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Biomedical Sciences is an important discipline with an explosion of information and application in various fields of science, engineering and medicine. The revolution in biological and medical sciences has impacted academicians, scientists and industrialists alike. As a result, there is a change in the curriculum in biomedical sciences and several modern, present and future modalities have been introduced. The present book is designed to make the reader familiar with the basic aspects that affect the human health. It also includes various aspects on the application of biomedical sciences and potential risks and benefits in terms of growing knowledge in the field of biomedical sciences and technology, stem cell in biomedicine, microorganisms and health, bioaerosols and bioengineered food. Moreover, it highlights on promoting the healthy technology for future safeguard to human life. It will cater to the graduate and post-graduate students of biomedical sciences, environmental biotechnology, medical physics, B.E. and B.Tech. (Biomedical Engineering).
This is the proceedings of the International Conference On Computational Vision and Bio Inspired Computing (ICCVBIC 2017) held at RVS Technical Campus, September 21-22, 2017. It includes papers on state of the art innovations in bio-inspired computing applications, where new algorithms and results are produced and described. Additionally, this volume addresses evolutionary computation paradigms, artificial neural networks and biocomputing. It focuses mainly on research based on visual interference on the basis of biological images. Computation of data sources also plays a major role in routine day-to-day life for the purposes such as video transmission, wireless applications, fingerprint recognition and processing, big data intelligence, automation, human centric recognition systems. With the advantage of processing bio-inspired computations, a variety of computational paradigms can be processed. Finally, this book also treats the formation of neural networks by enabling local connectivity within it with the aid of vision sensing elements. The work also provides potential directions for future research.
Biophotonics is a burgeoning field that has afforded researchers and medical practitioners alike an invaluable tool for implementing optical microscopy. Recent advances in research have enabled scientists to measure and visualize the structural composition of cells and tissue while generating applications that aid in the detection of diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's, and atherosclerosis. Rather than divulge a perfunctory glance into the field of biophotonics, this textbook aims to fully immerse senior undergraduates, graduates, and research professionals in the fundamental knowledge necessary for acquiring a more advanced awareness of concepts and pushing the field beyond its current boundaries. The authors furnish readers with a pragmatic, quantitative, and systematic view of biophotonics, engaging such topics as light-tissue interaction, the use of optical instrumentation, and formulating new methods for performing analysis. Designed for use in classroom lectures, seminars, or professional laboratories, the inclusion and incorporation of this textbook can greatly benefit readers as it serves as a comprehensive introduction to current optical techniques used in biomedical applications. Caters to the needs of graduate and undergraduate students as well as R&D professionals engaged in biophotonics research. Guides readers in the field of biophotonics, beginning with basic concepts before proceeding to more advanced topics and applications. Serves as a primary text for attaining an in-depth, systematic view of principles and applications related to biophotonics. Presents a quantitative overview of the fundamentals of biophotonic technologies. Equips readers to apply fundamentals to practical aspects of biophotonics.
This groundbreaking single-authored textbook equips students with everything they need to know to truly understand the hugely topical field of biomaterials science, including essential background on the clinical necessity of biomaterials, relevant concepts in biology and materials science, comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of all existing clinical and experimental biomaterials, and the fundamental principles of biocompatibility. It features extensive case studies interweaved with theory, from a wide range of clinical disciplines, equipping students with a practical understanding of the phenomena and mechanisms of biomaterials performance; a whole chapter dedicated to the biomaterials industry itself, including guidance on regulations, standards and guidelines, litigation, and ethical issues to prepare students for industry; informative glossaries of key terms, engaging end-of-chapter exercises and up-to-date lists of recommended reading. Drawing on the author's forty years' experience in biomaterials, this is an indispensable resource for students studying these lifesaving technological advances.
This edited book, is a collection of 25 chapters describing the recent advancements in the application of microbial technology in the food and pharmacology sector. The main focus of this book is application of microbes, food preservation techniques utilizing microbes, probiotics, seaweeds, algae, enzymatic abatement of urethane in fermentation of beverages, bioethanol production, pesticides, probiotic biosurfactants, drought tolerance, synthesis of application of oncolytic viruses in cancer treatment, microbe based metallic nanoparticles, agro chemicals, endophytes, metabolites, antibiotics etc. This book highlighted the significant aspects of the vast subject area of microbial biotechnology and their potential applications in food and pharmacology with various topics from eminent experts around the World. This book would serve as an excellent reference book for researchers and students in the Food Science, Food Biotechnology, Microbiology and Pharmaceutical fields.
