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The preceding volumes of Cell and Muscle Motility have focused on various aspects of motile systems in both muscle and non muscle cells. These essays have been critical reviews on topics of current interest and, hopefully, have provided a base from which future investigations may develop. During the past decade, however, much attention in the fields of biochemistry and cell biology has focused on motile systems in non muscle cells. Our current under- standing of the three-dimensional organization of the cytoplasm involve three major fibrous proteins which are collectively known as the cytoskeletal system. These polymorphic cytoskeletal proteins are microtubules (25-nm diameter), microfilaments (6-nm diameter), and intermediate filaments (lO-nm diame- ter). Microtubules consist of tubulin and several well-characterized micro- tubule associated proteins (MAPs) including MAP , MAP , tau, and others. l 2 Microfilaments consist of actin and associate with actin-binding proteins in- cluding a-actinin, filamin, myosin, tropomyosin, vinculin, and others. Inter- mediate filaments (lO-nm filaments) consist of at least five different tissue- specific classes, including desmin or skeletin (muscle), prekeratin (epithelial), vimentin (mesenchymal), neurofilament (nerve), and glial acidic fibrillary protein (astrocytes). These major fibrous proteins apparently interact with each other as well as other cytoplasmic components and appear to be inti- mately associated with such biological processes as cell shape changes, growth, motility, secretion, cell division, and uptake of materials from the exterior of the cell.
Clinically focused, consistently and clearly illustrated, and logically organized, Gray's Atlas of Anatomy, the companion resource to the popular Gray's Anatomy for Students, presents a vivid, visual depiction of anatomical structures. Stunning illustrations demonstrate the correlation of structures with clinical images and surface anatomy - essential for proper identification in the dissection lab and successful preparation for course exams. Build on your existing anatomy knowledge with structures presented from a superficial to deep orientation, representing a logical progression through the body. Identify the various anatomical structures of the body and better understand their relationships to each other with the visual guidance of nearly 1,000 exquisitely illustrated anatomical figures. Visualize the clinical correlation between anatomical structures and surface landmarks with surface anatomy photographs overlaid with anatomical drawings. Recognize anatomical structures as they present in practice through more than 270 clinical images - including laparoscopic, radiologic, surgical, ophthalmoscopic, otoscopic, and other clinical views - placed adjacent to anatomic artwork for side-by-side comparison. Gain a more complete understanding of the inguinal region in women through a brand-new, large-format illustration, as well as new imaging figures that reflect anatomy as viewed in the modern clinical setting. Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices - as well as dissection videos and self-assessment questions and answers.
"Introduction to Kinesiology: The Science of Human Physical"
Activity outlines the major concepts, principles, and experimental
findings for the curious yet serious student interested in the
field of kinesiology. Like most fields of science, it is important
to provide kinesiology students with a textbook that covers the
historical development of the field, discusses career
opportunities, and provides the groundwork for future coursework.
It is also important to clearly articulate the limit and scope of
kinesiology by defining core knowledge and to emphasize the
cross-disciplinary nature of kinesiology. "Introduction to
Kinesiology" was designed to meet all of these requirements.
The author describes in his unique style the anatomical variants of the brain and skull. This atlas is a continuation of his last work on "Neuronavigation and Neuroanatomy". Most anatomical reference volumes show a large number of common and rare variations. This atlas concentrates on well known and little known variants which are especially important for the clinicians, in particular the neurosurgeons and the radiologists. The variants have been grouped after areas of trepanation. The author presents also a number of so far unknown variants gathered from his personal theoretical and clinical experience of 50 years. Exact knowledge of anatomical variations which the surgeon may encounter helps to plan operations and to avoid unexpected complications. Variants of no clinical relevance, even rather common ones, have not been included.
Ever since television became practical in the early 1950s, closed-circuit television (CCTV) in conjunction with the light microscope has provided large screen display, raised image contrast, and made the images formed by ultraviolet and infrared rays visible. With the introduction of large-scale integrated circuits in the last decade, TV equipment has improved by leaps and bounds, as has its application in microscopy. With modem CCTV, sometimes with the help of digital computers, we can distill the image from a scene that appears to be nothing but noise; capture fluorescence too dim to be seen; visualize structures far below the limit of resolution; crispen images hidden in fog; measure, count, and sort objects; and record in time-lapsed and high-speed sequences through the light microscope without great difficulty. In fact, video is becoming indispensable for harnessing the fullest capacity of the light microscope, a capacity that itself is much greater than could have been envisioned just a few years ago. The time seemed ripe then to review the basics of video, and of microscopy, and to examine how the two could best be combined to accomplish these tasks. The Marine Biological Laboratory short courses on Analytical and Quantitative Light Microscopy in Biology, Medicine, and the Materials Sciences, and the many inquiries I received on video microscopy, supported such an effort, and Kirk Jensen of Plenum Press persuaded me of its worth.
