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Biomimetics is the idea of creating new technologies abstracted from what we find in biology. Ocean Innovation: Biomimetics Beneath the Waves seeks that technological inspiration from the rich biodiversity of marine organisms. Bringing both a biological and engineering perspective to the biomimetic potential of oceanic organisms, this richly illustrated book investigates questions such as: How can we mimic the sensory systems of sea creatures like sharks, sea turtles, and lobsters to improve our ability to navigate underwater? What can we do to afford humans the opportunity to go unnoticed by marine life? How can we diffuse oxygen from water to enable deep diving without the risk of decompression sickness? Each chapter explores an area where we, as divers and technologists, can benefit from understanding how animals survive in the sea, presenting case studies that demonstrate how natural solutions can be applied to mankind's engineering challenges.
This book provides the reader with the knowledge required in order to understand the chemical, physical, mechanical, and topographical aspects of implant surfaces, as well as their impact on the biological response. Common ways to modify implant surfaces are described, and methods for the evaluation of surface properties are presented in an easy-to-read style. Experimental results that have contributed to surface modifications relevant for commercial available implants are presented, with emphasis on in vivo and clinical studies. While the focus is primarily on surface modifications at the micrometer and nanometer levels, alterations at the millimeter level are also covered, including thread designs and their possible influence on stress distribution. In addition, it is analyzed how surface alterations have changed the clinical long-term results for certain groups of patients.
This is the textbook and reference resource that instructors, students, and researchers in biomedical optics have been waiting for. Comprehensive and up to date, it covers a broad range of areas in biomedical optics, from light interactions at the single-photon and single-biomolecule levels, to the diffusion regime of light propagation in tissue. Subjects covered include spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence, Raman, infrared, near-infrared, and elastic scattering), imaging techniques (diffuse optical tomography, photoacoustic imaging, several forms of modern microscopy, and optical coherence tomography), and laser-tissue interactions, including optical tweezers. Topics are developed from the fundamental principles of physical science, with intuitive explanations, while rigorous mathematical formalisms of theoretical treatments are also provided. For each technique, descriptions of relevant instrumentation and examples of biomedical applications are outlined, and each chapter benefits from references and suggested resources for further reading, and exercise problems with answers to selected problems.
This fully updated, self-contained textbook covering modern optical microscopy equips students with a solid understanding of the theory underlying a range of advanced techniques. Two new chapters cover pump-probe techniques, and imaging in scattering media, and additional material throughout covers light-sheet microscopy, image scanning microscopy, and much more. An array of practical techniques are discussed, from classical phase contrast and confocal microscopy, to holographic, structured illumination, multi-photon, and coherent Raman microscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Fundamental topics are also covered, including Fourier optics, partial coherence, 3D imaging theory, statistical optics, and the physics of scattering and fluorescence. With a wealth of end-of-chapter problems, and a solutions manual for instructors available online, this is an invaluable book for electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and physics students taking graduate courses on optical microscopy, as well as advanced undergraduates, professionals, and researchers looking for an accessible introduction to the field.
With the constant evolution of implant technology, and improvement in the production of allograft and bone substitutes, the armamentarium of the orthopaedic surgeon has significantly expanded. In particular, the recent involvement of nanotechnologies opens up the possibilities of new approaches in the interactive interfaces of implants. With many important developments occurring since the first edition of this well-received book, this updated resource informs orthopaedic practitioners on a wide range of biomechanical advances in one complete reference guide. Biomechanics and Biomaterials in Orthopedics, 2nd edition compiles the most prominent work in the discipline to offer newly-qualified orthopedic surgeons a summary of the fundamental skills that they will need to apply in their day-to-day work, while also updating the knowledge of experienced surgeons. This book covers both basic concepts concerning biomaterials and biomechanics as well as their clinical application and the experience from everyday practical use. This book will be of great value to specialists in orthopedics and traumatology, while also providing an important basis for graduate and postgraduate learning.
