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The last few years have witnessed an explosion of both interest and knowledge about apoptosis, the process by which a cell actively commits suicide. The number of publications on the topic has increased from nothing in the early 1980s to more than 10,000 papers annually today. It is now well recognized that apoptosis is essential in many aspects of normal development and is required for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The idea that life requires death seems somewhat paradoxical, but cell suicide is essential for an animal to survive. For example, without selective destruction of "non-self" T cells, an animal would lack immunity. Similarly, meaningful neural connections in the brain are whittled from a mass of cells. Further, developmental cell remodeling during tissue maturation involves programmed cell death as the major mechanism for functional and structural safe transition of undifferentiated cells to more specialized counterparts. Apoptosis research, with roots in biochemistry, developmental and cell biology, genetics, and immunology, embraces this long-ignored natural law. Failure to properly regulate apoptosis can have catastrophic consequences. Cancer and many diseases (AIDS, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, heart attack, stroke, etc. ) are thought to arise from deregulation of apoptosis. As apoptosis emerges as a key biological regulatory mechanism, it has become harder and harder to keep up with new developments in this field.
These proceedings contain selected contributions from the participants to the Fourth International Symposium on Dendritic cells that was held in Venice (Lido) Italy, from Oc tober 5 to 10, 1996. The symposium was attended by more than 500 scientists coming from 24 different countries. Studies on dendritic cells (DC) have been greatly hampered by the difficulties in preparing sufficient cell numbers and in a reasonable pure form. At this meeting it has been shown that large quantities of DC can be generated from precursors in both mice and humans, and this possibility has enormously encouraged studies aimed to characterize DC physiology and DC-specific genes, and to employ DC therapeutically as adjuvants for im munization. The possibility of generating large numbers of autologous DC that can be used in the manipulation of the immune response against cancer and infectious diseases has tremendously boosted dendritic cell research and the role of DC in a number of medi cal areas has been heatedly discussed."
The discovery of the human T cell leukemia virus type I in the late 1970s heralded a new era in retrovirology. For the first time, it was demonstrated that a retrovirus could play a role in the development of a human disease, in this case adult T cell leukemia (ATL). Several years later, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic began, and it was dem- strated that a retrovirus, originally designated the human T cell lymp- tropic virus type 3, was the causal agent of this syndrome. This virus, later named the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has since been extensively studied in terms of its pathogenesis as well as its ability to elicit immune responses. In that time, a tremendous amount of information has been obtained about the virus. Although recent drug regimens have been useful in significantly lowering viral loads and perhaps maintaining an asymptomatic state among individuals infected with HIV-1, an established "cure" for AIDS eludes us. In addition, the effective drug therapies are very expensive, and are not available to infected people in the third world, where greater than 90% of new infections occur. Furthermore, the development of viral resistance against the drug therapies is an additional concern. Despite extensive study, no effective vaccine has been developed. One of the problems in developing an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the ability of the virus, particularly in the immunogenic envelop glycoprotein, to undergo amino acid hypervariability.
Our new poster, The Spine, covers the anatomy of the human vertebral column and its support structures with beautiful and intricate illustrations, newly designed by accomplished anatomical artist Vincent Perez. Thorough coverage includes multiple views of the vertebral column, as well as muscles, joints, and nerves, with labels for reference. From teachers and students of anatomy, to medical professionals and therapists, this poster is the perfect complement to your medical study or practice. It s also a great companion to our new, portable guide, The Spine "
Advances in Cell Biology has been initiated as a continuing, multi-volume series to report on the progress of a wide spectrum of problems of cell structure and cell function. Jn arranging these volumes individual contributors are asked not only to review the major new information, but especially to present the state of a given problem or area by discussing the current central issues, speculations, concepts, hypotheses, and technical problems. We intend, in addition, that these volumes will not be concerned with comprehensive reviews of the recent literature but will consist rather of presentations of an interpretive and integrative nature, based on selection of major research advances. It is our aim that these volumes should provide the means whereby cell biologists may keep themselves reasonably well informed about the current progress in research areas in cell biology in which they are not immediately or directly involved themselves. The articles, nevertheless, are expected to bring into focus the experimental objectives of the specialists in a given research area. D. M.P. L. G. E.M. vii Contents Contributors v Preface vii 1 1. The Regulation of DNA Synthesis in Eukaryotes James Douglas Watson 2. D.RNA Containing Ribonucleoprotein Particles and Messenger RNA Transport 47 G. P. Georgiev and 0. P. Samarina Recent Developments in the Synchronization of 3. Tetrahymena Cell Cycle 111 Eric Zeuthen 153 4. Repetitious DNA Christopher Bostock 5. Mitosis 225 R. Bruce Nicklas Specific Enzyme Production in Eukaryotic Cells 299 6."
