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Over the past decade, Big Data have become ubiquitous in all economic sectors, scientific disciplines, and human activities. They have led to striking technological advances, affecting all human experiences. Our ability to manage, understand, interrogate, and interpret such extremely large, multisource, heterogeneous, incomplete, multiscale, and incongruent data has not kept pace with the rapid increase of the volume, complexity and proliferation of the deluge of digital information. There are three reasons for this shortfall. First, the volume of data is increasing much faster than the corresponding rise of our computational processing power (Kryder's law > Moore's law). Second, traditional discipline-bounds inhibit expeditious progress. Third, our education and training activities have fallen behind the accelerated trend of scientific, information, and communication advances. There are very few rigorous instructional resources, interactive learning materials, and dynamic training environments that support active data science learning. The textbook balances the mathematical foundations with dexterous demonstrations and examples of data, tools, modules and workflows that serve as pillars for the urgently needed bridge to close that supply and demand predictive analytic skills gap. Exposing the enormous opportunities presented by the tsunami of Big data, this textbook aims to identify specific knowledge gaps, educational barriers, and workforce readiness deficiencies. Specifically, it focuses on the development of a transdisciplinary curriculum integrating modern computational methods, advanced data science techniques, innovative biomedical applications, and impactful health analytics. The content of this graduate-level textbook fills a substantial gap in integrating modern engineering concepts, computational algorithms, mathematical optimization, statistical computing and biomedical inference. Big data analytic techniques and predictive scientific methods demand broad transdisciplinary knowledge, appeal to an extremely wide spectrum of readers/learners, and provide incredible opportunities for engagement throughout the academy, industry, regulatory and funding agencies. The two examples below demonstrate the powerful need for scientific knowledge, computational abilities, interdisciplinary expertise, and modern technologies necessary to achieve desired outcomes (improving human health and optimizing future return on investment). This can only be achieved by appropriately trained teams of researchers who can develop robust decision support systems using modern techniques and effective end-to-end protocols, like the ones described in this textbook. * A geriatric neurologist is examining a patient complaining of gait imbalance and posture instability. To determine if the patient may suffer from Parkinson's disease, the physician acquires clinical, cognitive, phenotypic, imaging, and genetics data (Big Data). Most clinics and healthcare centers are not equipped with skilled data analytic teams that can wrangle, harmonize and interpret such complex datasets. A learner that completes a course of study using this textbook will have the competency and ability to manage the data, generate a protocol for deriving biomarkers, and provide an actionable decision support system. The results of this protocol will help the physician understand the entire patient dataset and assist in making a holistic evidence-based, data-driven, clinical diagnosis. * To improve the return on investment for their shareholders, a healthcare manufacturer needs to forecast the demand for their product subject to environmental, demographic, economic, and bio-social sentiment data (Big Data). The organization's data-analytics team is tasked with developing a protocol that identifies, aggregates, harmonizes, models and analyzes these heterogeneous data elements to generate a trend forecast. This system needs to provide an automated, adaptive, scalable, and reliable prediction of the optimal investment, e.g., R&D allocation, that maximizes the company's bottom line. A reader that complete a course of study using this textbook will be able to ingest the observed structured and unstructured data, mathematically represent the data as a computable object, apply appropriate model-based and model-free prediction techniques. The results of these techniques may be used to forecast the expected relation between the company's investment, product supply, general demand of healthcare (providers and patients), and estimate the return on initial investments.
Exploring the practical, entrepreneurial, and historical aspects
of medical device development, this second edition of The Medical
Device R&D Handbook provides a how-to guide for medical device
product development. The book offers knowledge of practical skills
such as prototyping, plastics selection, and catheter construction,
allowing designers to apply these specialized techniques for
greater innovation and time saving.