This book brings up-to-date information on developments in studies of human stefins and cystatins, proteins with the function of cystein proteases (cathepsins) inhibition. The chapters start at the level of genes, go on with protein structure and function (proposal of alternative function), protein stability and folding, to mis-folding and mis-function. The book ends with chapters describing different disease states where stefins or cystatins are involved, from Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy to cancer.
Over the last twenty-five years, there has been an extensive effort, still growing for that matter, to explore and understand the organization of extrastriate cor tex in primates. We now recognize that most of caudal neocortex is visual in some sense and that this large visual region includes many distinct areas. Some of these areas have been well defined, and connections, neural properties, and the functional consequences of deactivations have been studied. More recently, non invasive imaging of cortical activity patterns during visual tasks has led to an expanding stream of papers on extrastriate visual cortex of humans, and results have been related to theories of visual cortex organization that have emerged from research on monkeys. Against this backdrop, the time seems ripe for a review of progress and a glance at the future. One caveat important to emphasize at the very onset is that the reader may be puzzled or confused by the use of different terminologies. Individual investi gators commonly tend to favor different terminologies, but in general some prove more advantageous than others. As discussed by Rowe and Stone (1977) as well as by others, there is an unfortunate tendency for role-indicating names to lead to fixed ideas about function, in contrast to those that are more neutral and adaptable to new findings.
Our new guide on the circulatory system, illustrated by accomplished anatomical artist Vincent Perez, includes in-depth coverage of veins and arteries, including depictions over and under transparent bone to better expose the system around the head, neck, and heart, as well as separate views of major organs and extremities. From teachers and students of anatomy, to medical professionals and therapists, this guide is perfect for your medical study or practice.
Anatomy & Physiology Essential Revisionbrings the subject of anatomy and physiology to life with 4,000 revision questions and answers on the structure and functions of the various body systems. This comprehensive textbook is designed for use both in the classroom and as a home study guide. Organised into separate chapters for each system of the body, it includes a variety of: Multiple choice questions Crossword puzzles Word search puzzles True/false quizzes Filling in gaps Short answer questions Matching columns These interactive questions and quizzes are a perfect way to engage students, helping them understand and retain key terminology. Each exercise is intended to test their knowledge in different ways while making it easier and more fun to learn. Anatomy & Physiology Essential Revision is suitable for students up to Level 4 and has been adopted by Occupational Therapists, Student Nurses, Biomedical Science Students, Biology Students and Complementary Therapists.
The genus Pseudomonas represents a large group of medically and envi ronmentally important bacteria. Interest in these bacteria is reflected in the extensive number of publications devoted to original research, re views, and books on this subject. In this volume selected areas of Pseu domonas research are presented in depth by persons who have been active in their fields over many years. The extensive reviews presented are an effort to provide a balanced perspective in a number of areas not readily available in the current literature. In the style of the previous Biotechnology Handbooks most of these topics have not been reviewed at all, and several are also presented from a new direction. For example, in addition to structural and compositional aspects, the chapter on lipids provides shifts in lipid parameters that result from environmental changes. This information will be invaluable to a cross section of Pseu domonas researchers in pathogenesis and bioremediation. The chapters presented include basic aspects of plasmid biology and carbohydrate metabolism and regulation. A major emphasis is placed on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell surface. Chapters cover lipo polysaccharide, capsular polysaccharide and alginate, the outer mem brane, transport systems, and the flagellum. Uptake of iron is also neces sarily an important portion of the chapter on iron metabolism.
