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This book provides a comprehensive overview of mechanical circulatory support of the failing heart in adults and children. The book uniquely combines engineering knowledge and the clinician's perspective into a single resource, while also providing insights into current and future development of mechanical circulatory support technology, such as ventricular assist devices, the total artificial heart and catheter-based technologies for heart failure. Topics featured in this book include: The history of mechanical circulatory device development. Fundamentals of hemodynamics support. Clinical management of mechanical circulatory devices. Surgical implantation techniques. Current limitations of device therapies in advanced heart failure. Advanced and novel devices in the development pipeline. Opportunities for advancement in the field. Mechanical Support for Heart Failure: Current Solutions and New Technologies is a must-have resource for not only physicians, residents, fellows, and medical students in cardiology and cardiac surgery, but also clinical and basic researchers in biomedical engineering with an interest in mechanical circulatory support, heart failure, and new technological applications in medicine.
Biomimetics is the idea of creating new technologies abstracted from what we find in biology. Ocean Innovation: Biomimetics Beneath the Waves seeks that technological inspiration from the rich biodiversity of marine organisms. Bringing both a biological and engineering perspective to the biomimetic potential of oceanic organisms, this richly illustrated book investigates questions such as: How can we mimic the sensory systems of sea creatures like sharks, sea turtles, and lobsters to improve our ability to navigate underwater? What can we do to afford humans the opportunity to go unnoticed by marine life? How can we diffuse oxygen from water to enable deep diving without the risk of decompression sickness? Each chapter explores an area where we, as divers and technologists, can benefit from understanding how animals survive in the sea, presenting case studies that demonstrate how natural solutions can be applied to mankind's engineering challenges.
In this comprehensive work, experts in the field detail recent advances in medical and biological microwave sensors and systems, with chapters on topics such as implantable sensors, wearable microwave tags, and UWB technology. Each chapter explores the theory behind the technology, as well as its design and implementation. This is supported by practical examples and details of experimental results, along with discussion of system design, design trade-offs, and possible constraints and manufacturing issues. Applications described include intracranial pressure monitoring, vital signs monitoring, and non-invasive molecular and cellular investigations. Presenting new research and advances in the field, and focusing on the state of the art in medical and biological microwave sensors, this work is an invaluable resource for enthusiastic researchers and practicing engineers in the fields of electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and medical physics.
Uniquely focusing on dynamic modeling, this volume incorporates metabolic regulation as a survival mechanism for cells, by driving metabolism through optimal investment of its resources for control of enzyme synthesis and activity. Consequently, the models have a proven record of describing various uptake patterns of mixed carbon substrates that have become significant in modern applications of biomass for the production of bioenergy. The models accurately describe dynamic behavior of microbes in nutrient environments with mixtures of complementary substrates, such as carbon and nitrogen. Modeling of large metabolic networks (including prospects for extension to genome scale) is enabled by lumped hybrid cybernetic models with an unparalleled capacity to predict dynamic behavior of knockout strains. This is an invaluable, must-have reference for bio-researchers and practicing engineers.
This book is about the various roles of bioactive ceramides and other sphingolipids in cellular biology. The enigmatic biophysical and biochemical properties of ceramides and their propensity to influence membranes whether as rafts or protein-permeable channels are heavily discussed. Metabolism of ceramides and their metabolites is also focused with ceramide synthase family of proteins being a target of extensive review. Ceramide 1-phosphate and other sphingolipids are also presented in cellular physiology and pathophysiology. Prokaryotic origins of mitochondria at the level of membranes and the occurrence of apoptosis in bacteria are presented. Many aspects of ceramide and sphingolipid biology are addressed in this book. Its focus is the metabolism of ceramide in normal and diseased states and the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms governing the bioactivity of these molecules. Sphingolipid research has surged over the past thirty years and this book gathers the recent findings of various aspects of sphingolipid biochemistry. World-renowned scientists from the field of lipid biology, specifically sphingolipid biochemistry, were gathered to write this book. Scholars from most continents of the globe committed to write diligently about their expertise and the newest findings in the relevant fields. This book came to fruition after almost a year and a half of laborious preparation and diligent writings. This book is targeted to the experienced reader who is looking to read about the various aspects of bioactive ceramide signaling, as well as to the newcomer into the field, as the topics are explained in concise yet very informative manner. The authors and editor wish all readers a pleasant time reading this volume, and are adamant that this book will meet all expectations.