Addressing a cutting-edge, multidisciplinary field, this book reviews nanomaterials and their biomedical applications. It covers regeneration, implants, adhesives, and biosensors and strategies for more efficient therapy, diagnosis, and drug delivery with the use of nanotechnology. Addresses the increasing demand for nanomedicine in a cutting-edge, multidisciplinary field Introduces concepts, strategies, and requirements of developing materials Discusses hot topics in drug delivery, such as neural regeneration, cartilage regeneration, bone tissue regeneration, dental regeneration, biomedical imaging, tissue adhesives and biosensors Includes a chapter about nanotoxicology to help readers further understand the biocompatability of nanomaterials
This brand new Lecture Notes title provides the core biomedical science study and revision material that medical students need to know. Matching the common systems-based approach taken by the majority of medical schools, it provides concise, student-led content that is rooted in clinical relevance. The book is filled with learning features such as key definitions and key conditions, and is cross-referenced to develop interdisciplinary awareness. Although designed predominantly for medical students, this new Lecture Notes book is also useful for students of dentistry, pharmacology and nursing. Biomedical Science Lecture Notes provides: * A brand new title in the award-winning Lecture Notes series * A concise, full colour study and revision guide * A 'one-stop-shop' for the biomedical sciences * Clinical relevance and cross referencing to develop interdisciplinary skills * Learning features such as key definitions to aid understanding
This textbook covers the basic aspects of stem cell research and applications in regenerative medicine. Each chapter includes a didactic component and a practical section. The book offers readers insights into: How to identify the basic concepts of stem cell biology and the molecular regulation of pluripotency and stem cell development. How to produce induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the basics of transfection. The biology of adult stem cells, with particular emphasis on mesenchymal stromal cells and hematopoietic stem cells, and the basic mechanisms that regulate them. How cancer stem cells arise and metastasize, and their properties. How to develop the skills needed to isolate, differentiate and characterize adult stem The clinical significance of stem cell research and the potential problems that need to be overcome. Evaluating the use of stem cells for tissue engineering and therapies (the amniotic membrane) The applications of bio-nanotechnology in stem cell research. How epigenetic mechanisms, including various DNA modifications and histone dynamics, are involved in regulating the potentiality and differentiation of stem cells. The scientific methods, ethical considerations and implications of stem cell research.
Read an exclusive interview with Dr. Jerry Battista here. A critical element of radiation treatment planning for cancer is the accurate prediction and delivery of a tailored radiation dose distribution inside the patient. Megavoltage x-ray beams are aimed at the tumour, while collateral damage to nearby healthy tissue and organs is minimized. The key to optimal treatment therefore lies in adopting a trustworthy three-dimensional (3D) dose computation algorithm, which simulates the passage of both primary and secondary radiation throughout the exposed tissue. Edited by an award-winning university educator and pioneer in the field of voxel-based radiation dose computation, this book explores the physics and mathematics that underlie algorithms encountered in contemporary radiation oncology. It is an invaluable reference for clinical physicists who commission, develop, or test treatment planning software. This book also covers a core topic in the syllabus for educating graduate students and residents entering the field of clinical physics. This book starts with a historical perspective gradually building up to the three most important algorithms used for today's clinical applications. These algorithms can solve the same general radiation transport problem from three vantages: firstly, applying convolution-superposition principles (i.e. Green's method); secondly, the stochastic simulation of radiation particle interactions with tissue atoms (i.e. the Monte Carlo method); and thirdly, the deterministic solution of the fundamental equations for radiation fields of x-rays and their secondary particles (i.e. the Boltzmann method). It contains clear, original illustrations of key concepts and quantities thoughout, supplemented by metaphors and analogies to facilitate comprehension and retention of knowledge. Features: Edited by an authority in the field, enhanced with chapter contributions from physicists with clinical experience in the fields of computational dosimetry and dose optimization Contains examples of test phantom results and clinical cases, illustrating pitfalls to avoid in clinical applications to radiation oncology Introduces four-dimensional (4D) dose computation, on-line dose reconstruction, and dose accumulation that accounts for tissue displacements and motion throughout a course of radiation therapy
The emerging paradigm of incorporating images and biomechanical properties of soft tissues has proven to be an integral part of the advancement of several medical applications, including image guided radiotherapy and surgery, brachytherapy, and diagnostics. This expansion has resulted in a growing community of medical, science, and engineering professionals applying mechanical principles to address medical concerns. This book is tailored to cover a range of mechanical principles, properties, and applications of soft tissues that have previously been addressed in various journals and "anatomical site-specific" books. Biomechanics of Soft Tissues follows a different approach by offering a simplified overview of widely used mechanical models and measuring techniques of soft tissue parameters. This is followed by an investigation of different medical applications, including: biomechanical aspects of cancerous tumor progressions, radiotherapy treatment, and image guided ultrasound guided interventions. Written by leading scholars and professionals in the field, Biomechanics of Soft Tissues combines engineering and medical expertise, thereby producing an excellent source of information for professionals interested in the theoretical and technological advancements related to soft tissues. The book provides medical professionals with an insight on various modeling approaches, testing techniques, and mechanical characteristics that are frequently used by engineers. Conversely, the presented medical applications provide engineers with a glimpse of amazing medical practices and encourage them to expand their roles in the medical field. Provides a simplified overview of mechanics of soft tissues. Highlights different techniques to measure tissues properties for engineering and medical applications. Contains novel ideas to address roles of mechanics in disease progression and treatment. Presents innovative applications of biomechanics in medical procedures.