Shows the newest developments in the field of multi-parametric model predictive control and optimization and their application for drug delivery systems This book is based on the Modelling, Control and Optimization of Biomedical Systems (MOBILE) project, which was created to derive intelligent computer model-based systems for optimization of biomedical drug delivery systems in the cases of diabetes, anaesthesia, and blood cancer. These systems can ensure reliable and fast calculation of the optimal drug dosage without the need for an online computer--while taking into account the specifics and constraints of the patient model, flexibility to adapt to changing patient characteristics and incorporation of the physician's performance criteria, and maintaining the safety of the patients. Modelling Optimization and Control of Biomedical Systems covers: mathematical modelling of drug delivery systems; model analysis, parameter estimation, and approximation; optimization and control; sensitivity analysis & model reduction; multi-parametric programming and model predictive control; estimation techniques; physiologically-based patient model; control design for volatile anaesthesia; multiparametric model based approach to intravenous anaesthesia; hybrid model predictive control strategies; Type I Diabetes Mellitus; in vitro and in silico block of the integrated platform for the study of leukaemia; chemotherapy treatment as a process systems application; and more. Introduces readers to the Modelling, Control and Optimization of Biomedical Systems (MOBILE) project Presents in detail the theoretical background, computational tools, and methods that are used in all the different biomedical systems Teaches the theory for multi-parametric mixed-integer programming and explicit optimal control of volatile anaesthesia Provides an overview of the framework for modelling, optimization, and control of biomedical systems This book will appeal to students, researchers, and scientists working on the modelling, control, and optimization of biomedical systems and to those involved in cancer treatment, anaesthsia, and drug delivery systems.
The second edition of this popular introductory undergraduate textbook uses examples, applications, and profiles of biomedical engineers to show students the relevance of the theory and how it can be used to solve real problems in human medicine. The essential molecular biology, cellular biology, and human physiology background is included for students to understand the context in which biomedical engineers work. Updates throughout highlight important advances made over recent years, including iPS cells, microRNA, nanomedicine, imaging technology, biosensors, and drug delivery systems, giving students a modern description of the various subfields of biomedical engineering. Over two hundred quantitative and qualitative exercises, many new to this edition, help consolidate learning, whilst a solutions manual, password-protected for instructors, is available online. Finally, students can enjoy an expanded set of leader profiles in biomedical engineering within the book, showcasing the broad range of career paths open to students who make biomedical engineering their calling.
Thoroughly revised and updated for the second edition, this comprehensive textbook integrates basic and advanced concepts of mechanics with numerical methods and biomedical applications. Coverage is expanded to include a complete introduction to vector and tensor calculus, and new or fully updated chapters on biological materials and continuum mechanics, motion, deformation and rotation, and constitutive modelling of solids and fluids. Topics such as kinematics, equilibrium, and stresses and strains are also included, as well as the mechanical behaviour of fibres and the analysis of one-dimensional continuous elastic media. Numerical solution procedures based on the Finite Element Method are presented, with accompanying MATLAB-based software and dozens of new biomedical engineering examples and exercises allowing readers to practise and improve their skills. Solutions for instructors are also available online. This is the definitive guide for both undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in biomechanics.
Atlas of Hematopathology: Morphology, Immunophenotype, Cytogenetics, and Molecular Approaches, Second Edition, will appeal to both a wide range of people undergoing training in a variety of medical fields and practicing non-hematopathologists. For clinicians, fellows and residents, correct diagnosis (and therefore correct treatment) of diseases depends on a strong understanding of the molecular basis for the disease, making this book a crucial resource. This atlas contains hundreds of high-quality color images that mirror the findings that fellows and clinicians encounter in practice. In addition, it provides information in a quick, simple and user-friendly manner, attracting both those in training and non- experts. Residents, fellows, practicing clinicians, and researchers in pathology, hematology and hematology/oncology will find this a useful resource.
Learn about the theory, techniques and applications of wavefront shaping in biomedical imaging using this unique text. With authoritative contributions from researchers who are defining the field, cutting-edge theory is combined with real-world practical examples, experimental data and the latest research trends to provide the first book-level treatment of the subject. It is suitable for both background reading and use in a course, with coverage of essential topics such as adaptive optical microscopy, deep tissue microscopy, time reversal and optical phase conjugation, and tomography. The latest images from the forefront of biomedical imaging are included, and full-colour versions are available in the eBook version. Researchers, practitioners and graduate students in optics, biophotonics, biomedical engineering, and biology who use biomedical imaging tools and are looking to advance their knowledge of the subject will find this an indispensable resource.