The present book volume presents a holistic view of the aspects of nanobiomaterials incl. their stellar merits and limitations, applications in diverse fields, their futuristic promise in the fields of biomedical science and drug delivery. The federal & regulatory issues on the usage of nanobiomaterials have been assigned due consideration.
A comprehensive text in the field of biomaterials science and tissue engineering, covering fundamental principles and methods related to processing-microstructure-property linkages as applied to biomaterials science. Essential concepts and techniques of the cell biology are discussed in detail, with a focus quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating cell-material interaction. It gives detailed discussion on the processing, structure and properties of metals, ceramics and polymers, together with techniques and guidelines. Comprehensive coverage of in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility property evaluation of materials for bone, neural as well as cardiovascular tissue engineering applications, together with representative protocols. Supported by several multiple-choice questions, fill in the blanks, review questions, numerical problems and solutions to selected problems, this is an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate students in understanding fundamental concepts and the latest developments in the field of biomaterials science.
This book comprehensively discusses the latest research in the area of metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering solutions for bioactive compounds are now being derived by means of heterologous gene expression, in a wide range of organisms. The book provides an overview of the model systems being employed for metabolic manipulation to yield bioactive molecules, such as single-cell proteins, antibody generation, metabolites, proteases, chaperones, therapeutic proteins, nanomaterials, polymeric conjugates, dendrimers and nanoassemblies, Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cell lines, etc. In addition, it shares insights into the scope of these methods in the areas of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, e.g. immunotherapy for curing various diseases like cancer, allergies, autoimmune diseases, etc.
This book focuses on food security in sustainable agriculture and nutrient management. The study of plant probiotic microbes' synergism using existing techniques has greatly improved our grasp of the structure and functioning of the plant microbiome. However, the function of plant probiotic microbes and their relation to plants' health in the context of food security, soil nutrient management, human and plant health are largely unexplored. Compared to human probiotics, diverse types and millions of microbiota inhabit plants, forming multifaceted and complicated ecological societies that stimulate plant growth and health through their combined metabolic activities. From the perspective of sustainable cropping systems, observing plant probiotics can provide insights on how to stimulate and maintain plant productivity, along with host stress tolerance and recycling of soil nutrients. This book combines reviews and original research articles to highlight the latest advances in plant probiotics, their specificity, diversity, function, as well as plant microbiome management to improve plant growth and productivity, nutrient management and human health.
The book focuses on novel particulate technologies for the purpose of drug delivery to humans. Nowadays, macro and nano-scale particles are being investigated for targeted delivery of small and large biological macromolecules. The targeting of drugs can minimize the dosage regimen and reduces dose related potential toxicity of drug molecules, which in turn lead to increased potential compliance. Various types of organic, inorganic and polymer particles are currently being investigated. These are attracting the attention of the research workers in the field of drug delivery science and technology. This book covers polymersomes, inorganic- organic composites, gold nanoparticles biopolymer and synthetic polymer particles etc.All aspects of drug delivery in relation to each technology have been described including these advances, Easy to read and understand the content of each chapter Rich in up-to-date information regarding their application.
This book reviews state of the art regarding strategies for generating and improving microbial strains designed for utilizing renewable raw materials. It discusses methods for genetically engineering of thermophilic bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli and Zymomonas mobilis, as well as approaches for obtaining useful products from these renewable raw materials based on biotechnological processes using microbes to chemically transform them. However, the efficient transformation of lignocellulosic biomass or glycerol to useful products represents a major challenge: Biomass has to be treated physically and chemically to release a mixture of sugars that potentially can be employed by the microbial production strains. These hydrolytic treatments result in diverse toxic compounds being generated and released, that negatively impact strain performance. Furthermore, most of the commonly used industrial microbes do not have the natural capacity to efficiently utilize and transform the generated sugar mixtures or glycerol. The microbial species reviewed in this book possess particular advantages as production strains and are currently employed for the synthesis of numerous biofuels and chemicals. The book reviews the general and strain-specific genetic engineering strategies for the improvement of sugar mixtures and glycerol catabolism. The issue of lignocellulosic hydrolysate toxicity is addressed in several chapters, where genetic engineering and adaptive laboratory evolution strategies are reviewed and discussed. The objective of this book is to provide the current knowledge regarding strategies for the generation and improvement of microbial strains designed for the transformation of renewable raw materials into useful products. This book aims to become a reference for researchers and students working in this field.