This book is aimed to summarise the key aspects of the role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in breast cancer, with special attention to their contribution to tumour progression and establishment of metastatic disease. We aim to give a clear overview of the knowledge about CTCs, framed in the context of breast cancer, by analysing basic and clinical research carried out so far. In a broader sense, we will address what are the main clinical needs of this disease based on its molecular heterogeneity (subtypes) and lay out the knowledge and understanding that CTCs are giving about it and how they are contributing and can still improve the better monitoring and management of breast cancer patients. We will discuss the evidences of the use of CTCs as a tool to monitor cancer progression and therapy response, based on the prognostic and predictive value they have, as well as a tool to unravel mechanisms of resistance to therapy and to identify new biomarkers allowing to predict therapy success. Moreover, we will analyse the main aspects of ongoing clinical trials and how they can contribute to determine the clinical utility of CTCs as a breast cancer biomarker. We will also touch upon general knowledge or basic notions of the biology of the metastatic process in epithelial cancers, in order to understand the origin and biology of CTCs. In this sense, we will pay special attention to EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition), dormancy and minimal residual disease, three key aspects that determine the outcome of the disease. We will also cover general aspects on the isolation and characterization techniques applies to the study of CTCs, and also the possibilities that the study of CTCs, as a biomarker with biological function, is opening in terms of understanding the biology of metastatic cells and the identification of therapeutic targets based on the functional and molecular characterization of CTCs. Lastly, we will try to foresee the future of CTCs in terms of clinical application and implementation in the clinical routine.
The study of stem cell biology is under intensive investigations. Because stem cells have the unique capability to self-renew and differentiate into one or several cell types, they play a critical role in development, tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Stem cells also constitute promising cell candidates for cell therapy. The aim of this book is to provide an accurate knowledge on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. This book will cover many topics in the field and is based on seminars given by recognized scientists involved the international master program on stem cell biology at the University Pierre and Marie Curie (UPMC) in Paris.
This contributed volume reviews the latest advances on relevant 3D tissue engineered in vitro models of disease making use of biomaterials and microfluidics. The main focus of this book is on advanced biomaterials and microfluidics technologies that have been used in in vitro mimetic 3D models of human diseases and show great promise in revolutionizing personalized medicine. Readers will discover important topics involving biomaterials and microfluidics design, advanced processing techniques, and development and validation of organ- and body-on-a-chip models for bone, liver, and cancer research. An in depth discussion of microfabrication methods for microfluidics development is also provided. This work is edited by two truly multidisciplinary scientists and includes important contributions from well-known experts in their fields. The work is written for both early stage and experienced researchers, and well-established scientists enrolled in the fields of biomaterials, microfluidics, and tissue engineering, and is especially suited to those who wish to become acquainted with the principles and latest developments of in vitro models of diseases, such as professionals working in pharma, medicine, and engineering.
These are the proceedings of the International Conference on ISMAC-CVB, held in Palladam, India, in May 2018. The book focuses on research to design new analysis paradigms and computational solutions for quantification of information provided by object recognition, scene understanding of computer vision and different algorithms like convolutional neural networks to allow computers to recognize and detect objects in images with unprecedented accuracy and to even understand the relationships between them. The proceedings treat the convergence of ISMAC in Computational Vision and Bioengineering technology and includes ideas and techniques like 3D sensing, human visual perception, scene understanding, human motion detection and analysis, visualization and graphical data presentation and a very wide range of sensor modalities in terms of surveillance, wearable applications, home automation etc. ISMAC-CVB is a forum for leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects of computational vision and bioengineering.
