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This book primarily focuses on microbial colonization, its role in plant growth and nutrient cycling, mycorrhizae, and providing an overview of phytospheric microorganisms in sustainable crop systems. Despite the advances made in the study of plant-microbe synergism, the relation between microbes and plant health in the context of food security, soil nutrient management, human and plant health is still largely unexplored. Addressing that gap, the book presents reviews and original research articles that highlight the latest discoveries in plant probiotics, their specificity, diversity and function. Additional sections addressing nutrient management, human health, and plant microbiome management to improve plant productivity round out the coverage.
Hemodynamic computations represent a state-of-the-art approach for patient-specific assessment of cardiovascular pathologies. The book presents the development of reduced-order multiscale hemodynamic models for coronary artery disease, aortic coarctation and whole body circulation, which can be applied in routine clinical settings for personalized diagnosis. Specific parameter estimation frameworks are introduced for calibrating the parameters of the models and high performance computing solutions are employed to reduce their execution time. The personalized computational models are validated against patient-specific measurements. The book is written for scientists in the field of biomedical engineering focusing on the cardiovascular system, as well as for research-oriented physicians in cardiology and industrial players in the field of healthcare technologies.
This book highlights selected current data and its relevance in the human health care system, offering a fundamental primer on genetics and human health. With the advent of new high-throughput technologies (for the whole genome including exome sequencing), the conventional focus on genetics and individual genes is now shifting toward the analysis of complex genes, gene-gene interactions and the association between genes and environment, including epigenetics. The rapidly changing scientific research landscape, with the ever-growing influx of data on one hand and emergence of newer and more complicated diseases on the other, has created a dilemma for researchers and caregivers, who are still hopeful that advances in genetics and genomics will provide avenues for the understanding, prevention and possible cure of human diseases. The book focuses on the interactions between genes and proteins at both the transcriptome and proteome levels, which in turn affect the human genome and health. Additionally, it covers the domain that must be explored in order to understand the gene-gene and protein-protein interactions that contribute to human health. The book offers a valuable guide for all students and researchers working in the area of molecular genetics and genomics.
A comprehensive overview of the latest achievements, trends, and the current state of the art of this important and rapidly expanding field. Clearly and logically structured, the first part of the book explores the fundamentals of tissue engineering, providing a separate chapter on each of the basic topics, including biomaterials stem cells, biosensors and bioreactors. The second part then follows a more applied approach, discussing various applications of tissue engineering, such as the replacement or repairing of skins, cartilages, livers and blood vessels, to trachea, lungs and cardiac tissues, to musculoskeletal tissue engineering used for bones and ligaments as well as pancreas, kidney and neural tissue engineering for the brain. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances. An invaluable reading for entrants to the field in biomedical engineering as well as expert researchers and developers in industry.
Although many radiation protection scientists and engineers use dose coefficients, few know the origin of those dose coefficients. This is the first book in over 40 years to address the topic of radiation protection dosimetry in intimate detail. Advanced Radiation Protection Dosimetry covers all methods used in radiation protection dosimetry, including advanced external and internal radiation dosimetry concepts and regulatory applications. This book is an ideal reference for both scientists and practitioners in radiation protection and students in graduate health physics and medical physics courses. Features: A much-needed book filling a gap in the market in a rapidly expanding area Contains the history, evolution, and the most up-to-date computational dosimetry models Authored and edited by internationally recognized authorities and subject area specialists Interrogates both the origins and methodologies of dose coefficient calculation Incorporates the latest international guidance for radiation dosimetry and protection
This is the first book to cover all aspects of the development of imaging biomarkers and their integration into clinical practice, from the conceptual basis through to the technical aspects that need to be considered in order to ensure that medical imaging can serve as a powerful quantification instrument capable of providing valuable information on organ and tissue properties. The process of imaging biomarker development is considered step by step, covering proof of concept, proof of mechanism, image acquisition, image preparation, imaging biomarker analysis and measurement, detection of measurement biases (proof of principle), proof of efficacy and effectiveness, and reporting of results. Sources of uncertainty in the accuracy and precision of measurements and pearls and pitfalls in gold standards and biological correlation are discussed. In addition, practical use cases are included on imaging biomarker implementation in brain, oncologic, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and abdominal diseases. The authors are a multidisciplinary team of expert radiologists and engineers, and the book will be of value to all with an interest in the quantitative imaging of biomarkers in personalized medicine.
This book covers the basics of the biomaterials science its applications to bone tissue engineering. The introductory section describes the most necessary concepts and techniques related to the cell and molecular biology with a particular focus on evaluating the biocompatibility property. The layout of this book facilitates easier understanding of the area of bone tissue engineering. The book integrates the Materials Science and Biological Science. It covers processing and basic material properties of various biocompatible metals and ceramics-based materials, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and toxicity assessment in the context of bone tissue engineering, and processing and properties of metal-, ceramic- and polymer-based biocomposites, including the fabrication of porous scaffold materials. The book can be used as a textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate coursework. It will also be a useful reference for researchers and professionals working in the area.