The fetal period of human growth and development has become an area of intense study in recent years, due in large part to the development of diagnostic ultrasound. More than 2,000 articles have been published in the last five years describing anatomy and pathology in utero, as reflected in sonographic images. Yet, no stan dard reference exists to correlate these images with fetal gross anatomy and at tempts to draw parallels from adult structure have often led to false assumptions. The dictum "the newborn is not a miniature adult" is all the more valid for the fetus. This text aims to provide a comprehensive reference for normal sectional anat omy correlated with in utero ultrasound images. In addition, magnetic resonance images of therapeutically aborted or stillborn fetuses are paired with similar gross sections to serve as a foundation upon which current in vivo studies may build. Lastly, a miscellaneous section illustrates several anatomic points useful in the understanding of fetal anatomy. These points include the changing anatomy of the fetal brain during gestation and the anatomy of the meninges, the fetal heart, and ductus venosus. It is our hope that this atlas will provide a clear picture of fetal anatomy, rectify some of the confusion which exists in antenatal diagnosis, and stimulate further interest in fetal development."
"Lippincott's Pocket Neuroanatomy "is a go-to reference, review,
and study tool for neuroanatomy and neuroscience with a strong
focus on high-yield topics and presentation. It presents the
essential information needed for course and board exam review in a
concise, quick-reference format with tables, full-color images, and
bullet-point text. The book contains multiple features identifying
the clinical significance of concepts, as well as mnemonics to aid
in the retention of facts. An index of terms provides easy access
to facts on all neuroanatomical structures and pathways. This
pocket-sized reference intuits how students typically study for
exams and provides highly distilled content in one easily portable
source. It is ideal for medical, dental, allied health, and
graduate school students and appropriate for courses in nursing,
pre-pharmacy, pre-med, and kinesiology."
Histochemistry deals with the activities of chemical components in cells, and immunohistochemistry addresses the function of cell types in tissue or organs, such as those leading to acceptance or rejection of grafts or organs. This book is a methods volume focusing on antigen retrieval, particularly methods used in disease-related antigens. Because the book is a methods volume and a lab manual, it will have an audience of pathologists, biochemists, and lab technicians.
lar aging, to which this model contributes, has grown. Apart from reports on work in this almost "classical" diploid cell system, the symposium presents studies using different biological systems with results that have been rewarding as information is obtained on patterns of change that are common to more than one experimental system. Indeed, in recent years much more has been learned about the fate of all different types of intermitotic and postmitotic cells in situ. The symposium has also presented contributions dealing, not directly with aging but with early ontogeny; such information on early developmental changes should certainly shed light on some of the mechanisms involved in aging. We are cognizant of the fact that environmental influences resulting from the complexities of modern civilization may have results that only occur much later, and profoundly affect the lifespan of the organism. There remain, of course, many unanswered questions. Whether there is "physiological" as opposed to "pathological" aging; whether "old" cultures living in unchanged, although not exhausted, medium, are degenerating, not aging; what is involved when "old" fragment cultures regenerate after excision by filling the wound with "young" cells; why some tumor cells in vivo as well as in vitro die while others live; all are questions eserving of our attention.
