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This book presents a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of electrical circuit theory in biomedical engineering, ideally suited as textbook for a graduate course. It contains methods and theory, but the topical focus is placed on practical applications of circuit theory, including problems, solutions and case studies. The target audience comprises graduate students and researchers and experts in electrical engineering who intend to embark on biomedical applications.
Water covers more than 70% of the earth's surface and is an essential and major component of all living matter. However, artificially hydrated materials, including hydrophilic materials, are far fewer than one might expect. Currently, these materials are in a state of development for applications in fields such as biomedicine, environmental engineering, and industrial engineering. So what do artificially hydrated materials hold for the future? This book is a great introduction to hydrated materials, presenting academic and practical content that gives a feel of theoretical as well as real-world problems.
This book highlights the latest advances and trends in advanced signal processing (such as wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, empirical mode decomposition, compressive sensing and sparse representation, and stochastic resonance) for structural health monitoring (SHM). Its primary focus is on the utilization of advanced signal processing techniques to help monitor the health status of critical structures and machines encountered in our daily lives: wind turbines, gas turbines, machine tools, etc. As such, it offers a key reference guide for researchers, graduate students, and industry professionals who work in the field of SHM.
The book uses an integrated approach to predict the behavior of various biological interactions. It further discusses how synthetic biology gathers the information about various systems, in order to either devise an entirely new system, or, to modulate existing systems. The book also tackles the concept of modularity, where biological systems are visualized in terms of their parts. The chapters discuss how the principles of engineering are being used in biomedical sciences, to design biological circuits that can harbor multiple inputs and generate multiple outputs; to create genetic networks and control gene activity, in order to generate a desired response. The book aims to help the readers develop an array of biological parts, and to use these parts to develop synthetic circuits that can be assembled like electronic circuits. The ultimate aim of the book will be to serve as an amalgamation of key ideas of how judiciously synthetic biology could be exploited in therapeutic device and delivery mechanism.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of flow-based, microfluidic VLSI. The authors describe and solve in a comprehensive and holistic manner practical challenges such as control synthesis, wash optimization, design for testability, and diagnosis of modern flow-based microfluidic biochips. They introduce practical solutions, based on rigorous optimization and formal models. The technical contributions presented in this book will not only shorten the product development cycle, but also accelerate the adoption and further development of modern flow-based microfluidic biochips, by facilitating the full exploitation of design complexities that are possible with current fabrication techniques.
Bioadhesion is often defined as the state in which two materials, at least one of which is biological in nature, are held together for extended periods of time by interfacial forces. It is an area of active multidisciplinary research, where engineers, scientists-including chemists, physicists, biologists, and medical experts-materials' producers, and manufacturers combine their knowledge. From the practical point of view, bioadhesive systems have been used for several years for medical applications such as dentistry and orthopedics and are now entering new fields, for example, tissue sealing and directed drug delivery systems. Understanding bioadhesion mechanisms is of prime importance while exploring desired adhesion for bioadhesion applications such as sealants as well as successful prevention of undesired adhesion of biomolecules, cells, or organisms. Controlling the occurrence of bioadhesion events is also an important problem in the design and use of medical devices, biosensors, membranes, ships, and oil rigs. This book provides a comprehensive view of bioadhesion and highlights different aspects of this phenomenon. The first section of the book presents fundamentals aspects of bioadhesion. It also summarizes various direct and indirect methods used to investigate and characterize bioadhesion. The second section describes studies of natural adhesives. These include "wet" adhesives that are produced and secreted by sessile marine organisms such as mussels and sand tubes and "dry" adhesives such as the one characterizing the gecko foot. The third section focuses on biomimetic adhesives. These man-made materials are fabricated on the basis of the lessons learned from nature emphasizing the correlation between nature understanding and biomimetics. Finally, the last section reviews medical applications of adhesive materials, which include surgical sealants, mucoadhesive drug delivery vehicles, and prevention of adhesion on medical devices.
