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Biomimetics is the idea of creating new technologies abstracted from what we find in biology. Ocean Innovation: Biomimetics Beneath the Waves seeks that technological inspiration from the rich biodiversity of marine organisms. Bringing both a biological and engineering perspective to the biomimetic potential of oceanic organisms, this richly illustrated book investigates questions such as: How can we mimic the sensory systems of sea creatures like sharks, sea turtles, and lobsters to improve our ability to navigate underwater? What can we do to afford humans the opportunity to go unnoticed by marine life? How can we diffuse oxygen from water to enable deep diving without the risk of decompression sickness? Each chapter explores an area where we, as divers and technologists, can benefit from understanding how animals survive in the sea, presenting case studies that demonstrate how natural solutions can be applied to mankind's engineering challenges.
In this comprehensive work, experts in the field detail recent advances in medical and biological microwave sensors and systems, with chapters on topics such as implantable sensors, wearable microwave tags, and UWB technology. Each chapter explores the theory behind the technology, as well as its design and implementation. This is supported by practical examples and details of experimental results, along with discussion of system design, design trade-offs, and possible constraints and manufacturing issues. Applications described include intracranial pressure monitoring, vital signs monitoring, and non-invasive molecular and cellular investigations. Presenting new research and advances in the field, and focusing on the state of the art in medical and biological microwave sensors, this work is an invaluable resource for enthusiastic researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and medical physics.
Uniquely focusing on dynamic modeling, this volume incorporates metabolic regulation as a survival mechanism for cells, by driving metabolism through optimal investment of its resources for control of enzyme synthesis and activity. Consequently, the models have a proven record of describing various uptake patterns of mixed carbon substrates that have become significant in modern applications of biomass for the production of bioenergy. The models accurately describe dynamic behavior of microbes in nutrient environments with mixtures of complementary substrates, such as carbon and nitrogen. Modeling of large metabolic networks (including prospects for extension to genome scale) is enabled by lumped hybrid cybernetic models with an unparalleled capacity to predict dynamic behavior of knockout strains. This is an invaluable, must-have reference for bio-researchers and practicing engineers.
This book is about the various roles of bioactive ceramides and other sphingolipids in cellular biology. The enigmatic biophysical and biochemical properties of ceramides and their propensity to influence membranes whether as rafts or protein-permeable channels are heavily discussed. Metabolism of ceramides and their metabolites is also focused with ceramide synthase family of proteins being a target of extensive review. Ceramide 1-phosphate and other sphingolipids are also presented in cellular physiology and pathophysiology. Prokaryotic origins of mitochondria at the level of membranes and the occurrence of apoptosis in bacteria are presented. Many aspects of ceramide and sphingolipid biology are addressed in this book. Its focus is the metabolism of ceramide in normal and diseased states and the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms governing the bioactivity of these molecules. Sphingolipid research has surged over the past thirty years and this book gathers the recent findings of various aspects of sphingolipid biochemistry. World-renowned scientists from the field of lipid biology, specifically sphingolipid biochemistry, were gathered to write this book. Scholars from most continents of the globe committed to write diligently about their expertise and the newest findings in the relevant fields. This book came to fruition after almost a year and a half of laborious preparation and diligent writings. This book is targeted to the experienced reader who is looking to read about the various aspects of bioactive ceramide signaling, as well as to the newcomer into the field, as the topics are explained in concise yet very informative manner. The authors and editor wish all readers a pleasant time reading this volume, and are adamant that this book will meet all expectations.
The present book volume presents a holistic view of the aspects of nanobiomaterials incl. their stellar merits and limitations, applications in diverse fields, their futuristic promise in the fields of biomedical science and drug delivery. The federal & regulatory issues on the usage of nanobiomaterials have been assigned due consideration.