The roots of this book and its sister volume, Mammal Phylogeny: Placenta/so go back to discussions and plans, shelved for a while, between F. S. Szalay and W. P. Luckett during the international and multidisciplinary symposium on rodent evolution sponsored by NATO, July 2-6, 1984, in Paris. That conference, orga nized by W. P. Luckett and J. -L. Hartenberger, the proceedings of which were published in 1985, proved an inspiring experience to all of the participants, as this was repeatedly expressed both during and after the meetings. In addition to issues relating to rodents, general theoretical topics pertaining to the evolutionary biol ogy and systematics of other groups of mammals regularly surfaced during the presentations and discussions. M. J. Novacek, who was also a participant in the rodent symposium, shared with Luckett and Szalay the enthusiasm acquired there, and he also expressed strong interest for a meeting on mammal evolution with a general focus similar to that of the rodent gathering. In 1988, Szalay and Luckett, after having planned in detail a program, direc tion, and core list of participants, were awarded a $30,000 grant by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation through the Research Foundation of the City University of New York. The grant was contingent upon obtaining additional funds sufficient to assure that the symposium would be held. Raising the remaining funds proved to be a problem.
This book is a multidisciplinary book in which the problem on hypertensive disease is analysed from different points of view by physicists, mathematicians, biologists. Topics discussed include a review on genetic and physiological mechanisms of arterial hypertension; descriptions of various approaches to mathematical modelling of the system for controlling blood circulation and blood flow in a vessel; a survey existing models of hemodynamics and description of an approach to numerical modelling of the blood flow in the human cardiovascular system; and a software developed for visual creation and simulation of modular mathematical models of the biological systems.
"Drugs, Stress and Human Function" is written for non-major,
general education courses in human biology. Based on the premise
that students will most readily and effectively learn about what
interests and relates to them, the book explores biology from the
perspective of health-related issues and experiences that are
relevant to all.
The integument plays an important role in the survival of meta zoans by separating and protecting them from a hostile environ ment. Its function ranges from protection against injury and in fection, participation in the regulation of body temperature and water balance, to respiratory activity, monitoring of the environ ment and production of signals related to behaviour. All these result from specific structural, biochemical and physiological properties of intra-and extracellular components of the integu ment. Thus its characterization can be best accomplished by a multidisciplinary approach with authors specialized in different fields of science. This multi-author book, in two volumes, provides an up-to date survey of the literature. The first volume deals with the integument of invertebrates, the second with that of vertebrates, both organized primarily on a phylum basis. As the level of knowledge on the integument of phyla differs considerably, the information provided is correspondingly either limited or con densed. For some of the smaller groups of invertebrates little information is available, as often only a few electron micrographs are to be found in the literature ; on the other hand, from the large body of knowledge existing for vertebrates, particularly for mammals, no complete overview can be provided, but publica tions giving access to further information have been reviewed critically.
Myopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogenous group of muscle diseases characterized by pathologic changes in muscle fibres that compromise their contractile ability. The authors of this book have gathered new research from across the globe and topics discussed in this compilation include inherited myopathies with distinct clinical manifestations; muscle biopsy as a diagnostic procedure in suspected myopathies; inflammation in dysferlinopathies; mitochondrial disorders; dysphagia in the myopathies; and aB-Crystallin (HSPB5) and myofibrillar myopathies.
This monograph analyses all aspects related to the etiopathogenesis, pathomorphology, diagnosis and treatment of lumbar disc herniation. It includes 24 chapters, over 500 illustrations, partly in colour, and 2800 bibliographic entries, going from the historical to the most recent ones. Five chapters are dedicated to biological and pathomorphologic aspects both of lumbar disc herniation and the conditions most often associated with herniation. The etiopathogenesis is analysed in the light of the most significant and recent studies. Five chapters deal with the clinical presentation and diagnostic tests in an extremely wide and detailed way. Large space is reserved to conservative management. The chapters on invasive treatments and on the results and complications of surgery define the advantages and limitations of the old and new percutaneous or surgical treatments. Two chapters are dedicated to surgical management of patients with spinal conditions associated with herniation, and two other deal with the surgical failure. This monograph is aimed at satisfying the requirements of both experts and young doctors. Some chapters are of particular interest to the spine specialist, whilst others are useful to the novice to acquire a general knowledge of the subject.