This is the textbook and reference resource that instructors, students, and researchers in biomedical optics have been waiting for. Comprehensive and up to date, it covers a broad range of areas in biomedical optics, from light interactions at the single-photon and single-biomolecule levels, to the diffusion regime of light propagation in tissue. Subjects covered include spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence, Raman, infrared, near-infrared, and elastic scattering), imaging techniques (diffuse optical tomography, photoacoustic imaging, several forms of modern microscopy, and optical coherence tomography), and laser-tissue interactions, including optical tweezers. Topics are developed from the fundamental principles of physical science, with intuitive explanations, while rigorous mathematical formalisms of theoretical treatments are also provided. For each technique, descriptions of relevant instrumentation and examples of biomedical applications are outlined, and each chapter benefits from references and suggested resources for further reading, and exercise problems with answers to selected problems.
This book portrays the commonality of tissue micro-structure that dictates physiological function in various organs (microstructure-function relation). Tissue and organ models are used to illustrate physiological functions based on microstructure. Fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp are described in detail. Structurally-based constitutive models are given throughout the book, not only to avoid ambiguities in material characterization, but also to offer insights into the function, structure, and mechanics of tissue components. A statement of future directions of the field is also given, including how advancements, such as state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures, are taking structure-based modeling to the next level. This book also: Provides a comprehensive view of tissue modeling across multiple systems Broadens readers' understanding of state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures Describes in detail fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp
This book describes a new, "e-Health" approach to stroke rehabilitation. The authors propose an alternative approach that combines state of the art ICT technologies ranging from Augmented and Virtual Reality gaming environments to latest advances in immersive user interfaces for delivering a mixed-reality training platform, along with advanced embedded micro sensing and computing devices exhibiting enhanced power autonomy by using the latest Bluetooth Smart communication interfaces and energy saving approaches. These technologies are integrated under the umbrella of an online Personal Health Record (PHR) services allowing for delivery of personalized, patient-centric medical services whether at home, in a clinic or on the move. Describes innovative ways for achieving mixed-reality gaming environments; Enhances immersive experience by combining virtual projections with user interfaces based on body motion analysis; Offers cost-effective body motion capture by hybridizing wearable sensor data; Utilizes energy-efficient micro-embedded sensors for wearable physiological and sensing and activity monitoring applications; Includes innovative, power autonomous sensing using Body Area Networks; Describes the prototype of the portable, integrated rehabilitation training solution.
Would you change your genes if you could? As we confront the 'industrial revolution of the genome', the recent discoveries of Crispr-Cas9 technologies are offering, for the first time, cheap and effective methods for editing the human genome. This opens up startling new opportunities as well as significant ethical uncertainty. Tracing events across a fifty-year period, from the first gene splicing techniques to the present day, this is the story of gene editing - the science, the impact and the potential. Kozubek weaves together the fascinating stories of many of the scientists involved in the development of gene editing technology. Along the way, he demystifies how the technology really works and provides vivid and thought-provoking reflections on the continuing ethical debate. This updated paperback edition contains all the very latest on the patent battle over Crisp and the applications of Crispr technology in agriculture and medicine.