A comprehensive text in the field of biomaterials science and tissue engineering, covering fundamental principles and methods related to processing-microstructure-property linkages as applied to biomaterials science. Essential concepts and techniques of the cell biology are discussed in detail, with a focus quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating cell-material interaction. It gives detailed discussion on the processing, structure and properties of metals, ceramics and polymers, together with techniques and guidelines. Comprehensive coverage of in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility property evaluation of materials for bone, neural as well as cardiovascular tissue engineering applications, together with representative protocols. Supported by several multiple-choice questions, fill in the blanks, review questions, numerical problems and solutions to selected problems, this is an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate students in understanding fundamental concepts and the latest developments in the field of biomaterials science.
This book focuses on food security in sustainable agriculture and nutrient management. The study of plant probiotic microbes' synergism using existing techniques has greatly improved our grasp of the structure and functioning of the plant microbiome. However, the function of plant probiotic microbes and their relation to plants' health in the context of food security, soil nutrient management, human and plant health are largely unexplored. Compared to human probiotics, diverse types and millions of microbiota inhabit plants, forming multifaceted and complicated ecological societies that stimulate plant growth and health through their combined metabolic activities. From the perspective of sustainable cropping systems, observing plant probiotics can provide insights on how to stimulate and maintain plant productivity, along with host stress tolerance and recycling of soil nutrients. This book combines reviews and original research articles to highlight the latest advances in plant probiotics, their specificity, diversity, function, as well as plant microbiome management to improve plant growth and productivity, nutrient management and human health.
With the constant evolution of implant technology, and improvement in the production of allograft and bone substitutes, the armamentarium of the orthopaedic surgeon has significantly expanded. In particular, the recent involvement of nanotechnologies opens up the possibilities of new approaches in the interactive interfaces of implants. With many important developments occurring since the first edition of this well-received book, this updated resource informs orthopaedic practitioners on a wide range of biomechanical advances in one complete reference guide. Biomechanics and Biomaterials in Orthopedics, 2nd edition compiles the most prominent work in the discipline to offer newly-qualified orthopedic surgeons a summary of the fundamental skills that they will need to apply in their day-to-day work, while also updating the knowledge of experienced surgeons. This book covers both basic concepts concerning biomaterials and biomechanics as well as their clinical application and the experience from everyday practical use. This book will be of great value to specialists in orthopedics and traumatology, while also providing an important basis for graduate and postgraduate learning.
This book reviews state of the art regarding strategies for generating and improving microbial strains designed for utilizing renewable raw materials. It discusses methods for genetically engineering of thermophilic bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli and Zymomonas mobilis, as well as approaches for obtaining useful products from these renewable raw materials based on biotechnological processes using microbes to chemically transform them. However, the efficient transformation of lignocellulosic biomass or glycerol to useful products represents a major challenge: Biomass has to be treated physically and chemically to release a mixture of sugars that potentially can be employed by the microbial production strains. These hydrolytic treatments result in diverse toxic compounds being generated and released, that negatively impact strain performance. Furthermore, most of the commonly used industrial microbes do not have the natural capacity to efficiently utilize and transform the generated sugar mixtures or glycerol. The microbial species reviewed in this book possess particular advantages as production strains and are currently employed for the synthesis of numerous biofuels and chemicals. The book reviews the general and strain-specific genetic engineering strategies for the improvement of sugar mixtures and glycerol catabolism. The issue of lignocellulosic hydrolysate toxicity is addressed in several chapters, where genetic engineering and adaptive laboratory evolution strategies are reviewed and discussed. The objective of this book is to provide the current knowledge regarding strategies for the generation and improvement of microbial strains designed for the transformation of renewable raw materials into useful products. This book aims to become a reference for researchers and students working in this field.
This is the textbook and reference resource that instructors, students, and researchers in biomedical optics have been waiting for. Comprehensive and up to date, it covers a broad range of areas in biomedical optics, from light interactions at the single-photon and single-biomolecule levels, to the diffusion regime of light propagation in tissue. Subjects covered include spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence, Raman, infrared, near-infrared, and elastic scattering), imaging techniques (diffuse optical tomography, photoacoustic imaging, several forms of modern microscopy, and optical coherence tomography), and laser-tissue interactions, including optical tweezers. Topics are developed from the fundamental principles of physical science, with intuitive explanations, while rigorous mathematical formalisms of theoretical treatments are also provided. For each technique, descriptions of relevant instrumentation and examples of biomedical applications are outlined, and each chapter benefits from references and suggested resources for further reading, and exercise problems with answers to selected problems.