Based on the College of Emergency Medicine anatomy curriculum for the MCEM examination, the book contains 275 multiple choice questions. All anatomical regions are covered including head and neck, thorax, abdomen, upper limb and lower limb. The book contains comprehensive explanatory notes and is an invaluable resource for exam revision. This book will also be useful to medical students and doctors training in surgery, anaesthesia and medicine. Roger Dalton is a Consultant in Emergency Medicine at the Northern General Hospital in Sheffield (UK) and a sports physician. He is the founder and course director of the Sheffield Emergency Medicine MCEM OSCE course, co-founder of MCEM International and director of the Central FCEM course. Roger is the team doctor for Chesterfield FC, a football league (soccer) club, as well as a one of 4 doctors at Hull Kingston Rovers, a Rugby Superleague club.
Anatomy, to be sure, is the essential foundation of clinical practice, but it is much more than that. First and foremost, anatomy is a biological science. There is order and logic to the organization of the human body and the arrangement of its parts. And, as all sciences, anatomy offers challenge and discovery. Concepts in Anatomy is not a textbook, but more of a brief handbook that is selective rather than encyclopedic in scope, conception rather than particular in its approach. It stresses general principles, so as to minimize rote learning, and it provides order and direction to the study of gross anatomy. Anatomy is inherently complicated and confusing; this volume helps you make sense of it in a way that also aims to inspire its study. Richly illustrated with original drawings, Concepts in Anatomy is a valuable resource for anyone currently studying or teaching the subject, or as a reference for advanced researchers.
In 1974 The National Institute on Aging established a somatic cell genetic resource for aging research at the Institute for Medical Research in Camden, New Jersey. Within this program there is a yearly workshop to promote theory and concept develop ment in aging research with the specific purpose of addressing the use of genetically marked cells for aging research and to stimulate interest in aging research by workers in a variety of disciplines. This monograph, The Regulation of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, is the result of the first workshop held May 15-17, 1975. The concept of the workshop was to consider two main areas: First, a discussion of clinical syndromes expressing as a major manifestation excessive growth, deficient growth or failure to thrive; and second, to present work in cellular and molecular biology on a model system suitable for in vitro study of regulation of cell proliferation and diff2rentiation. The model selected for this was skeletal muscle. It has been widely accepted that normal somatic cells from individual human donors display limited replicative lifespans when cultivated in vitro (1,2). That such "clonal senescence" may be related to in vivo aging is suggested by observations relating the replicative lifespans of cultures to donor age (3-5,13) donor genotype (4-7) and donor's tissue of origin (5,8). A variety of theories have been developed to explain in vitro clonal senescence (9)."
This volume of Molecular Biology of Hematopoiesis is dedicated to many inter national scientists and clinicians for their contribution to the field of Hematology/ Oncology presented at the 11th International Symposium on Molecular Biology of Hematopoiesis, which was held in Bormio, Italy, June 25-29, 1998. The continuous support of the Presidents of the meeting, Professor F. Takaku, President of Jichi University, and E. D. Thomas, Nobel Laureate, was greatly acknowledged, especially Professor Takaku, for his vision and support for development of gene therapy in Japan. New information on BMT for autoimmune disease and organ transplantation was presented at the symposium and is published in this volume. Several new findings on gene therapy/transfer into HSC were presented by E. F. Vanin and A. Nienhuis, K. Humphries, 1. A. Nolta, H. E. Heslop, and M. K. Brenner. Professors S. Asano and K. Tani presented new studies on gene transfer into primates. Among the highlights were the new papers on gene transfer presented by G. Wage maker, N. G. Abraham, and M. Onoderea from R. M. BJaese's group. The use of BMT for organ transplant and autoim mune disease was updated and a representative paper is presented in this volume."
The 'Formation of the Heart and its Regulation' reviews in considerable detail the major events in heart development and their control via genes, cell-cell interactions, growth factors and other contributing elements. In addition, there is an extensive and useful overview of the field of heart development taken as a whole. The book will appeal to all students and researchers working on cardiovascular development and to pediatric cardiologists.