Learn about the state of the art in building artificial membranes and synthetic biological devices, and in constructing mathematical models for their dynamics at multiple time and spatial scales with this comprehensive book. Drawing on recent advances in bioengineering and biochemistry, it describes how to engineer tethered bilayer lipid membranes, bioelectronic interfaces, high-resolution biosensors, and diagnostic devices for non-invasive cellular measurements and electroporation. Multi-physics models combining atomistic (molecular dynamics and coarse-grained molecular dynamics), mesoscopic (Poisson-Nernst-Planck), and macroscopic (reaction-rate theory) dynamics provide a complete structure-to-function description of these devices. Experiments and dynamic models explain how anti-microbial peptides penetrate membranes, how molecular machine biosensors built out of artificial membranes can detect femtomolar concentrations, and how electroporation can be controlled. Supported by atomistic simulation code online, this is essential reading for researchers, students and professionals in bioengineering, chemical engineering, biophysics, applied mathematics, and electrical engineering.
Dosimetry refers to the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body. The proposed book will place emphasis on the existence of physical and biophysical dosimetry. It will be discussed for the proper description and evaluation of the signal at the power generation system. It will cover in detail 10 different parameters of EMF (electromagnetism) exposure such as amplitude, frequency, vector, time of exposure, orientation, etc. In most published papers, these parameters are not well defined.
This book is dedicated to the field of conductive polymers, focusing on electrical interactions with biological systems. It addresses the use of conductive polymers as the conducting interface for electrical communications with the biological system, both in vitro and in vivo. It provides an overview on the chemistry and physics of conductive polymers, their useful characteristics as well as limitations, and technologies that apply conductive polymers for medical purposes. This groundbreaking resource addresses cytotoxicity and tissue compatibility of conductive polymers, the basics on electromagnetic fields, and commonly used experimental methods. Readers will also learn how cells are cultured in vitro with conductive polymers, and how conductive polymers and living tissues interact electrically. Throughout the contents, chapter authors emphasize the importance of conductive polymers in biomedical engineering and their potential applications in medicine.
One of the biggest challenges faced in medical research had been to create accurate and relevant models of human disease. A number of good animal models have been developed to understand the pathophysiology. However, not all of them reflect the human disorder, a classic case being Usher's syndrome where the mutant mice do not have the same visual and auditory defects that patients face. There are others which have been even more difficult to model due to the multi-factorial nature of the condition and due to lack of discovery of a single causative gene such as age-related macular degeneration or Alzheimer's syndrome. Thus a more relevant and accurate system will allow us to make better predictions on relevant therapeutic approaches. The discovery of human pluripotent stem cells in 1998 followed by the technological advances to reprogram somatic cells to pluripotent-stem cell-like cells in 2006 has completely revolutionized the way we can now think about modelling human development and disease. This now coupled with genome editing technologies such as TALENS and CRISPRs have now set us up to develop in vitro models both 2D as well as 3D organoids, which can more precisely reflect the disease in the patients. These combinatorial technologies are already providing us with better tools and therapeutics in drug discovery or gene therapy. This book summarizes both the technological advances in the field of generation of patient specific lines as well as various gene editing approaches followed by its applicability in various systems. The book will serve as a reference for the current state of the field as it: -Provides a comprehensive overview of the status of the field of patients derived induced pluripotent stem cells. -Describes the use of cardiac cells as a main featured component within the book. -Examines drug toxicity analysis as a working example throughout the book.
Fluid dynamics plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including the locomotion of cells such as bacteria and spermatozoa. These organisms possess flagella, slender organelles whose time periodic motion in a fluid environment gives rise to motility. Sitting at the intersection of applied mathematics, physics and biology, the fluid dynamics of cell motility is one of the most successful applications of mathematical tools to the understanding of the biological world. Based on courses taught over several years, it details the mathematical modelling necessary to understand cell motility in fluids, covering phenomena ranging from single-cell motion to instabilities in cell populations. Each chapter introduces mathematical models to rationalise experiments, uses physical intuition to interpret mathematical results, highlights the history of the field and discusses notable current research questions. All mathematical derivations are included for students new to the field, and end-of-chapter exercises help consolidate understanding and practise applying the concepts.