This book provides the reader with the knowledge required in order to understand the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographical aspects of implant surfaces, as well as their impact on the biological response. Common ways to modify implant surfaces are described, and methods for the evaluation of surface properties are presented in an easy-to-read style. Experimental results that have contributed to surface modifications relevant for commercial available implants are presented, with emphasis on in vivo and clinical studies. While the focus is primarily on surface modifications at the micrometer and nanometer levels, alterations at the millimeter level are also covered, including thread designs and their possible influence on stress distribution. In addition, it is analyzed how surface alterations have changed the clinical long-term results for certain groups of patients.
Fluid dynamics plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including the locomotion of cells such as bacteria and spermatozoa. These organisms possess flagella, slender organelles whose time periodic motion in a fluid environment gives rise to motility. Sitting at the intersection of applied mathematics, physics and biology, the fluid dynamics of cell motility is one of the most successful applications of mathematical tools to the understanding of the biological world. Based on courses taught over several years, it details the mathematical modelling necessary to understand cell motility in fluids, covering phenomena ranging from single-cell motion to instabilities in cell populations. Each chapter introduces mathematical models to rationalise experiments, uses physical intuition to interpret mathematical results, highlights the history of the field and discusses notable current research questions. All mathematical derivations are included for students new to the field, and end-of-chapter exercises help consolidate understanding and practise applying the concepts.
This textbook discusses the new relationship between artificial, synthetic material and living matter, and presents defined examples of approaches aiming for the creation of artificial cells. It also offers insights into the world of synthetic biology from its origins to the present day, showing what is currently possible in this discipline. Furthermore, it examines the ethical concerns and potential threats posed by this new field. The textbook is based on a lecture of the same title, held for master's students at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, and is primarily intended for students of synthetic biology, biotechnology and bioengineering. It is also of interest to research scientists from other disciplines wishing to learn more about the state of the art of synthetic biology and its future.
The collection of chapters in this proceedings volume brings together research from academic and industry scientists and clinical development experts who are focused on contemporary and emerging aspects of improving treatments employing biosurfaces. Interactions between biomaterial implants, devices, cell therapies, and whole organ transplants frequently trigger activation of body defense systems and responses that negatively affect the clinical outcome. Optimal tissue integration and modulation of foreign body reactions is therefore essential for preserving anticipated functions and avoiding adverse effects. Topics covered include mechanistic and applied research within the fields of extracorporeal devices, soft and hard tissue implants, tissue and biomaterial-targeting, therapeutic modulation of foreign body reactions, cell encapsulations, as well as cell and whole organ transplantation.
Would you change your genes if you could? As we confront the 'industrial revolution of the genome', the recent discoveries of Crispr-Cas9 technologies are offering, for the first time, cheap and effective methods for editing the human genome. This opens up startling new opportunities as well as significant ethical uncertainty. Tracing events across a fifty-year period, from the first gene splicing techniques to the present day, this is the story of gene editing - the science, the impact and the potential. Kozubek weaves together the fascinating stories of many of the scientists involved in the development of gene editing technology. Along the way, he demystifies how the technology really works and provides vivid and thought-provoking reflections on the continuing ethical debate. This updated paperback edition contains all the very latest on the patent battle over Crisp and the applications of Crispr technology in agriculture and medicine.