The Ninth Annual Pezcoller Symposium entitled "The Biology of Tumors" was held in Rovereto, Italy, June 4-7, 1997. It focused on the genetic mechanisms underlying het erogeneity of tumor cell populations and tumor cell differentiation, on interactions be tween tumor cells and cells of host defenses, and the mechanisms of angiogenesis. With presentations at the cutting edge of progress and stimulating discussions, this symposium addressed issues related to phenomena concerned with cell regulation and cell interactions as determined by activated genes through the appropriate and timely media tion of gene products. Important methodologies that would allow scientists to measure dif ferentially genes and gene products and thus validate many of the mechanisms of control currently proposed were considered, as were the molecular basis of tumor recognition by the immune system, interactions between cells and molecular mechanisms of cell regula tion as they are affected by or implemented through these interactions. The molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor vascularization were also discussed. It was recognized that angiogenesis provides a potential site of therapeutic intervention and this makes it even more important to understand the mechanisms underlying it. We wish to thank the participants in the symposium for their substantial contribu tions and their participation in the spirited discussions that followed. We would also like to thank Drs."
The last few years have witnessed an explosion of both interest and knowledge about apoptosis, the process by which a cell actively commits suicide. The number of publications on the topic has increased from nothing in the early 1980s to more than 10,000 papers annually today. It is now well recognized that apoptosis is essential in many aspects of normal development and is required for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The idea that life requires death seems somewhat paradoxical, but cell suicide is essential for an animal to survive. For example, without selective destruction of "non-self" T cells, an animal would lack immunity. Similarly, meaningful neural connections in the brain are whittled from a mass of cells. Further, developmental cell remodeling during tissue maturation involves programmed cell death as the major mechanism for functional and structural safe transition of undifferentiated cells to more specialized counterparts. Apoptosis research, with roots in biochemistry, developmental and cell biology, genetics, and immunology, embraces this long-ignored natural law. Failure to properly regulate apoptosis can have catastrophic consequences. Cancer and many diseases (AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart attack, stroke, etc. ) are thought to arise from deregulation of apoptosis. As apoptosis emerges as a key biological regulatory mechanism, it has become harder and harder to keep up with new developments in this field.
These proceedings contain selected contributions from the participants to the Fourth International Symposium on Dendritic cells that was held in Venice (Lido) Italy, from Oc tober 5 to 10, 1996. The symposium was attended by more than 500 scientists coming from 24 different countries. Studies on dendritic cells (DC) have been greatly hampered by the difficulties in preparing sufficient cell numbers and in a reasonable pure form. At this meeting it has been shown that large quantities of DC can be generated from precursors in both mice and humans, and this possibility has enormously encouraged studies aimed to characterize DC physiology and DC-specific genes, and to employ DC therapeutically as adjuvants for im munization. The possibility of generating large numbers of autologous DC that can be used in the manipulation of the immune response against cancer and infectious diseases has tremendously boosted dendritic cell research and the role of DC in a number of medi cal areas has been heatedly discussed."
Our new poster, The Spine, covers the anatomy of the human vertebral column and its support structures with beautiful and intricate illustrations, newly designed by accomplished anatomical artist Vincent Perez. Thorough coverage includes multiple views of the vertebral column, as well as muscles, joints, and nerves, with labels for reference. From teachers and students of anatomy, to medical professionals and therapists, this poster is the perfect complement to your medical study or practice. It s also a great companion to our new, portable guide, The Spine "
Originally published as part of the McMinn anatomy atlas family, McMinn's Color Atlas of Head and Neck Anatomy remains the only large format photographic atlas of the human head and neck, incorporating outstanding dissections, osteology, radiographic and surface anatomy images. It is the ideal study aid or trusted reference for the range of students and practitioners who require a detailed understanding of the head and neck, including those in dentistry, radiology and surgery. Dissections are accompanied by concise notes and commentaries, as well as orientational artworks to help readers locate the structure on the body. Dental anaesthesia information and important quick reference lists are also incorporated in appendices at the back of the book. This updated fifth edition offers increased clinical relevance and features an entirely new chapter on Imaging of the Head and Neck, reflecting the very latest modalities and techniques. It also comes with the complete, enhanced eBook for the first time. Increased clinical relevance - helps translate traditional anatomy into current clinical practice All new state-of-the-art clinical imaging - including: 3T MRI of the brain with tractography Cone-beam CT assessment of the jaws and middle ear Concise notes and commentaries for every dissection Dedicated dental section Access to complete downloadable eBook version via Expert Consult, with bonus enhancements - including: Over 180 additional figures - expands the imaging of normal and developmental structures and highlights common and clinically important variations, anomalies, defects and diseases Interactive question bank - over 150 multiple choice questions to aid exam preparation and check your understanding
The discovery of the human T cell leukemia virus type I in the late 1970s heralded a new era in retrovirology. For the first time, it was demonstrated that a retrovirus could play a role in the development of a human disease, in this case adult T cell leukemia (ATL). Several years later, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic began, and it was dem- strated that a retrovirus, originally designated the human T cell lymp- tropic virus type 3, was the causal agent of this syndrome. This virus, later named the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has since been extensively studied in terms of its pathogenesis as well as its ability to elicit immune responses. In that time, a tremendous amount of information has been obtained about the virus. Although recent drug regimens have been useful in significantly lowering viral loads and perhaps maintaining an asymptomatic state among individuals infected with HIV-1, an established "cure" for AIDS eludes us. In addition, the effective drug therapies are very expensive, and are not available to infected people in the third world, where greater than 90% of new infections occur. Furthermore, the development of viral resistance against the drug therapies is an additional concern. Despite extensive study, no effective vaccine has been developed. One of the problems in developing an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the ability of the virus, particularly in the immunogenic envelop glycoprotein, to undergo amino acid hypervariability.