Wireless Medical Systems and Algorithms: Design and Applications provides a state-of-the-art overview of the key steps in the development of wireless medical systems, from biochips to brain-computer interfaces and beyond. The book also examines some of the most advanced algorithms and data processing in the field. Addressing the latest challenges and solutions related to the medical needs, electronic design, advanced materials chemistry, wireless body sensor networks, and technologies suitable for wireless medical devices, the text: Investigates the technological and manufacturing issues associated with the development of wireless medical devices Introduces the techniques and strategies that can optimize the performances of algorithms for medical applications and provide robust results in terms of data reliability Includes a variety of practical examples and case studies relevant to engineers, medical doctors, chemists, and biologists Wireless Medical Systems and Algorithms: Design and Applications not only highlights new technologies for the continuous surveillance of patient health conditions, but also shows how disciplines such as chemistry, biology, engineering, and medicine are merging to produce a new class of smart devices capable of managing and monitoring a wide range of cognitive and physical disabilities.
Integer linear programming (ILP) is a versatile modeling and optimization technique that is increasingly used in non-traditional ways in biology, with the potential to transform biological computation. However, few biologists know about it. This how-to and why-do text introduces ILP through the lens of computational and systems biology. It uses in-depth examples from genomics, phylogenetics, RNA, protein folding, network analysis, cancer, ecology, co-evolution, DNA sequencing, sequence analysis, pedigree and sibling inference, haplotyping, and more, to establish the power of ILP. This book aims to teach the logic of modeling and solving problems with ILP, and to teach the practical 'work flow' involved in using ILP in biology. Written for a wide audience, with no biological or computational prerequisites, this book is appropriate for entry-level and advanced courses aimed at biological and computational students, and as a source for specialists. Numerous exercises and accompanying software (in Python and Perl) demonstrate the concepts.
Richly illustrated throughout with actual tissue images, this innovative book shows that the soft-hard tissue junction is best understood in a biomechanical context. The authors describe their pioneering experimental methods, providing an essential structure-function framework for computational modelling, and thereby encouraging the development of more realistic, predictive models of this important tissue junction. Covering the three main musculoskeletal junctions of cartilage-bone, disc-vertebra, and ligament/tendon-bone, the relevant soft tissues are examined with respect to both their own inherent structure and their mode of integration with the hard tissue. The soft-hard tissue interface is explored with a focus on structural damage resulting from overloading, and its associated pathologies. Adopting a multiscale approach, ranging in structural resolution from the macro to fibril levels, this is a must-have guide to the field and an ideal resource for researchers seeking new and creative approaches for studying the joint and spine tissues.
The process of matching a person who has a disability with the most appropriate assistive technology requires a series of assessments, typically administered by multidisciplinary teams at specialized centers for technical aid. Assistive Technology Assessment Handbook fills the need for a reference that helps assistive technology experts perform assessments that more effectively connect the person and the technology. Emphasizing the well-being of the individual with a disability, the book proposes an ideal model of the assistive technology assessment process and outlines how this model can be applied in practice internationally. Organized into three parts, the handbook: Gives readers a toolkit for performing assessments Describes the roles of the assessment team members, among them the new profession of the psychotechnologist, who is skilled in understanding individuals and their psychosocial and technological needs and preferences Reviews cutting-edge technologies for rehabilitation and independent living, including brain-computer interfaces and microswitches The book synthesizes information scattered throughout the international literature, focusing on aspects that are particularly representative or innovative. It also addresses the challenges posed by the variety of health and social care systems and the different ways that individuals who need aid are defined-are they users, patients, clients, or consumers, and how does that affect the assessment? Edited by Stefano Federici and Marcia J. Scherer, internationally renowned leaders in the field of assistive technology assessment, this cross-cultural handbook includes contributions from leading experts across five continents. Guiding readers in matching the person and the appropriate assistive technology, it offers a framework for future practice and research. Listen to Stefano Federici talk about the handbook.
This book introduces readers to innovative bio-inspired computing techniques for image processing applications. It demonstrates how a significant drawback of image processing - not providing the simultaneous benefits of high accuracy and less complexity - can be overcome, proposing bio-inspired methodologies to help do so. Besides computing techniques, the book also sheds light on the various application areas related to image processing, and weighs the pros and cons of specific methodologies. Even though several such methodologies are available, most of them do not provide the simultaneous benefits of high accuracy and less complexity, which explains their low usage in connection with practical imaging applications, such as the medical scenario. Lastly, the book illustrates the methodologies in detail, making it suitable for newcomers to the field and advanced researchers alike.
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