This book focuses on all-pairwise multiple comparisons of means in multi-sample models, introducing closed testing procedures based on maximum absolute values of some two-sample t-test statistics and on F-test statistics in homoscedastic multi-sample models. It shows that (1) the multi-step procedures are more powerful than single-step procedures and the Ryan/Einot-Gabriel/Welsh tests, and (2) the confidence regions induced by the multi-step procedures are equivalent to simultaneous confidence intervals. Next, it describes the multi-step test procedure in heteroscedastic multi-sample models, which is superior to the single-step Games-Howell procedure. In the context of simple ordered restrictions of means, the authors also discuss closed testing procedures based on maximum values of two-sample one-sided t-test statistics and based on Bartholomew's statistics. Furthermore, the book presents distribution-free procedures and describes simulation studies performed under the null hypothesis and some alternative hypotheses. Although single-step multiple comparison procedures are generally used, the closed testing procedures described are more powerful than the single-step procedures. In order to execute the multiple comparison procedures, the upper 100 percentiles of the complicated distributions are required. Classical integral formulas such as Simpson's rule and the Gaussian rule have been used for the calculation of the integral transform that appears in statistical calculations. However, these formulas are not effective for the complicated distribution. As such, the authors introduce the sinc method, which is optimal in terms of accuracy and computational cost.
This book is the second of two volumes that offer a comprehensive, up-to-date account of current knowledge regarding high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the changes that occur in HDL under different conditions, the clinical applications of HDL, and means of enhancing HDL functionality. In this volume, the focus is on the improvement of HDL, enhancement of its functionality, and the use of HDL for therapeutic purposes. In the first section, up-to-date information is provided on such topics as the tumor regression-promoting and antidiabetic activities of reconstituted HDL containing V156K apolipoprotein A-I, the enhancement of HDL effects by high doses of vitamin C, the benefits derived from incorporation of growth hormones 1 and 2 into rHDL, and the biological functions of omega-3 linolenic acid in rHDL. The enhancement of HDL functionality by policosanol and the resultant benefits are thoroughly examined in a separate section. Readers will also find the latest information on clinical applications of HDL. Here, specific topics include the enhancement of adenoviral gene delivery and the delivery of rapamycin. In documenting the latest knowledge in this field, this volume will be of interest to both researchers and clinicians.
This concise, user-oriented and up-to-date desk reference offers a broad introduction to the fascinating world of medical technology, fully considering today 's progress and further development in all relevant fields. The "Springer Handbook of Medical Technology" is a systemized and well-structured guideline which distinguishes itself through simplification and condensation of complex facts. This book is an indispensable resource for professionals working directly or indirectly with medical systems and appliances every day. It is also meant for graduate and post graduate students in hospital management, medical engineering, and medical physics.
Innovation in medicine and healthcare is an interdisciplinary research area, which combines the advanced technologies and problem solving skills with medical and biological science. A central theme of this proceedings is Smart Medical and Healthcare Systems (modern intelligent systems for medicine and healthcare), which can provide efficient and accurate solution to problems faced by healthcare and medical practitioners today by using advanced information communication techniques, computational intelligence, mathematics, robotics and other advanced technologies. The techniques developed in this area will have a significant effect on future medicine and healthcare. The volume includes 53 papers, which present the recent trend and innovations in medicine and healthcare including Medical Informatics; Biomedical Engineering; Management for Healthcare; Advanced ICT for Medical and Healthcare; Simulation and Visualization/VR for Medicine; Statistical Signal Processing and Artificial Intelligence; Smart Medical and Healthcare System and Healthcare Support System.
Dosimetry refers to the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body. The proposed book will place emphasis on the existence of physical and biophysical dosimetry. It will be discussed for the proper description and evaluation of the signal at the power generation system. It will cover in detail 10 different parameters of EMF (electromagnetism) exposure such as amplitude, frequency, vector, time of exposure, orientation, etc. In most published papers, these parameters are not well defined.
This book is dedicated to the field of conductive polymers, focusing on electrical interactions with biological systems. It addresses the use of conductive polymers as the conducting interface for electrical communications with the biological system, both in vitro and in vivo. It provides an overview on the chemistry and physics of conductive polymers, their useful characteristics as well as limitations, and technologies that apply conductive polymers for medical purposes. This groundbreaking resource addresses cytotoxicity and tissue compatibility of conductive polymers, the basics on electromagnetic fields, and commonly used experimental methods. Readers will also learn how cells are cultured in vitro with conductive polymers, and how conductive polymers and living tissues interact electrically. Throughout the contents, chapter authors emphasize the importance of conductive polymers in biomedical engineering and their potential applications in medicine.