Advances in Cell Biology has been initiated as a continuing, multi-volume series to report on the progress of a wide spectrum of problems of cell structure and cell function. Jn arranging these volumes individual contributors are asked not only to review the major new information, but especially to present the state of a given problem or area by discussing the current central issues, speculations, concepts, hypotheses, and technical problems. We intend, in addition, that these volumes will not be concerned with comprehensive reviews of the recent literature but will consist rather of presentations of an interpretive and integrative nature, based on selection of major research advances. It is our aim that these volumes should provide the means whereby cell biologists may keep themselves reasonably well informed about the current progress in research areas in cell biology in which they are not immediately or directly involved themselves. The articles, nevertheless, are expected to bring into focus the experimental objectives of the specialists in a given research area. D. M.P. L. G. E.M. vii Contents Contributors v Preface vii 1 1. The Regulation of DNA Synthesis in Eukaryotes James Douglas Watson 2. D.RNA Containing Ribonucleoprotein Particles and Messenger RNA Transport 47 G. P. Georgiev and 0. P. Samarina Recent Developments in the Synchronization of 3. Tetrahymena Cell Cycle 111 Eric Zeuthen 153 4. Repetitious DNA Christopher Bostock 5. Mitosis 225 R. Bruce Nicklas Specific Enzyme Production in Eukaryotic Cells 299 6."
"Lippincott's Pocket Neuroanatomy "is a go-to reference, review,
and study tool for neuroanatomy and neuroscience with a strong
focus on high-yield topics and presentation. It presents the
essential information needed for course and board exam review in a
concise, quick-reference format with tables, full-color images, and
bullet-point text. The book contains multiple features identifying
the clinical significance of concepts, as well as mnemonics to aid
in the retention of facts. An index of terms provides easy access
to facts on all neuroanatomical structures and pathways. This
pocket-sized reference intuits how students typically study for
exams and provides highly distilled content in one easily portable
source. It is ideal for medical, dental, allied health, and
graduate school students and appropriate for courses in nursing,
pre-pharmacy, pre-med, and kinesiology."
The fetal period of human growth and development has become an area of intense study in recent years, due in large part to the development of diagnostic ultrasound. More than 2,000 articles have been published in the last five years describing anatomy and pathology in utero, as reflected in sonographic images. Yet, no stan dard reference exists to correlate these images with fetal gross anatomy and at tempts to draw parallels from adult structure have often led to false assumptions. The dictum "the newborn is not a miniature adult" is all the more valid for the fetus. This text aims to provide a comprehensive reference for normal sectional anat omy correlated with in utero ultrasound images. In addition, magnetic resonance images of therapeutically aborted or stillborn fetuses are paired with similar gross sections to serve as a foundation upon which current in vivo studies may build. Lastly, a miscellaneous section illustrates several anatomic points useful in the understanding of fetal anatomy. These points include the changing anatomy of the fetal brain during gestation and the anatomy of the meninges, the fetal heart, and ductus venosus. It is our hope that this atlas will provide a clear picture of fetal anatomy, rectify some of the confusion which exists in antenatal diagnosis, and stimulate further interest in fetal development."