This book intends to provide an up-to-date information in the field of nanobiomedicine. The focus of the book is on the basic concepts and recent developments in the field of nanotechnology. This book covers a broad spectrum of nanomaterials processing, structural characteristics, and related properties and will include bio-probes, medical imaging, drug delivery, and tumor diagnosis. Critical issues are addressed in a straightforward manner so those with no technical background and university students can benefit from the information. Furthermore, many novel concepts in nanomaterials are explained in light of current theories. An important aspect of the book lies on its wide coverage in practical biomedical applications. Not only are the cutting-edge technologies in modern medicine introduced, but also unique materials applications in many clinical areas.
This volume provides an in-depth introduction to 3D printing and biofabrication and covers the recent advances in additive manufacturing for tissue engineering. The book is divided into two parts, the first part on 3D printing discusses conventional approaches in additive manufacturing aimed at fabrication of structures, which are seeded with cells in a subsequent step. The second part on biofabrication presents processes which integrate living cells into the fabrication process.
This monograph addresses an innovative autologous muscle-derived stem cell therapy for urinary incontinence in women. It provides a detailed overview of studies and research projects on the use of stem cells for the treatment of urinary incontinence. It provides updated information about this condition for the era of regenerative medicine, making it a valuable resource for both students and physicians.
There has been great progress and increase in demand for medical imaging. The aim of this book is to capture all major developments in all aspects of medical imaging. As such, this book consists of three major parts: medical physics which includes 3D reconstructions, image processing and segmentation in medical imaging, and medical imaging instruments and systems. As the field is very broad and growing exponentially, this book will cover major activities with chapters prepared by leaders in the field.This book takes a balanced approach in providing coverage of all major work done in the field, and thus provides readers a clear view of the frontier activities in the field. Other books may only focus on instrumentation, physics or computer algorithms. In contrast, this book contains all components so that the readers will obtain a full picture of the field. At the same time, readers can gain some deep insights into certain special topics such as 3D reconstruction and image enhancement software systems involving MRI, ultrasound, X-ray and other medical imaging modalities.
Bio-inspired concepts for biomedical engineering are at the forefront of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Providing a comprehensive overview of the latest advances and techniques in the field, Bio-inspired Materials for Biomedical Engineering demonstrates the dramatic clinical breakthroughs that have been made in engineering all four of the major tissue types and modulating the immune system. Written by prominent leaders in the fields of materials engineering, chemical engineering, cell biology, and regenerative medicine, this groundbreaking text provides scientists, professors, postdocs, and graduate students with the dramatic clinical breakthroughs related to tissue engineering applications.
This book explores the physics of CT dosimetry and provides practical guidance on best practice for medical researchers and practitioners. A rigorous description of the basic physics of CT dosimetry is presented and illustrates flaws of the current methodology. It also contains helpful (and rigorous) shortcuts to reduce the measurement workload for medical physicists. The mathematical rigor is accompanied by easily-understood physical explanations and numerous illustrative figures. Features: Authored by a recognised expert in the field and award-winning teacher Includes derivations for tube current modulation and variable pitch as well as stationary table techniques Explores abnormalities present in dose-tracking software based on CTDI and presents methods to correct them
For more than a decade, the focus of information technology has been on capturing and sharing data from a patient within an all-encompassing record (a.k.a. the electronic health record, EHR), to promote improved longitudinal oversight in the care of the patient. There are both those who agree and those who disagree as to whether this goal has been met, but it is certainly evolving. A key element to improved patient care has been the automated capture of data from durable medical devices that are the source of (mostly) objective data, from imagery to time-series histories of vital signs and spot-assessments of patients. The capture and use of these data to support clinical workflows have been written about and thoroughly debated. Yet, the use of these data for clinical guidance has been the subject of various papers published in respected medical journals, but without a coherent focus on the general subject of the clinically actionable benefits of objective medical device data for clinical decision-making purposes. Hence, the uniqueness of this book is in providing a single point-of-capture for the targeted clinical benefits of medical device data--both electronic- health-record-based and real-time--for improved clinical decision-making at the point of care, and for the use of these data to address and assess specific types of clinical surveillance. Clinical Surveillance: The Actionable Benefits of Objective Medical Device Data for Crucial Decision-Making focuses on the use of objective, continuously collected medical device data for the purpose of identifying patient deterioration, with a primary focus on those data normally obtained from both the higher-acuity care settings in intensive care units and the lower-acuity settings of general care wards. It includes examples of conditions that demonstrate earlier signs of deterioration including systemic inflammatory response syndrome, opioid-induced respiratory depression, shock induced by systemic failure, and more. The book provides education on how to use these data, such as for clinical interventions, in order to identify examples of how to guide care using automated durable medical device data from higher- and lower-acuity care settings. The book also includes real-world examples of applications that are of high value to clinical end-users and health systems.