Learn about the state of the art in building artificial membranes and synthetic biological devices, and in constructing mathematical models for their dynamics at multiple time and spatial scales with this comprehensive book. Drawing on recent advances in bioengineering and biochemistry, it describes how to engineer tethered bilayer lipid membranes, bioelectronic interfaces, high-resolution biosensors, and diagnostic devices for non-invasive cellular measurements and electroporation. Multi-physics models combining atomistic (molecular dynamics and coarse-grained molecular dynamics), mesoscopic (Poisson-Nernst-Planck), and macroscopic (reaction-rate theory) dynamics provide a complete structure-to-function description of these devices. Experiments and dynamic models explain how anti-microbial peptides penetrate membranes, how molecular machine biosensors built out of artificial membranes can detect femtomolar concentrations, and how electroporation can be controlled. Supported by atomistic simulation code online, this is essential reading for researchers, students and professionals in bioengineering, chemical engineering, biophysics, applied mathematics, and electrical engineering.
One of the biggest challenges faced in medical research had been to create accurate and relevant models of human disease. A number of good animal models have been developed to understand the pathophysiology. However, not all of them reflect the human disorder, a classic case being Usher's syndrome where the mutant mice do not have the same visual and auditory defects that patients face. There are others which have been even more difficult to model due to the multi-factorial nature of the condition and due to lack of discovery of a single causative gene such as age-related macular degeneration or Alzheimer's syndrome. Thus a more relevant and accurate system will allow us to make better predictions on relevant therapeutic approaches. The discovery of human pluripotent stem cells in 1998 followed by the technological advances to reprogram somatic cells to pluripotent-stem cell-like cells in 2006 has completely revolutionized the way we can now think about modelling human development and disease. This now coupled with genome editing technologies such as TALENS and CRISPRs have now set us up to develop in vitro models both 2D as well as 3D organoids, which can more precisely reflect the disease in the patients. These combinatorial technologies are already providing us with better tools and therapeutics in drug discovery or gene therapy. This book summarizes both the technological advances in the field of generation of patient specific lines as well as various gene editing approaches followed by its applicability in various systems. The book will serve as a reference for the current state of the field as it: -Provides a comprehensive overview of the status of the field of patients derived induced pluripotent stem cells. -Describes the use of cardiac cells as a main featured component within the book. -Examines drug toxicity analysis as a working example throughout the book.
This fully updated, self-contained textbook covering modern optical microscopy equips students with a solid understanding of the theory underlying a range of advanced techniques. Two new chapters cover pump-probe techniques, and imaging in scattering media, and additional material throughout covers light-sheet microscopy, image scanning microscopy, and much more. An array of practical techniques are discussed, from classical phase contrast and confocal microscopy, to holographic, structured illumination, multi-photon, and coherent Raman microscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Fundamental topics are also covered, including Fourier optics, partial coherence, 3D imaging theory, statistical optics, and the physics of scattering and fluorescence. With a wealth of end-of-chapter problems, and a solutions manual for instructors available online, this is an invaluable book for electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and physics students taking graduate courses on optical microscopy, as well as advanced undergraduates, professionals, and researchers looking for an accessible introduction to the field.
Wireless Medical Systems and Algorithms: Design and Applications provides a state-of-the-art overview of the key steps in the development of wireless medical systems, from biochips to brain-computer interfaces and beyond. The book also examines some of the most advanced algorithms and data processing in the field. Addressing the latest challenges and solutions related to the medical needs, electronic design, advanced materials chemistry, wireless body sensor networks, and technologies suitable for wireless medical devices, the text: Investigates the technological and manufacturing issues associated with the development of wireless medical devices Introduces the techniques and strategies that can optimize the performances of algorithms for medical applications and provide robust results in terms of data reliability Includes a variety of practical examples and case studies relevant to engineers, medical doctors, chemists, and biologists Wireless Medical Systems and Algorithms: Design and Applications not only highlights new technologies for the continuous surveillance of patient health conditions, but also shows how disciplines such as chemistry, biology, engineering, and medicine are merging to produce a new class of smart devices capable of managing and monitoring a wide range of cognitive and physical disabilities.
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