In this book, distinguished scholars Philip A. Rea, Mark V. Pauly, and Lawton R. Burns explore the science and management behind marketable biomedical innovations. They look at how the science actually played out through the interplay of personalities, the cultures within and between academic and corporate entities, and the significance of serendipity not as a mysterious phenomenon but one intrinsic to the successes and failures of the experimental approach. With newly aggregated data and case studies, they consider the fundamental economic underpinnings of investor-driven discovery management, not as an obstacle or deficiency as its critics would contend or as something beyond reproach as some of its proponents might claim, but as the only means by which scientists and managers can navigate the unknowable to discover new products and decide how to sell them so as to maximize the likelihood of establishing a sustainable pipeline for still more marketable biomedical innovations.
Integer linear programming (ILP) is a versatile modeling and optimization technique that is increasingly used in non-traditional ways in biology, with the potential to transform biological computation. However, few biologists know about it. This how-to and why-do text introduces ILP through the lens of computational and systems biology. It uses in-depth examples from genomics, phylogenetics, RNA, protein folding, network analysis, cancer, ecology, co-evolution, DNA sequencing, sequence analysis, pedigree and sibling inference, haplotyping, and more, to establish the power of ILP. This book aims to teach the logic of modeling and solving problems with ILP, and to teach the practical 'work flow' involved in using ILP in biology. Written for a wide audience, with no biological or computational prerequisites, this book is appropriate for entry-level and advanced courses aimed at biological and computational students, and as a source for specialists. Numerous exercises and accompanying software (in Python and Perl) demonstrate the concepts.
Drawing together topics from a wide range of disciplines, this text provides a comprehensive insight into the fundamentals of magnetic biosensors and the applications of magnetic nanoparticles in medicine. Internationally renowned researchers showcase topics ranging from the basic physical principles of magnetism to the detection and manipulation, synthesis protocols and natural occurrence of magnetic nanoparticles. Up-to-date examples of their clinical usage and research applications in the biomedical fields of sensing by diverse magnetic detection methods, in imaging by MRI and in therapeutic strategies such as hyperthermia, are also discussed, providing a thorough introduction to this rapidly developing field. Each chapter features questions with answers, highlighted definition boxes, and numerous illustrations which help readers grasp key concepts. Mathematical tools, together with key literature references, provide a strong underpinning for the material, making it ideal for graduate students, lecturers, medical researchers and industrial scientific strategists.
Cardiovascular diseases have a major impact in Western countries. Mathematical models and numerical simulations can help the understanding of physiological and pathological processes, complementing the information provided to medical doctors by medical imaging and other non-invasive means, and opening the possibility of a better diagnosis and more in-depth surgical planning. This book offers a mathematical update of the state of the art of the research in the field, and serves as a useful reference for the development of mathematical models and numerical simulation codes. It is structured into different chapters, written by outstanding experts in the field. Many fundamental issues are considered, such as: the mathematical representation of vascular geometries extracted from medical images, modelling blood rheology and the complex multilayer structure of the vascular tissue, and its possible pathologies, the mechanical and chemical interaction between blood and vascular walls; the different scales coupling local and systemic dynamics. All of these topics introduce challenging mathematical and numerical problems, demanding for advanced analysis and efficient simulation techniques. This book is addressed to graduate students and researchers in the field of bioengineering, applied mathematics and medicine, wishing to engage themselves in the fascinating task of modeling the cardiovascular system or, more broadly, physiological flows
The new research field of Ambient/Active Assisted Living (AAL) is quickly evolving. Ambient Integrated Robotics provides an easy-to-understand medical perspective to architects, designers, and engineers, bridging the different disciplines and showing how they fuse together to create the future of AAL technology. Using robotics as an example, the book illustrates how embedding its subsystems results in unique ambient technology that can be used to help people, particularly in adapting to the needs of the unwell and elderly populations. You will be provided with the knowledge and tools to contribute to the future of AAL. The Cambridge Handbooks on Construction Robotics series gives professionals, researchers, lecturers, and students basic conceptual and technical skills and strategies to manage, research, or teach the implementation of advanced automation, and robot-technology-based processes and technologies in construction. Books discuss progress in robot systems theory and demonstrates their integration using real applications and projections.