This book explains how diffusion weighted imaging has been incorporated in routine MRI examinations of the abdomen and pelvis: though its clinical role is still evolving, it is already considered an important tool for the assessment of rectal cancer treatment response, as was confirmed in recent ESGAR consensus statements. The standardization and clinical validation of quantitative DWI related biomarkers are still in progress, although certain efforts have been undertaken to establish imaging guidelines for different clinical indications/body parts. The book reviews the technical aspects and clinical applications of DWI in imaging of the GI tract, and provides specific technical details (imaging protocols, artefacts, optimization techniques) for each GI tract division. This volume is mainly intended for radiologists who are interested in abdominal radiology, as well as radiology residents. Given that magnetic resonance physics is complex and can be cumbersome to learn, the authors have made it as simple and practical as possible.
Electrokinetics is currently the mechanism of choice for fluid actuation and bioparticle manipulation at microscale and nanoscale dimensions. There has recently been widespread interest in the use of AC electric fields, given the many advantages it offers over DC electrokinetics. Nevertheless, a fundamental understanding of the governing mechanisms underlying the complex and nonlinear physicochemical hydrodynamics associated with these systems is required before practical microfluidic and nanofluidic devices can be engineered. This text aims to provide a comprehensive treatise on both classical equilibrium electrokinetic phenomena as well as the more recent non-equilibrium phenomena associated with both DC and AC electrokinetics in the context of their application to the design of microfluidic and nanofluidic technology. In particular, Leslie Yeo and Hsueh-Chia Chang discuss the linear and nonlinear theories underlying electroosmosis, electrophoresis, and dielectrophoresis pertaining to electrolytes as well as dielectric systems. Interfacial electrokinetic phenomena such as electrospraying, electrospinning, and electrowetting are also discussed.
Phycobiliproteins are water soluble, brilliantly colored accessory light-harvesting macromolecules organized in a supramolecular complexes on photosynthetic apparatus in cyanobacteria, red algae and cryptomonads. The objective of this book is to provide state of the art knowledge and highlight the recent developments and future biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins. This book will be highly useful for students, researchers, professionals and experts in the field of Life Sciences and Biomedical Sciences as well as industries for potential applications of phycobiliproteins.
The book provides an overview of the current knowledge on cellulolytic enzymes and their applications. It summarizes the mechanisms of synthesis and hydrolysis of cellulolytic enzymes, industrial fungal strains, genetic engineering of fungal strains and application of cellulolytic enzymes. This book will be a useful reference for researchers and bioengineering experts engaged in lignocelluloses biodegradation, biomass utilization, enzyme production and fungal molecular biology.
This book explores in depth the latest enabling technologies for regenerative medicine. The opening section examines advances in 3D bioprinting and the fabrication of electrospun and electrosprayed scaffolds. The potential applications of intelligent nanocomposites are then considered, covering, for example, graphene-based nanocomposites, intrinsically conductive polymer nanocomposites, and smart diagnostic contact lens systems. The third section is devoted to various drug delivery systems and strategies for regenerative medicine. Finally, a wide range of future enabling technologies are discussed. Examples include temperature-responsive cell culture surfaces, nanopatterned scaffolds for neural tissue engineering, and process system engineering methodologies for application in tissue development. This is one of two books to be based on contributions from leading experts that were delivered at the 2018 Asia University Symposium on Biomedical Engineering in Seoul, Korea - the companion book examines in depth novel biomaterials for regenerative medicine.
This book discusses various aspects of bioactive natural products employed in the agrochemical and agriculture sectors. It covers the use of plants, microorganisms, and microbial metabolites as eco-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable alternatives to chemicals in the field of agriculture. Written by active researchers and academics, the book highlights state-of-art products in the field, as well as the gaps, challenges, and obstacles associated with the use of plants, microbes and their products. Given its scope, it is a valuable resource for the scientific community and professionals in enterprises wanting insights into the latest developments and advances in the context of biological products, including their applications, traditional uses, modern practices, and strategies to harness their full potential.