Histochemistry deals with the activities of chemical components in cells, and immunohistochemistry addresses the function of cell types in tissue or organs, such as those leading to acceptance or rejection of grafts or organs. This book is a methods volume focusing on antigen retrieval, particularly methods used in disease-related antigens. Because the book is a methods volume and a lab manual, it will have an audience of pathologists, biochemists, and lab technicians.
lar aging, to which this model contributes, has grown. Apart from reports on work in this almost "classical" diploid cell system, the symposium presents studies using different biological systems with results that have been rewarding as information is obtained on patterns of change that are common to more than one experimental system. Indeed, in recent years much more has been learned about the fate of all different types of intermitotic and postmitotic cells in situ. The symposium has also presented contributions dealing, not directly with aging but with early ontogeny; such information on early developmental changes should certainly shed light on some of the mechanisms involved in aging. We are cognizant of the fact that environmental influences resulting from the complexities of modern civilization may have results that only occur much later, and profoundly affect the lifespan of the organism. There remain, of course, many unanswered questions. Whether there is "physiological" as opposed to "pathological" aging; whether "old" cultures living in unchanged, although not exhausted, medium, are degenerating, not aging; what is involved when "old" fragment cultures regenerate after excision by filling the wound with "young" cells; why some tumor cells in vivo as well as in vitro die while others live; all are questions eserving of our attention.
The roots of this book and its sister volume, Mammal Phylogeny: Placenta/so go back to discussions and plans, shelved for a while, between F. S. Szalay and W. P. Luckett during the international and multidisciplinary symposium on rodent evolution sponsored by NATO, July 2-6, 1984, in Paris. That conference, orga nized by W. P. Luckett and J. -L. Hartenberger, the proceedings of which were published in 1985, proved an inspiring experience to all of the participants, as this was repeatedly expressed both during and after the meetings. In addition to issues relating to rodents, general theoretical topics pertaining to the evolutionary biol ogy and systematics of other groups of mammals regularly surfaced during the presentations and discussions. M. J. Novacek, who was also a participant in the rodent symposium, shared with Luckett and Szalay the enthusiasm acquired there, and he also expressed strong interest for a meeting on mammal evolution with a general focus similar to that of the rodent gathering. In 1988, Szalay and Luckett, after having planned in detail a program, direc tion, and core list of participants, were awarded a $30,000 grant by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation through the Research Foundation of the City University of New York. The grant was contingent upon obtaining additional funds sufficient to assure that the symposium would be held. Raising the remaining funds proved to be a problem.
This book is a multidisciplinary book in which the problem on hypertensive disease is analysed from different points of view by physicists, mathematicians, biologists. Topics discussed include a review on genetic and physiological mechanisms of arterial hypertension; descriptions of various approaches to mathematical modelling of the system for controlling blood circulation and blood flow in a vessel; a survey existing models of hemodynamics and description of an approach to numerical modelling of the blood flow in the human cardiovascular system; and a software developed for visual creation and simulation of modular mathematical models of the biological systems.
"Drugs, Stress and Human Function" is written for non-major,
general education courses in human biology. Based on the premise
that students will most readily and effectively learn about what
interests and relates to them, the book explores biology from the
perspective of health-related issues and experiences that are
relevant to all.
The integument plays an important role in the survival of meta zoans by separating and protecting them from a hostile environ ment. Its function ranges from protection against injury and in fection, participation in the regulation of body temperature and water balance, to respiratory activity, monitoring of the environ ment and production of signals related to behaviour. All these result from specific structural, biochemical and physiological properties of intra-and extracellular components of the integu ment. Thus its characterization can be best accomplished by a multidisciplinary approach with authors specialized in different fields of science. This multi-author book, in two volumes, provides an up-to date survey of the literature. The first volume deals with the integument of invertebrates, the second with that of vertebrates, both organized primarily on a phylum basis. As the level of knowledge on the integument of phyla differs considerably, the information provided is correspondingly either limited or con densed. For some of the smaller groups of invertebrates little information is available, as often only a few electron micrographs are to be found in the literature ; on the other hand, from the large body of knowledge existing for vertebrates, particularly for mammals, no complete overview can be provided, but publica tions giving access to further information have been reviewed critically.
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