A comprehensive overview of the latest achievements, trends, and the current state of the art of this important and rapidly expanding field. Clearly and logically structured, the first part of the book explores the fundamentals of tissue engineering, providing a separate chapter on each of the basic topics, including biomaterials stem cells, biosensors and bioreactors. The second part then follows a more applied approach, discussing various applications of tissue engineering, such as the replacement or repairing of skins, cartilages, livers and blood vessels, to trachea, lungs and cardiac tissues, to musculoskeletal tissue engineering used for bones and ligaments as well as pancreas, kidney and neural tissue engineering for the brain. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances. An invaluable reading for entrants to the field in biomedical engineering as well as expert researchers and developers in industry.
An introduction to the field of applied ontology with examples derived particularly from biomedicine, covering theoretical components, design practices, and practical applications. In the era of "big data," science is increasingly information driven, and the potential for computers to store, manage, and integrate massive amounts of data has given rise to such new disciplinary fields as biomedical informatics. Applied ontology offers a strategy for the organization of scientific information in computer-tractable form, drawing on concepts not only from computer and information science but also from linguistics, logic, and philosophy. This book provides an introduction to the field of applied ontology that is of particular relevance to biomedicine, covering theoretical components of ontologies, best practices for ontology design, and examples of biomedical ontologies in use. After defining an ontology as a representation of the types of entities in a given domain, the book distinguishes between different kinds of ontologies and taxonomies, and shows how applied ontology draws on more traditional ideas from metaphysics. It presents the core features of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), now used by over one hundred ontology projects around the world, and offers examples of domain ontologies that utilize BFO. The book also describes Web Ontology Language (OWL), a common framework for Semantic Web technologies. Throughout, the book provides concrete recommendations for the design and construction of domain ontologies.
MATLAB Programming for Biomedical Engineers and Scientists provides an easy-to-learn introduction to the fundamentals of computer programming in MATLAB. This book explains the principles of good programming practice, while demonstrating how to write efficient and robust code that analyzes and visualizes biomedical data. Aimed at the biomedical engineer, biomedical scientist, and medical researcher with little or no computer programming experience, it is an excellent resource for learning the principles and practice of computer programming using MATLAB. This book enables the reader to: Analyze problems and apply structured design methods to produce elegant, efficient and well-structured program designs Implement a structured program design in MATLAB, making good use of incremental development approaches Write code that makes good use of MATLAB programming features, including control structures, functions and advanced data types Write MATLAB code to read in medical data from files and write data to files Write MATLAB code that is efficient and robust to errors in input data Write MATLAB code to analyze and visualize medical data, including imaging data For a firsthand interview with the authors, please visit http://scitechconnect.elsevier.com/matlab-programming-biomedical-engineers-scientists/ To access student materials, please visit https://www.elsevier.com/books-and-journals/book-companion/9780128122037 To register and access instructor materials, please visit http://textbooks.elsevier.com/web/Manuals.aspx?isbn=9780128122037
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. * Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics * Emphasizes processes and applications that specifically exploit photon attributes of light * Deals with the rapidly advancing area of modern optics * Chapters are written by top scientists in their field Written for the graduate level student in physical sciences; Industrial and academic researchers in photonics, graduate students in the area; College lecturers, educators, policymakers, consultants, Scientific and technical libraries, government laboratories, NIH.
At the interface of biology, chemistry, and materials science, this
book provides an overview of this vibrant research field, treating
the seemingly distinct disciplines in a unified way by adopting the
common viewpoint of surface science.
A comprehensive reference on biochemistry, bioimaging, bioanalysis, and therapeutic applications of carbon nanomaterials Carbon nanomaterials have been widely applied for biomedical applications in the past few decades, because of their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. This book provides background knowledge at the entry level into the biomedical applications of carbon nanomaterials, focusing on three applications: bioimaging, bioanalysis, and therapy. Carbon Nanomaterials for Bioimaging, Bioanalysis and Therapy begins with a general introduction to carbon nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including a discussion about the pros and cons of various carbon nanomaterials for the respective therapeutic applications. It then goes on to cover fluorescence imaging; deep tissue imaging; photoacoustic imaging; pre-clinical/clinical bioimaging applications; carbon nanomaterial sensors for cancer and disease diagnosis; targeted cancer therapy; and photothermal/photodynamic therapy. Each chapter briefly introduces the biomedical application and emphasizes the most appropriate carbon nanomaterial(s) for the application. Provides an introduction to the biomedical applications of carbon nanomaterials for early-career scientists, as well as background and context for mid-career scientists and researchers Contains four sections covering biochemistry, bioimaging, bioanalysis, and therapeutic applications of carbon nanomaterials Presented by experts who have strong background in the field of nanotechnology for biomedical applications Covers a hot area of research which has very unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility Carbon Nanomaterials for Bioimaging, Bioanalysis and Therapy is an excellent resource for academic researchers and industrial scientists working on preparation and bio-application of carbon nanomaterials, biomedical engineering, and nanotechnology.