The field of biomedical engineering has vastly expanded in the past two decades, as reflected in the increased number of bioengineering and biomaterials programs at universities. The growth of this area has outpaced the development of laboratory courses that allow students hands-on experience, since the barriers involved in creating multidisciplinary biomaterials laboratory courses are high. A Laboratory Course in Biomaterials provides a teaching tool comprehensive in scope perspective. Multidisciplinary approach Suitable for junior or senior level laboratory courses in biomaterials and bioengineering, this volume trains students in laboratory skills, data analysis, problem solving, and scientific writing. The text takes a multidisciplinary approach, integrating a variety of principles that include materials science, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, and engineering. Step-by-step instructions The author presents flexible modules that allow the coursework to be adapted to the needs of different departments. Each module is organized around a central theme, such as drug delivery and natural biomaterials, to enhance student comprehension. This book provides step-by-step descriptions of lab procedures, reagents, equipment, and data processing guidelines. It also includes a series of thought-provoking questions and answers following each experiment, drawn from the author's own experience in teaching a biomaterials laboratory course at the University of Illinois. Timely in its coverage, many of the experiments presented in the book are adapted from research papers reflecting the progress in various disciplines of bioengineering and biomaterials science.
The purpose of this book is to summarize key strategies and recent accomplishments in the area of developing cell/biomaterial constructs for regenerative medicine. The first section is a review of the state-of-the-art of biomaterial carriers and is divided into synthetic and natural materials. A subset of the latter are decellularized organs which retain the structure and some of the biological activities of the target organ. The bulk of the book is devoted to unique problems associated with key tissue and organ targets. Key selling features: Describes developing cell/biomaterial constructs for regenerative medicine Reviews state-of-the-art of biomaterial carriers Summarizes the unique problems associated with key tissue and organ targets Discusses issues associated with clinical translation including quality control, manufacturing practices, nondestructive imaging, and animal models
A Dictionary of Biomedicine includes 10,000 A-Z entries on all areas of biomedicine. Entries are authoritative and wide-ranging, covering terms from the related areas of anatomy, genetics, molecular bioscience, pathology, pharmacology, and clinical medicine. Biomedicine - the study of molecular bioscience relating to disease - is playing an increasingly important role in medical application, diagnosis, and treatment. As molecular bioscience provides greater insights and techniques than ever before into the practice of modern medicine, there is an increasing need for an affordable dictionary covering the specialist language used within this evolving field. This dictionary, written by an expert in the field, fills this need by offering clear, concise definitions of even the most complex biomedical terms. Many entries feature recommended web links which are accessed and kept up to date via the Dictionary of Biomedicine companion webpage, and supplementary material includes the Greek Alphabet, SI Units and single letter codes for Amino Acids. Fully cross-referenced, it also features useful navigational entries for types of diseases and disorders - for example renal disorders - that list all related entries in the dictionary so the reader can find them quickly. Aimed primarily at molecular bioscientists, clinicians, and students of biomedical courses, the dictionary will also be an invaluable resource for patients and journalists wishing to find out more about a particular disease.
Ideal for classroom use and self-study, this book explains the implementation of the most effective modern methods in image analysis, covering segmentation, registration and visualisation, and focusing on the key theories, algorithms and applications that have emerged from recent progress in computer vision, imaging and computational biomedical science. Structured around five core building blocks - signals, systems, image formation and modality; stochastic models; computational geometry; level set methods; and tools and CAD models - it provides a solid overview of the field. Mathematical and statistical topics are presented in a straightforward manner, enabling the reader to gain a deep understanding of the subject without becoming entangled in mathematical complexities. Theory is connected to practical examples in x-ray, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, MRI and CT imaging, removing the abstract nature of the models and assisting reader understanding, whilst computer simulations, online course slides and a solution manual provide a complete instructor package.
This book summarizes the latest research on drug and gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). The chapters address safety concerns regarding the nanotechnology that is needed to develop nanomedicine for clinical practice. Particular focus is given to new technologies that have emerged in recent years to deliver therapeutic materials, such as genes, drugs, and other agents using nanotechnologies of diverse origin. This is an ideal book for students, teachers, researchers, and clinicians interested in a deeper understanding of nanotechnological advances in therapeutic medicine. This book also: Broadens readers' understanding of viral vector gene delivery to the brain for treating neurogenetic diseases as well as targeted gene delivery into the brain using microbubble-facilitated focused ultrasound Covers in detail the latest developments in delivering therapeutic materials, such as siRNA delivery to the brain for treating neurological diseases, neuroprotective effects of gelatin nanoparticles in stroke, and nanowired drug delivery for brain diseases, heat stroke, and CNS injury Enriches understanding of new technologies for delivering therapeutic materials treating Alzheimer's Disease, including targeted nanodrug delivery through the blood-brain barrier and the superior neuroprotective effects of nanowired drug delivery in Alzheimer's Disease
This textbook discusses the new relationship between artificial, synthetic material and living matter, and presents defined examples of approaches aiming for the creation of artificial cells. It also offers insights into the world of synthetic biology from its origins to the present day, showing what is currently possible in this discipline. Furthermore, it examines the ethical concerns and potential threats posed by this new field. The textbook is based on a lecture of the same title, held for master's students at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, and is primarily intended for students of synthetic biology, biotechnology and bioengineering. It is also of interest to research scientists from other disciplines wishing to learn more about the state of the art of synthetic biology and its future.