Fluid dynamics plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including the locomotion of cells such as bacteria and spermatozoa. These organisms possess flagella, slender organelles whose time periodic motion in a fluid environment gives rise to motility. Sitting at the intersection of applied mathematics, physics and biology, the fluid dynamics of cell motility is one of the most successful applications of mathematical tools to the understanding of the biological world. Based on courses taught over several years, it details the mathematical modelling necessary to understand cell motility in fluids, covering phenomena ranging from single-cell motion to instabilities in cell populations. Each chapter introduces mathematical models to rationalise experiments, uses physical intuition to interpret mathematical results, highlights the history of the field and discusses notable current research questions. All mathematical derivations are included for students new to the field, and end-of-chapter exercises help consolidate understanding and practise applying the concepts.
Man lubricates mostly with oil. Nature lubricates exclusively with water. Pure water is a poor lubricant, but the addition of proteins, especially glycoproteins, can modify surfaces to make them far more lubricating at slow speeds. Understanding how nature does this, and the physical structures involved, is not only important for the understanding of diseases such as osteoarthritis, but also essential for the successful application of articulating implants, such as hips and knees, as well as the development of medical devices such as catheters and contact lenses. A host of important applications of water-based lubrication are already in place in the personal care and food industries, and further industrial applications of water-based lubrication could have a significant positive impact on the environment.This book is the first of its kind. It brings together the latest research in biological and biomimetic, water-based lubrication and is authored by the world's experts in the field.
Mathematical modelling of physiological systems promises to advance our understanding of complex biological phenomena and pathophysiology of diseases. In this book, the authors adopt a mathematical approach to characterize and explain the functioning of the gastrointestinal system. Using the mathematical foundations of thin shell theory, the authors patiently and comprehensively guide the reader through the fundamental theoretical concepts, via step-by-step derivations and mathematical exercises, from basic theory to complex physiological models. Applications to nonlinear problems related to the biomechanics of abdominal viscera and the theoretical limitations are discussed. Special attention is given to questions of complex geometry of organs, effects of boundary conditions on pellet propulsion, as well as to clinical conditions, e.g. functional dyspepsia, intestinal dysrhythmias and the effect of drugs to treat motility disorders. With end of chapter problems, this book is ideal for bioengineers and applied mathematicians.
The introduction of femtosecond pulse lasers has provided numerous new methods for non-destructive diagnostic analysis of biological samples. This book is the first to provide a focused and systematic treatment of femtosecond biophotonic methods. Each chapter combines theory, practice and applications, walking the reader through imaging, manipulation and fabrication techniques. Beginning with an explanation of nonlinear and multiphoton microscopy, subsequent chapters address the techniques for optical trapping and the development of laser tweezers. In a conclusion that brings together the various topics of the book, the authors discuss the growing field of femtosecond micro-engineering. The wide range of applications for femtosecond biophotonics means this book will appeal to researchers and practitioners in the fields of biomedical engineering, biophysics, life sciences and medicine.
Mathematical models stated as systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) are broadly used in biology, chemistry, physics and medicine (physiology). These models describe the spatial and temporial variations of the problem system dependent variables, such as temperature, chemical and biochemical concentrations and cell densities, as a function of space and time (spatiotemporal distributions). For a complete PDE model, initial conditions (ICs) specifying how the problem system starts and boundary conditions (BCs) specifying how the system is defined at its spatial boundaries, must also be included for a well-posed PDE model. In this book, PDE models are considered for which the physical boundaries move with time. For example, as a tumor grows, its boundary moves outward. In atherosclerosis, the plaque formation on the arterial wall moves inward, thereby restricting blood flow with serious consequences such as stroke and myocardial infarction (heart attack). These two examples are considered as applications of the reported moving boundary PDE (MBPDE) numerical method (algorithm). The method is programmed in a set of documented routines coded in R, a quality, open-source scientific programming system. The routines are provided as a download so that the reader/analyst/researcher can use MFPDE models without having to first study numerical methods and computer programming.