This monograph, Senescence; Dominant or Recessive In Somatic Cell Crosses? represents the second annual workshop to promote theory and concept development in aging research. These workshops are part of a resource to bank cultured cells of special interest to aging research that was established at the Institute for Medical Research in Camden. New Jersey. by the National Institute on Aging in 1974. The underlying theme of the workshops is the use of cultured cells in a variety of somatic cell genetic systems designed to define mechanisms of in vitra cellular scen escence and the possible insights that this may provide to the problems of in viva aging. The concept also includes bringing together workers from a variety of disciplines to stimulate new and innovative thoughts and work in the area. The current work shop focuses on the relative role of nucleus and cytoplasm on determining the in vitra lifespan of human diploid cells as well as the relative influence of old and young cells when combined within a single cell structure. The techniques and procedures discussed should make significant contributions to understanding in vitra senescence and may lead to the mapping of an area or areas of the genome linked to senescence as is being accomplished with viral transformation of normal cells. Warren W. Nichols Donald G. Murphy ~i Contents Theoretic Mechanisms of in vitpo Senescence 1 F. MaPott Sinex . . . . . . . . . . . . Senescence in Ce1l Cu1ture: An Accumu1ation of Errors or Terminal Differentiation? 13 Vincent J. GPistofaZo . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
This volume of Cerebral Cortex is dedicated to Sir John Eccles, who was an active member of the advisory board for the series until his death in May 1997. His input as to what topics should be covered in future volumes of this series will be sorely missed. The present volume is concerned with neurodegenerative disorders and age related changes in the structure and function of the cerebral cortex, a topic that has attracted increasing interest as longevity and the number of aged individuals in the population increase. Although much of the research on the neurodegenerative effects of aging has been centered on Alzheimer's disease, most of the aging popu lation will not be afflicted by this disease. They will, however, be affected by the consequences of normal aging, so the first few chapters of this volume are con cerned with that topic. Chapter 1, by Marilyn S. Albert and Mark B. Moss, gives an account of the cognitive changes that accompany normal human aging. Chapter 2, by Mark B."
The aim of this Atlas is to present the three-dimensional arrangement of the liver structures, which should be familiar to those who diagnose and treat diseases of the liver, particularly in an era when the methods of diagnostic imaging and surgical treatment are becoming increasingly sophisticated. For this purpose a series of corrosive preparations of the blood vessels and bile ducts of the liver was made and photographed. In addition to the normal situations, many frequent and rare variations are shown. The Atlas also shows some blood vessels that have not been adequately described or are not well-known in the reference literature, but are nevertheless of great importance in performing segmental liver resections.This Atlas takes a fresh approach to the subject. The method used allows the size, three-dimensional arrangement and structure of the blood vessels and bile ducts of the liver to be preserved. The majority of photographs were taken from the direction from which surgeons see the liver during an operation. This, together with the schematic presentations complementing most of the photographs, gives a further instructional value to the work. With colour photographs and explanatory text, the Atlas forms a basic guide to orientation inside the liver parenchyma, to understanding and diagnosing certain pathological processes and to planning surgcial procedures.
In 1628, the English physician William Harvey published his
revolutionary theory of blood circulation. Offering a radical
conception of the workings of the human body and the function of
the heart, Harvey's theory overthrew centuries of anatomical and
physiological orthodoxy and had profound consequences for the
history of science. It also had an enormous impact on culture more
generally, influencing economists, poets and political thinkers,
for whom the theory triumphed not as empirical fact but as a
remarkable philosophical idea.
One of the main attractions of research into hypersensitivity disorders is that it brings together scientists from a very broad range of disciplines. As the most common hu man immunologic disorder, it excites the interest and concern of clinicians, geneticists, basic and clinical immunologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, and physiologists. General agreement has been forged on the the pathophysiology of the disease and the mechanisms responsible for its maintenance, but many areas remain as black boxes for which we have only hypotheses. In 1992 Vienna hosted an international symposium to consider the explosion of in formation being generated by the identification, cloning, and expression of common envi ronmental allergens: The present second international conference on the MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF ALLERGENS AND THE ATOPIC IMMUNE RESPONSE, again jointly organized and co-chaired by Professors Alec Sehon (Winnipeg) and Dietrich Kraft (Vi enna), provided an exciting opportunity for many leaders in this field to share data, argue hypotheses and seek future opportunities to enlarge our understanding of these very com plex diseases. This symposium was co-sponsored by the International Union of Immu nological Societies (I. U. I. S. ) and the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. It was held in the hospitable and comfortably elegant surroundings of Que bec City.
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