Nanoindentation of Natural Materials: Hierarchical and Functionally Graded Microstructures provides a systematic introduction and review of state-of-the-art statistical hierarchical and functionally graded structures found in bone, teeth, hair, and scales, from a nanoindentation perspective, including detailed microstructure and composition. It covers the basics of hierarchical and functionally graded structures and nanoindentation techniques and detailed discussion with correlation micro/nano mechanical-structures The book includes practical issues backed with experimental data
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are an important functional material because of their potential implications in diverse research fields. The materials have been developed for a range of uses including separation, environmental, biomedical and sensor applications. In this book, the chapters are clustered into two main sections: Strategies to be employed when using the affinity materials, and rational design of MIPs for advanced applications. In the first part, the book covers the recent advances in producing MIPs for sample design, preparation and characterizations. In the second part, the chapters demonstrate the importance and novelty of creation of recognition imprinted on the materials and surfaces for a range of microbial detection sensors in the biomedical, environmental and food safety fields as well as sensing human odor and virus monitoring systems. Part 1: Strategies of affinity materials * Molecularly imprinted polymers * MIP nanomaterials * Micro- and nanotraps for solid phase extraction * Carbonaceous affinity nanomaterials * Fluorescent MIPs * MIP-based fiber optic sensors Part 2: Rational design of MIP for advanced applications * MIP-based biomedical and environmental sensors * Affinity adsorbents for environmental biotechnology * MIP in food safety * MIP-based virus monitoring * MIP-based drug delivery and controlled release * Biorecognition imprints on the biosensor surfaces * MIP-based sensing of volatile organic compounds in human body odour * MIP-based microcantilever sensor system
This book provides a balanced presentation of the fundamental principles of cardiovascular biomechanics research, as well as its valuable clinical applications. Pursuing an integrated approach at the interface of the life sciences, physics and engineering, it also includes extensive images to explain the concepts discussed. With a focus on explaining the underlying principles, this book examines the physiology and mechanics of circulation, mechanobiology and the biomechanics of different components of the cardiovascular system, in-vivo techniques, in-vitro techniques, and the medical applications of this research. Written for undergraduate and postgraduate students and including sample problems at the end of each chapter, this interdisciplinary text provides an essential introduction to the topic. It is also an ideal reference text for researchers and clinical practitioners, and will benefit a wide range of students and researchers including engineers, physicists, biologists and clinicians who are interested in the area of cardiovascular biomechanics.
This book presents current innovative, alternative and creative approaches that challenge traditional mechanisms in and across disciplines and industries targeting societal impact. A common thread throughout the book is human-centered, uni and multi-modal strategies across the range of human technologies, including sensing and stimuli; virtual and augmented worlds; games for serious applications; accessibility; digital-ethics and more. Focusing on engaging, meaningful, and motivating activities that at the same time offer systemic information on human condition, performance and progress, the book is of interest to anyone seeking to gain insights into the field, be they students, teachers, practicing professionals, consultants, or family representatives. By offering a wider perspective, it addresses the need for a core text that evokes and provokes, engages and demands and stimulates and satisfies.
This edited volume provides an overview the state-of-the-art in the field of cognitive neuroscience of memory consolidation. In a number of sections, the editors collect contributions of leading researchers . The topical focus lies on current issues of interest such as memory consolidation including working and long-term memory. In particular, the role of sleep in relation to memory consolidation will be addressed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
Adaptive Filtering Techniques for Remote Health Care Monitoring Systems aims to present a full picture of the state-of-the-art research and development of adaptive signal processing applications in various real-time applications. This book covers some important applications like MIMO, artifact removal, speech enhancement, beam forming, brain computer interface, genomic analysis, biomedical signal processing, healthcare technology, inter symbol interference cancellation, and others.It is certainly not the authors ambition to cover everything concerning adaptive filtering principles and applications. Rather, this edited book features the latest methodological, technical and practical progress on promoting the successful use of adaptive filtering principles and applications, which are more useful in the current day scenario. This book consists of ten chapters contributed by prominent researchers from throughout the world.The intended audience of this book will mainly consist of researchers, research students and practitioners in adaptive filtering and applications. This book is also of interest to researchers and industrial practitioners in areas such as algorithm developers, biomedical engineering, biomedical instrumentation, VLSI circuits design, and embedded systems. This edited book will present research outcomes on theoretical and technical issues related to real-time applications.The authors would like to convey their appreciation to all the contributors, including the accepted chapters authors, and many other participants who submitted their chapters that cannot be included in the book due to space limitation.
Robotic surgery has already created a paradigm shift in medical surgical procedures and will continue to expand to all surgical and microsurgical interventions. There is no doubt that in doing so robotic surgical systems, such as the da Vinci surgical system, will become smarter and more sophisticated with the integration, implementation, and synergy of new smart multifunctional material systems that will make surgical tools and equipment more functional in biomimetic sensing and actuation incorporating haptic/tactile feedback to surgeons in connection with kinesthetic interaction with organs during robotic surgery. This book is the first textbook in robotic surgery to discuss the integration of smart multifunctional soft and biomimetic materials with robotic end effectors to provide haptic and tactile feedback to surgeons during robotic surgery. It is also the first textbook in robotic surgery that comes with a solutions manual, which makes it useful as a supplement to faculty members teaching many different programs and courses such as robotics, medical devices, surgical interventions, and many more. This book can be adapted by professors to teach graduate students and researchers, to enable them to further employ their creativity and knowledge, and to undergraduates to enable them to get an excellent grasp of this exciting field. It is also useful for individuals interested in the field for self-study. The background required for this book is college-level mathematics, matrix analysis, geometry, and medical/surgical terminologies.
