthropological Department in particular, and remain at the centre of scientific disc- sion on the biological and cultural evolution of early modern humans. The history of the retrieval and preservation of these finds is marked by circumstances and events that are both fortunate and tragical. Geologist Ferdinand von Hochstetter and his assistant Josef Szombathy played a key role in the discovery. Very successful in a variety of positions, and acting for a number of institutions, Hochstetter also played a specific role in establishing the "science of man" in Vienna. President of the Geological Society and First Director of the newly created imperial-royal Court Museum, he founded the Anthropological-Ethnographical Depa- ment and became its Director. The fact that he was also a Real Member of the Academy of Sci- ces and chairman of the Prehistorical Commission of the imperial Academy of Sciences, founded in 1878, was also of particular importance in the context of early speleological research. This Commission was entrusted the task of initiating and promoting speleological investigations and "palaeo-ethnographical" studies and excavations on Austrian territory and of preventing the "- scientific exploitation of major sites for private purposes".
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