Biosensors are devices that detect the presence of microbials such as bacteria, viruses or a range biomolecules, including proteins, enzymes, DNA and RNA. For example, they are routinely applied for monitoring the glucose concentration in blood, quality analysis of fresh and waste water and for food control. Nanomaterials are ideal candidates for building sensor devces: where in just a few molecules can alter the properties so drastically that these changes may be easily detected by optical, electrical or chemical means. Recent advantages have radically increased the sensitivity of nanomaterial-based biosensors, making it possible to detect one particular molecule against a background of billions of others. Focusing on the materials suitable for biosensor applications, such as nanoparticles, quantum dots, meso- and nanoporous materials and nanotbues, this text enables the reader to prepare the respective nanomaterials for use in actual devices by appropriate functionalization, surface processing or directed self-assembly. The emphasis throughout is on electrochemical, optical and mechancial detection methods, leading to solutions for today's most challenging tasks. The result is a reference for researchers and developers, disseminating first-hand information on which nanomaterial is best suited to a particular application - and why.
This book summarizes the recent advances in the science and engineering of polymer-gel-based materials in different fields. It also discusses the extensive research developments for the next generation of smart materials. It takes an in-depth look at the current perspectives and market opportunities while pointing to new possibilities and applications. The book addresses important topics such as stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for cancer therapy; polymer gel containing metallic materials; chemotherapeutic applications in oncology; conducting polymer-based gels and their applications in biological sensors; imprinted polymeric gels for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes; applications of biopolymeric gels in the agricultural sector; application of polymer gels and their nanocomposites in electrochemistry; smart polyelectrolyte gels as a platform for biomedical applications; agro-based polymer gels and their application in purification of industrial water wastes; polymer gel composites for bio-applications. It will be of interest to researchers working in both industry and academia.
This book covers the fundamentals of sensor technologies as well as the recent research for the development of environmental, chemical and medical sensor technologies. Chapters include current research on microflow cytometry, microfluidic devices, colorimetric sensors, and the development of low-cost optical densitometric sensors and paper based analytical devices for environmental and biomedical applications. Special focus has been given to nanotechnology and nanostructures- their fabrication, uses and utility in different fields of research such as for the design of tools for medical diagnostics, therapeutics, as well as for detection and estimation of pollutant levels in water and air quality monitoring. This book is intended as a resource for researchers working in the field of sensor development across the world.
Hydrogels are crosslinked, macromolecular polymeric materials arranged in a three-dimensional network, which can absorb and retain large amounts of water. Hydrogels are commonly used in clinical practice and experimental medicine for a wide range of applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, diagnostics, cellular immobilization, separation of biomolecules or cells, and barrier materials to regulate biological adhesions. This book elucidates the underlying concepts and emerging applications of hydrogels and will provide key case studies and critical analysis of the existing research.
This book highlights the latest, cutting-edge advances in implantable biomaterials. It brings together a class of advanced biomaterials in two highly active research areas, namely implants and tissue scaffolds, to underline their respective functional requirements for further development. It is unique in providing a full range of methodological procedures, including materials syntheses, characterisation, cellular tests and mathematical modelling. Covering metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite materials commonly used in biological applications and clinical therapeutics, it is a valuable resource for anyone wanting to further their understanding of the latest developments in implantable biomaterials. Focusing on biomedical applications in implants and scaffolds, it provides methodological guides to this rapidly growing field. Qing Li and Yiu-Wing Mai are both professors at the University of Sydney, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering.
With development of implants and in vivo detection devices comes the complication of the interaction between the materials used in the devices and biological fluids. This book examines these interactions causing fouling in biosensors and the serious issue of thrombus formation. The chemistry of surface-protein and surface-cell interactions is considered, the coatings and strategies re the avoidance of fouling are compared and the expert contributors provide a comprehensive look at the physical chemistry of the implant surface and the fouling problem. Finishing with a discussion of the future for surface modified biosensors in point-of-care devices and microfluidic technologies, this book provides an important addition to the literature suitable for professional researchers in academia and industry and postgraduate students.
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