Nanomedicine-the application of nanotechnology to health sciences-has the potential to address many important medical problems by exploiting the advanced physicochemical characteristics of nanostructured materials and devices. It can revolutionize conventional medicine by offering cutting-edge developments in the processes of diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases, injuries, or genetic disorders. Thus, clinical nanomedicine holds promise to preserve and improve human health. This book provides a comprehensive overview on the forefront developments of nanotechnology in various domains of clinical medicine, such as cardiology, oncology, pharmacology, immunology, dermatology, virology, hematology, orthopedics, embryology and congenital defects, dentistry, and tissue engineering. It also extensively discusses the toxicology aspects of engineered nanomaterials.
This single volume brings together both theoretical developments in the field of motor control and their translation into such fields as movement disorders, motor rehabilitation, robotics, prosthetics, brain-machine interface, and skill learning. Motor control has established itself as an area of scientific research characterized by a multi-disciplinary approach. Its goal is to promote cooperation and mutual understanding among researchers addressing different aspects of the complex phenomenon of motor coordination. Topics covered include recent theoretical advances from various fields, the neurophysiology of complex natural movements, the equilibrium-point hypothesis, motor learning of skilled behaviors, the effects of age, brain injury, or systemic disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, and brain-computer interfaces. The chapter 'Encoding Temporal Features of Skilled Movements-What, Whether and How?' is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.
Emerging Nanotechnologies for Diagnostics, Drug Delivery and Medical Devices covers the modern micro and nanotechnologies used for diagnosis, drug delivery, and theranostics using micro, nano, and implantable systems. In-depth coverage of all aspects of disease treatment is included. In addition, the book covers cutting-edge research and technology that will help readers gain knowledge of novel approaches and their applications to improve drug/agent specificity for diagnosis and efficient disease treatment. It is a comprehensive guide for medical specialists, the pharmaceutical-industry, and academic researchers discussing the impact of nanotechnology on diagnosis, drug delivery, and theranostics.
This book introduces key fundamentals of microarray bioprinting, including the required chip platforms and associated instruments/devices, experimental protocols for cell printing and biochemical- and cell-based assays, and several example applications. Various bioprinting approaches that allow for the rapid testing of hundreds of different cell culture conditions in combinations on a single chip are discussed in detail. Also covered is high-content, 3D cell-based imaging assays of tissue functions on miniaturized tissue constructs for high-throughput, predictive screening of drug efficacy and toxicity. This is an ideal book for graduate and postgraduate students in the field of biomedical engineering as well as scientists in the pharmaceutical industry. This book also: Broadens readers' understanding of the principles of microarray bioprinting, chip platforms and associated instruments/devices, and surface chemistry for micropatterning of cells on the chip platform Covers the latest developments in printing cells in hydrogels and methods of gelation as well as printing other biological samples in aqueous solutions Illustrates the complete process for cell staining and high-content imaging of 3D cells on the chip and predicting human metabolism and toxicology on the chip
The worldwide impact of HIV/AIDS is well recognized. This book provides for the first time a thorough and critical overview of current aspects, recent developments, and trends in the formulation and drug delivery concerning anti-HIV microbicides by leading scientists in the field. Additionally, pertinent regulatory aspects and socioeconomical issues related to the subject are discussed. In the absence of a cure, prophylaxis represents a cornerstone in the battle against infection. One promising strategy comprises the use around the time of sexual intercourse of vaginal/rectal products containing antiviral compounds, termed microbicides. It is now recognized that specific development of drug dosage forms and/or drug delivery systems is an indispensable aspect for the success of microbicides. Different groups strived over the last decade to optimize the biophysical and technological performance of traditional dosage forms (gels, tablets, and suppositories) to fulfill the specificities of microbicides use, without neglecting users' preferences and affordability issues. Moreover, new formulation approaches, such as vaginal rings and films, nanotechnology-based systems, stimuli-sensitive formulations, targeted drug delivery systems, among others have been proposed and are currently undergoing pre-clinical or even clinical testing.