This step-by-step guide to medical technology innovation, now in full color, has been rewritten to reflect recent trends of industry globalization and value-conscious healthcare. Written by a team of medical, engineering, and business experts, the authors provide a comprehensive resource that leads students, researchers, and entrepreneurs through a proven process for the identification, invention, and implementation of new solutions. Case studies on innovative products from around the world, successes and failures, practical advice, and end-of-chapter 'Getting Started' sections encourage readers to learn from real projects and apply important lessons to their own work. A wealth of additional material supports the book, including a collection of nearly one hundred videos created for the second edition, active links to external websites, supplementary appendices, and timely updates on the companion website at ebiodesign.org. Readers can access this material quickly, easily, and at the most relevant point in the text from within the ebook.
Biopolymers found in marine animals and plants offer tremendous, largely untapped pharmaceutical potential. Research shows that these biopolymers can be used to combat various infectious as well as inflammatory, oxidative, and carcinogenic factors. Chitin, Chitosan, Oligosaccharides and Their Derivatives: Biological Activities and Applications covers the key aspects of these therapeutically valuable biopolymers and their derivatives, namely, their properties, sources, production, and applications in food science and technology as well as biological, biomedical, industrial, and agricultural fields.
Contains more than 100 Tables & Figures and more than 800
With their wide range of applications, the world is looking to biopolymers to serve as the basis for functional food- and drug development. This book is an important resource for those leading this effort.
Photoacoustics promises to revolutionize medical imaging and may well make as dramatic a contribution to modern medicine as the discovery of the x-ray itself once did. Combining electromagnetic and ultrasonic waves synergistically, photoacoustics can provide deep speckle-free imaging with high electromagnetic contrast at high ultrasonic resolution and without any health risk. While photoacoustic imaging is probably the fastest growing biomedical imaging technology, this book is the first comprehensive volume in this emerging field covering both the physics and the remarkable noninvasive applications that are changing diagnostic medicine. Bringing together the leading pioneers in this field to write about their own work, Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy is the first to provide a full account of the latest research and developing applications in the area of biomedical photoacoustics. Photoacoustics can provide functional sensing of physiological parameters such as the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin. It can also provide high-contrast functional imaging of angiogenesis and hypermetabolism in tumors in vivo. Discussing these remarkable noninvasive applications and so much more, this reference is essential reading for all researchers in medical imaging and those clinicians working at the cutting-edge of modern biotechnology to develop diagnostic techniques that can save many lives and just as importantly do no harm.
With the constant evolution of implant technology, and improvement in the production of allograft and bone substitutes, the armamentarium of the orthopaedic surgeon has significantly expanded. In particular, the recent involvement of nanotechnologies opens up the possibilities of new approaches in the interactive interfaces of implants. With many important developments occurring since the first edition of this well-received book, this updated resource informs orthopaedic practitioners on a wide range of biomechanical advances in one complete reference guide. Biomechanics and Biomaterials in Orthopedics, 2nd edition compiles the most prominent work in the discipline to offer newly-qualified orthopedic surgeons a summary of the fundamental skills that they will need to apply in their day-to-day work, while also updating the knowledge of experienced surgeons. This book covers both basic concepts concerning biomaterials and biomechanics as well as their clinical application and the experience from everyday practical use. This book will be of great value to specialists in orthopedics and traumatology, while also providing an important basis for graduate and postgraduate learning.
This book reviews the emerging studies of synthetic immunology, including the development and regeneration of immune cells, immune organ development and artificial regeneration, and the synthetic approach towards understanding human immune system. Immunology has developed rapidly over the last 50 years through the incorporation of new methods and concepts in cell and molecular biology, genetics, genomics and proteomics. This progress is the result of works by many excellent researchers all over the world. Currently, immunological research has accumulated detailed knowledge on basic mechanisms of immunity and is in the process to change medical practices. Yet, due to the enormous complexity of the immune system, many aspects on the regulation and function of this system remain unknown. Synthetic biology uses gain-of-function rather than loss-of-function approaches. The goals of synthetic biology can be described in a simple phrase "rebuild, alter, and understand," namely, to rebuild minimal functional systems using well-defined parts from nature and then to perturb the system to understand its working principles. Given the richness of accumulated knowledge in molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immune system, we now begin adapting the concepts of synthetic biology to immunology. An immune response is a spatiotemporal phenomenon occurring at a given time and at a specialized place in the body. One goal of synthetic immunology is to reconstruct artificial microenvironments for better understanding of an immune response. We hope this yet-to-be-experimental approach of synthetic immunology and the compilation of this book will aid our further understanding of the immune system and future devising the tools to manipulate the immune system for therapy and prevention of the diseases.