Technological advances have greatly increased the potential for, and practicability of, using medical neurotechnologies to revolutionize how a wide array of neurological and nervous system diseases and dysfunctions are treated. These technologies have the potential to help reduce the impact of symptoms in neurological disorders such as Parkinson s Disease and depression as well as help regain lost function caused by spinal cord damage or nerve damage. Medical Neurobionics is a concise overview of the biological underpinnings of neurotechnologies, the development process for these technologies, and the practical application of these advances in clinical settings. Medical Neurobionics is divided into three sections. The first section focuses specifically on providing a sound foundational understanding of the biological mechanisms that support the development of neurotechnologies. The second section looks at the efforts being carried out to develop new and exciting bioengineering advances. The book then closes with chapters that discuss practical clinical application and explore the ethical questions that surround neurobionics. A timely work that provides readers with a useful introduction to the field, Medical Neurobionics will be an essential book for neuroscientists, neuroengineers, biomedical researchers, and industry personnel.
Medical device regulation is complex, in part because of the wide variety of items that are categorized as medical devices. They may be simple tools used during medical examinations, such as tongue depressors and thermometers, or high-tech life-saving implants like heart valves and coronary stents. The medical device market has been characterized as including eight industry sectors: surgical and medical instrument manufacturing, surgical appliance and supplies, in vitro diagnostic products (IVDs, or laboratory tests), electromedical and electrotherapeutic apparatus, irradiation apparatus, dental equipment and supplies, ophthalmic goods, and dental laboratories. This book explores FDA regulation of medical devices with a focus on the user fee program and tort claims.
Spanning both the history and future of knee replacement, this unique book recounts how artificial knees have reached the stage they are today, and whether their performance can be further improved. The author, who has been designing artificial knees for 50 years, starts the story in the late 1960's with the early pioneers; during the 1970's, the principles for successful artificial knees were established. While many different types were designed, a small number have become by far the most widely utilized. Yet other types of designs, so far little used, along with new materials and the application of computer-assisted surgery, could result in significant advancements in the treatment of knee arthritis. Each chapter provides a detailed description of the origins of the ideas and principles and their rationale, followed by the latest information and evidence. The book begins with an overview of the history and background of the artificial knee, in terms of design and implementation and the thought leaders involved. Fixation, biomechanics, and the types of designs are discussed in detail, both what has worked and what has not, and why. Instrumentation, testing and tribology, and functional evaluation methods are also covered. The book concludes with a look toward the future possibilities for the field of artificial knees. An illustrated glossary of terms, is included for quick reference. The Artificial Knee: An Ongoing Evolution will appeal to orthopedic surgeons and researchers, medical academics and orthopedic companies, and to those with a general interest in artificial knees.
Part II of Health Care Engineering begins with statistics on the occurrence of medical errors and adverse events, and includes some technological solutions. A chapter on electronic medical records follows. The knowledge management process divided into four steps is described; this includes a discussion on data acquisition, storage, and retrieval. The next two chapters discuss the other three steps of the knowledge management process (knowledge discovery, knowledge translation, knowledge integration and sharing). The last chapter briefly discusses usability studies and clinical trials. This two-part book consolidates material that supports courses on technology development and management issues in health care institutions. It can be useful for anyone involved in design, development, or research, whether in industry, hospitals, or government. Table of Contents: Preface / Adverse Events, Medical Errors, and the Role of Information Technology in Reducing Them / The Electronic Medical Record (EMR): Design, Safety, and Meaningful Use / Knowledge Management (KM) in a Clinical Environment: Data Acquisition, Storage, and Retrieval / Knowledge Discovery (KD): Data Analysis and Data Mining Tools / Knowledge Translation (KT), Integration, and Sharing (KIS) in a Clinical Environment / Clinical Trials and Usability Studies in a Medical Environment
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