Microbial applications encompass areas including biotechnology, chemical engineering, and alternative fuel development. Research on their technological developments cover many aspects of work using microbes as cell factories. The fields of biotechnology, chemical engineering, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and medical device development also employ these microbial products. There is an urgent need to integrate all these disciplines that caters to the need of all those who are interested to work in the area of microbial technologies. This book is a step forward to integrate the aforesaid frontline branches into an interdisciplinary research work quenching the academic as well as research thirst of all those concerned about microbes in the respective area of biotechnology, chemical engineering, and pharmaceuticals. All the chapters in this book are related to important research on microbial applications, written by international specialists for researchers and academics in the concerned disciplines. This publication aims to provide a detailed compendium of experimental work and information used to investigate different aspects of microbial technologies, their products as well as interdisciplinary interactions including biochemistry of metabolites, in a manner that reflects the recent developments of relevance to researchers/scientists investigating microbes.
Biomaterials are produced in situ and in vivo in the body using mainly hydration reactions, that is, reactions between phosphates, silicates or aluminates, and water. The nanostructural integration of these biomaterials in the body is controlled by six mechanisms. The biomaterial interaction with body liquid results in bioactivity and total closure of the contact zone between the biomaterial and hard tissue. This book describes the new biomaterials based on nanostructural chemically bonded bioceramics and discusses their general and specific properties. It presents an overview of the nanostructural chemically bonded bioceramics, including their processing aspects, properties, integration with tissues, relation to other bioceramics and biomaterials, and nanostructural integration in different dental and orthopaedic applications. The book also describes the potential application areas for these new chemically bonded bioceramics.
Biomechanics of Tendons and Ligaments: Tissue Reconstruction looks at the structure and function of tendons and ligaments. Biological and synthetic biomaterials for their reconstruction and regeneration are reviewed, and their biomechanical performance is discussed. Regeneration tendons and ligaments are soft connective tissues which are essential for the biomechanical function of the skeletal system. These tissues are often prone to injuries which can range from repetition and overuse, to tears and ruptures. Understanding the biomechanical properties of ligaments and tendons is essential for their repair and regeneration.
The unprecedented potential of nanotechnology for early detection, diagnosis, and personalized treatment of diseases has found application in every biomedical imaging modality. However, with the increasing concern about the ethical and toxicity issues associated with some "nanoplatforms," biomedical researchers are in pursuit of safer, more precise, and effective ways to practice nanomedicine. Designed and written to be accessible to anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, Nanomedicine: A Soft Matter Perspective takes a balanced look at potential pitfalls and challenges faced by the field and how they can be translated into nonomedicine technologies. A multidisciplinary and fast-evolving research area, nanomedicine presents new clinically relevant promises grounded in the disciplines of molecular biology, genomics, chemistry, and nanotechnology. Nanoparticle-based theranostic approaches have emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promise to understand the components, processes, dynamics, and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. This book discusses some of the unique opportunities presented by biomaterials at the nanoscale. The book provides a broad introduction to the areas of nanomedicinal application with an emphasis on imaging and therapeutics. It covers "soft" nanoscopic objects with prerequisite features for different imaging modalities with a potential for image-guided drug delivery. The book also offers a general introduction to the various drug delivery systems and their opportunities from chemistry, materials, biology, and nanomedical standpoints. The chapters provide a comprehensive introduction to the field and the subfield, with a deeper discussion on the individual modalities for molecular imaging and their present status of clinical translation.
Biomaterials as a research theme is highly socially relevant with impactful applications in human healthcare. In this context, this book provides a state-of-the-art perspective on biomaterials research in India and globally. It presents a sketch of the Indian landscape against the backdrop of the international developments in biomaterials research. Furthermore, this book presents highlights from major global institutes of importance, and challenges and recommendations for bringing inventions from the bench to thebedside. It also presents valuable information to those interested in existing issues pertaining to developing the biomaterials research ecosystem in developing countries. The contents also serve to inspire and educate young researchers and students to take up research challenges in the areas of biomaterials, biomedical implants, and regenerative medicine. With key recommendations for developing frontier research and policy, it also speaks to science administrators, policymakers, industry experts, and entrepreneurs on helping shape the future of biomaterials research and development.
The volume sheds new light on role of gut dysbiosis in cancer and immunological diseases and their clinical manifestations. Contributions in the volume discuss about the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target and the role of probiotics in its management. The volume explores application of probiotics in the treatment of various cancers viz. colorectal, gastric, lung, and breast cancer and immunological diseases. The volume comprises of chapters from expert contributors organized into various important themes which include, introduction, relationship between gut microbiota and disease condition, mechanisms involved, clinical and in vivo status, conclusion and future directions. This is a highly informative and carefully presented book, providing recent and innovative insight for scholars and researchers with an interest in probiotics and its applications in cancer and immunological diseases.
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