This book provides a comprehensive review of the chemistry and research illustrating the benefits of polyurethane for immobilizing cells, with dozens of case studies in medical devices and environmental engineering. Offers an essential resource for medical and environmental scientists Provides a multidisciplinary and lucid writing style that uses little or no jargon Extrapolates current technology into advanced areas, especially environmental remediation and medical devices Fills the gap between immobilization research and practical applications
Popliteal aneurysms are still controversial in terms of their pathogenesis, and challenging in terms of their treatment. This book offers a detailed overview of the latest advances in our understanding of the disease, and highlights the latest theories. Divided into eght sections, it focuses on: the historical background, embryology and anatomy of the popliteal artery, clinical presentation and diagnosis, pros and cons of traditional surgical techniques, pros and cons of advanced endovascuar techniques. The last section focuses on non-atherosclerotic popliteal aneurysme, i.e. on diseases in which popliteal aneurysms may specifically appear, rendering more challenging the diagnosis and the treatment As stressed in the foreword by the Chief Editor of the Journal of Vascuar Surgery, this book, given its scope, offers a valuable guide for all health professionals - experts and in training -.involved in vascular pathology and surgery.
This book gathers a collection of essays that describe recent innovations in food technology including food processing, packaging, food safety, and novel ingredients. By 2050, the world will face the challenge of having to feed an estimated 9 billion people. In order to meet that challenge, innovations in food research are of the utmost importance. The book is divided into four sections, each of which explores an important aspect like food processing, food microbiology, and nutritional security. Written by respected scholars in the field, the respective chapters discuss a range of new and enhanced food materials, as well as processing innovations to extend shelf life and reduce toxic effects. The book also addresses the health potential of various nutraceuticals, bio-absorption of metals and their positive impacts on living systems, as well as methods for reducing food wastage, preventing the loss of nutritive value, and preserving or enhancing palatability. Given its scope, the book will be highly interesting for food scientists, both in academia and the food industry. It will also benefit advanced graduate students and senior researchers.
This book presents select proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Lightweight Materials and Structures (ICALMS) 2020, and discusses the triad of processing, structure, and various properties of lightweight materials. It provides a well-balanced insight into materials science and mechanics of both synthetic and natural composites. The book includes topics such as nano composites for lightweight structures, impact and failure of structures, biomechanics and biomedical engineering, nanotechnology and micro-engineering, tool design and manufacture for producing lightweight components, joining techniques for lightweight structures for similar and dissimilar materials, design for manufacturing, reliability and safety, robotics, automation and control, fatigue and fracture mechanics, and friction stir welding in lightweight sandwich structures. The book also discusses latest research in composite materials and their applications in the field of aerospace, construction, wind energy, automotive, electronics and so on. Given the range of topics covered, this book can be a useful resource for beginners, researchers and professionals interested in the wide ranging applications of lightweight structures.
Explains models from natural flash systems Discusses theoretical considerations of flash systems Presents approaches and procedures for designing synthetic flash systems Explores methods for preparing flash systems for specific applications The design of environment-sensitive devices for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications has improved significantly due to recent advances in smart polymer and hydrogel technology. Despite their capacity to carry out functions that previously were unobtainable, smart polymers and hydrogels tend to have painfully slow response times. On the other hand biological systems go through phase changes at an extremely fast rate. This book examines the natural systems that respond almost instantaneously to environmental stimuli, and thus gives the reader an understanding of the mechanisms that govern these responses. The book includes chapters on how to go about designing a synthetic "flash" system based on the naturally occurring systems. It also deals with potential applications of flash systems in biomedical and pharmaceutical areas.
An indispensable guide to buffers and to understanding the principles behind their use. Helps the user to avoid common errors in preparing buffers and their solutions. A must for researchers in the biological sciences, this valuable book takes the time to explain something often taken for granted - buffers used in experiments. It answers the common questions such as: which buffer should I choose? What about the temperature effects? What about ionic strength? Why is the buffer with the biggest temperature variation used in PCR? It provides even the most experienced researchers with the means to understand the fundamental principles behind their preparation and use - an indispensable guide essential for everyone using buffers.