Would you change your genes if you could? As we confront the 'industrial revolution of the genome', the recent discoveries of Crispr-Cas9 technologies are offering, for the first time, cheap and effective methods for editing the human genome. This opens up startling new opportunities as well as significant ethical uncertainty. Tracing events across a fifty-year period, from the first gene splicing techniques to the present day, this is the story of gene editing - the science, the impact and the potential. Kozubek weaves together the fascinating stories of many of the scientists involved in the development of gene editing technology. Along the way, he demystifies how the technology really works and provides vivid and thought-provoking reflections on the continuing ethical debate. This updated paperback edition contains all the very latest on the patent battle over Crisp and the applications of Crispr technology in agriculture and medicine.
Peptides serve as effective drugs in the clinic today. However the inherent drawbacks of peptide structures can limit their efficacy as drugs. To overcome this researchers are developing new methods to create tailor-made' peptides and proteins with improved pharmacological properties. Design of Peptides and Proteins provides an overview of the experimental and computational methods for peptide and protein design, with an emphasis on specific applications for therapeutics and biomedical research. Topics covered include: * Computer modeling of peptides and proteins * Peptidomimetics * Design and synthesis of cyclic peptides * Carbohydrates in peptide and protein design * De novo design of peptides and proteins * Medical development applications * An extended case study - the design of insulin variants Design of Peptides and Proteins presents the state-of-the-art of this exciting approach for therapeutics, with contributions from international experts. It is an essential resource for academic and industrial scientists in the fields of peptide and protein drug design, biomedicine, biochemistry, biophysics, molecular modelling, synthetic organic chemistry and medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry.
Learn about the state of the art in building artificial membranes and synthetic biological devices, and in constructing mathematical models for their dynamics at multiple time and spatial scales with this comprehensive book. Drawing on recent advances in bioengineering and biochemistry, it describes how to engineer tethered bilayer lipid membranes, bioelectronic interfaces, high-resolution biosensors, and diagnostic devices for non-invasive cellular measurements and electroporation. Multi-physics models combining atomistic (molecular dynamics and coarse-grained molecular dynamics), mesoscopic (Poisson-Nernst-Planck), and macroscopic (reaction-rate theory) dynamics provide a complete structure-to-function description of these devices. Experiments and dynamic models explain how anti-microbial peptides penetrate membranes, how molecular machine biosensors built out of artificial membranes can detect femtomolar concentrations, and how electroporation can be controlled. Supported by atomistic simulation code online, this is essential reading for researchers, students and professionals in bioengineering, chemical engineering, biophysics, applied mathematics, and electrical engineering.
This book primarily focuses on the study of various neurological disorders, including Parkinson's (PD), Huntington (HD), Epilepsy, Alzheimer's and Motor Neuron Diseases (MND) from a new perspective by analyzing the physiological signals associated with them using non-linear dynamics. The development of nonlinear methods has significantly helped to study complex nonlinear systems in detail by providing accurate and reliable information. The book provides a brief introduction to the central nervous system and its various disorders, their effects on health and quality of life, and their respective courses of treatment, followed by different bioelectrical signals like those detected by Electroencephalography (EEG), Electrocardiography (ECG), and Electromyography (EMG). In turn, the book discusses a range of nonlinear techniques, fractals, multifractals, and Higuchi's Fractal Dimension (HFD), with mathematical examples and procedures. A review of studies conducted to date on neurological disorders like epilepsy, dementia, Parkinson's, Huntington, Alzheimer's, and Motor Neuron Diseases, which incorporate linear and nonlinear techniques, is also provided. The book subsequently presents new findings on neurological disorders of the central nervous system, namely Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, by analyzing their gait characteristics using a nonlinear fractal based technique: Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). In closing, the book elaborates on several parameters that can be obtained from cross-correlation studies of ECG and blood pressure, and can be used as markers for neurological disorders.
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