This fully updated, self-contained textbook covering modern optical microscopy equips students with a solid understanding of the theory underlying a range of advanced techniques. Two new chapters cover pump-probe techniques, and imaging in scattering media, and additional material throughout covers light-sheet microscopy, image scanning microscopy, and much more. An array of practical techniques are discussed, from classical phase contrast and confocal microscopy, to holographic, structured illumination, multi-photon, and coherent Raman microscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Fundamental topics are also covered, including Fourier optics, partial coherence, 3D imaging theory, statistical optics, and the physics of scattering and fluorescence. With a wealth of end-of-chapter problems, and a solutions manual for instructors available online, this is an invaluable book for electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and physics students taking graduate courses on optical microscopy, as well as advanced undergraduates, professionals, and researchers looking for an accessible introduction to the field.
The second edition of this popular introductory undergraduate textbook uses examples, applications, and profiles of biomedical engineers to show students the relevance of the theory and how it can be used to solve real problems in human medicine. The essential molecular biology, cellular biology, and human physiology background is included for students to understand the context in which biomedical engineers work. Updates throughout highlight important advances made over recent years, including iPS cells, microRNA, nanomedicine, imaging technology, biosensors, and drug delivery systems, giving students a modern description of the various subfields of biomedical engineering. Over two hundred quantitative and qualitative exercises, many new to this edition, help consolidate learning, whilst a solutions manual, password-protected for instructors, is available online. Finally, students can enjoy an expanded set of leader profiles in biomedical engineering within the book, showcasing the broad range of career paths open to students who make biomedical engineering their calling.
Focusing on mathematical methods in computer tomography, Image Processing: Tensor Transform and Discrete Tomography with MATLAB (R) introduces novel approaches to help in solving the problem of image reconstruction on the Cartesian lattice. Specifically, it discusses methods of image processing along parallel rays to more quickly and accurately reconstruct images from a finite number of projections, thereby avoiding overradiation of the body during a computed tomography (CT) scan. The book presents several new ideas, concepts, and methods, many of which have not been published elsewhere. New concepts include methods of transferring the geometry of rays from the plane to the Cartesian lattice, the point map of projections, the particle and its field function, and the statistical model of averaging. The authors supply numerous examples, MATLAB (R)-based programs, end-of-chapter problems, and experimental results of implementation. The main approach for image reconstruction proposed by the authors differs from existing methods of back-projection, iterative reconstruction, and Fourier and Radon filtering. In this book, the authors explain how to process each projection by a system of linear equations, or linear convolutions, to calculate the corresponding part of the 2-D tensor or paired transform of the discrete image. They then describe how to calculate the inverse transform to obtain the reconstruction. The proposed models for image reconstruction from projections are simple and result in more accurate reconstructions. Introducing a new theory and methods of image reconstruction, this book provides a solid grounding for those interested in further research and in obtaining new results. It encourages readers to develop effective applications of these methods in CT.
Contains papers presented at the Third International Symposium on
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (1997),
which provide evidence that computer-based models, and in
particular numerical methods, are becoming essential tools for the
solution of many problems encountered in the field of biomedical
engineering. The range of subject areas presented include the
modeling of hip and knee joint replacements, assessment of fatigue
damage in cemented hip prostheses, nonlinear analysis of hard and
soft tissue, methods for the simulation of bone adaptation, bone
reconstruction using implants, and computational techniques to
model human impact. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical
Engineering also details the application of numerical techniques
applied to orthodontic treatment together with introducing new
methods for modeling and assessing the behavior of dental implants,
adhesives, and restorations.
This first dedicated overview for beam's eye view (BEV) covers instrumentation, methods, and clinical use of this exciting technology, which enables real-time anatomical imaging. It highlights how the information collected (e.g., the shape and size of the beam aperture and intensity of the beam) is used in the clinic for treatment verification, adaptive radiotherapy, and in-treatment interventions. The chapters cover detector construction and components, common imaging procedures, and state of the art applications. The reader will also be presented with emerging innovations, including target modifications, real-time tracking, reconstructing delivered dose, and in vivo portal dosimetry. Ross I. Berbeco, PhD, is a board-certified medical physicist and Associate Professor of Radiation Oncology at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
Virtually every wound, whether surgical or traumatic, needs to be closed to promote wound healing and prevent infection. Increasingly sophisticated and effective materials for the crucial surgical treatment of wound closure are being developed continuously. Keep up with the most recent research progress and future trends in this complex and rapidly changing field with Wound Closure Biomaterial and Devices. This state-of-the-art book provides detailed information and critical discussions on:
In the past two decades, significant advances in magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) have been made possible by a combination of higher magnetic fields and more robust data acquisition technologies. This technical progress has enabled a shift in MRM applications from basic anatomical investigations to dynamic and functional studies, boosting the use of MRM in biological and life sciences. This book provides a simple introduction to MRM emphasizing practical aspects relevant to high magnetic fields. It focuses on biological applications and presents a number of selected examples of neuroscience applications. The text is mainly intended for those who are beginning research in the field of MRM or are planning to incorporate high-resolution MRI in their neuroscience studies.
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