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This book is an ensemble of six major chapters, an introduction, and a closure on modeling transport phenomena in porous media with applications. Two of the six chapters explain the underlying theories, whereas the rest focus on new applications. Porous media transport is essentially a multi-scale process. Accordingly, the related theory described in the second and third chapters covers both continuum- and meso-scale phenomena. Examining the continuum formulation imparts rigor to the empirical porous media models, while the mesoscopic model focuses on the physical processes within the pores. Porous media models are discussed in the context of a few important engineering applications. These include biomedical problems, gas hydrate reservoirs, regenerators, and fuel cells. The discussion reveals the strengths and weaknesses of existing models as well as future research directions.
This book looks back at the starting point of engineering to show the importance of motivation in dealing with the passive-to-active consumer change, and explains how engineering can be holistic. It presents a variety of research on emotion, discussing topics such as neuroscience, philosophy and physiology. In addition to providing similar research being carried out from different perspectives in other fields, it demonstrates to readers how they can work with researchers in other fields to explore the new frontiers and their applications together. With engineering quickly moving from product development to experience development, and the role of emotion in engineering becoming increasingly important, Emotional Engineering, Vol. 6 is a valuable resource for engineers and researchers.
This unique book provides comprehensive overview of the field of immunology related to engineered nanomaterials used for biomedical applications. It contains literature review, case studies and protocols. The book can serve as a source of information about nanoimmunotoxicology for both junior scientists and experts in the field. The authors have more than 10 years of experience with preclinical characterization of engineered nanomaterials used for medical applications, and they share their experience with the readers. In addition, the international team of experts in the field provides the opinion and share the expertise on individual topics related to nanoparticle physicochemical characterization, hematocompatibility, and effects on the immune cell function . The second edition contains updated chapters from the first edition plus new chapters covering areas of tumor immunology, nanoparticle interaction with lymphatic system, mathematical modeling of protein corona, utilization of nanoparticles for the delivery of antiviral drugs, extensive analysis of nanoparticle anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, novel ways of protecting therapeutic nanoparticles from the immune recognition, as well as case studies regarding nanoparticle sterilization, complement activation, protein binding and immunotherapy of cancer. The second edition comes in 3 volumes. Volume 1 is focused on nanoparticle characterization, sterility and sterilization, pyrogen contamination and depyrigenation. It also contains overview of regulatory guidelines, protocols for in vitro and in vivo immunotoxicity studies, and correlation between in vitro and in vivo immunoassays. Volume 2 is focused on hematocompatibility of nanomaterials. It provides comprehensive review and protocols for investigating nanoparticle interaction with erythrocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, plasma coagulation factors and plasma proteins forming so called 'corona' around nanoparticles. Volume 3 is dedicated to nanoparticle interaction with and effects on the immune cell function. It also contains examples of nanoparticle use for delivery of antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs.
Urologists have long used urinary stents in patients who have - or who are at risk of developing - an obstruction or blockage of the kidney. These rodlike devices are inserted into the ureter to keep the canal open or to help with healing after trauma, surgery or radiotherapy. More recently the use of stents for the prostate and urethra has also become more widespread, despite poor results in first generation models. Constant development has led to the introduction of second generation stents with a variety of designs, materials and coatings. These have gone a long way to counter the traditional side effects such as irritation, hematuria, infection and encrustation. Handbook of Urinary Stents has been written to provide urologists with a practical guide to the various new models for stenting. The book describes the various stents available; the criteria for their selection; their clinical application and potential complications of use. At the same time, the book provides thorough descriptions of relevant physiology and pathophysiology for those requiring deeper understanding of the subject. Key Points Provides a comprehensive, timely review for urologists needing an accessible guide to the range of stents available Chapters highlight the use of stents in special populations such as children and patients with transplanted ureter Emphasis on clinical complications following the use of stents and how to manage them effectively
This book discusses vegetable oil based biolubricants and their applications in the power distribution industry. Vegetable oil based lubricants offer significant advantages over petroleum-based lubricants, including biodegradability, cost-effectiveness, renewability, and lower environmental effects. This book provides a detailed literature survey of modified vegetable oils. It discusses the physical and chemical properties of vegetable oil, and their effects on its applications in tribology. The book discusses additives and enhancements to make vegetable oils suitable for use as lubricating oils and transformer oils in power plants and power distribution grids. The contents of the book will be useful to researchers and professionals as well as policy makers and standards agencies.
This book covers the fundamentals of sensor technologies as well as the recent research for the development of environmental, chemical and medical sensor technologies. Chapters include current research on microflow cytometry, microfluidic devices, colorimetric sensors, and the development of low-cost optical densitometric sensors and paper based analytical devices for environmental and biomedical applications. Special focus has been given to nanotechnology and nanostructures- their fabrication, uses and utility in different fields of research such as for the design of tools for medical diagnostics, therapeutics, as well as for detection and estimation of pollutant levels in water and air quality monitoring. This book is intended as a resource for researchers working in the field of sensor development across the world.
This book reviews drug delivery systems as mechanisms to introduce therapeutic agents into the body to help or improve tissue function, and examines different drug delivery systems applied in various organs. To date, polymeric systems, ceramic particles or composites have been used in different applications such as injectable, coatings of implants, scaffolds, or implantable devices. Such systems should be able to retain the therapeutic agent and release it in uniform amounts at a specific time.
This book provides a selection of essential knowledge on the image-based quantification of biophysical parameters for the purpose of clinical diagnosis. The authors regard clinical imaging scanners as physical measurement systems capable of quantifying intrinsic parameters for depiction of the constitution and biophysical properties of in vivo tissue. On the one hand, this approach supports the development of new methods of imaging highly reproducible, system-independent, and quantitative biomarkers, and these methods receive detailed attention in the book. On the other hand, the reader will also gain a deeper understanding of how physical tissue properties interact with the generation of signals in medical imaging, opening new windows on the intricate and fascinating relationship between the structure and function of living tissues. The book will be of interest to all who recognize the limitations of basing clinical diagnosis primarily on visual inspection of images and who wish to learn more about the diagnostic potential of quantitative and biophysics-based medical imaging markers and the challenges that the paucity of such markers poses for next-generation imaging technologies.
This book discusses computer-supported medical diagnosis with a particular focus on ovarian tumor diagnosis - since ovarian cancer is difficult to diagnose and has high mortality rates, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. It presents the theoretical foundations (both medical and mathematical) of the intelligent OvaExpert system, which supports decision-making in tumor diagnosis. OvaExpert was created primarily to help gynecologists predict the malignancy of ovarian tumors by applying the existing diagnostic models and using modern methods of computational intelligence that accommodate imprecise and imperfect medical data, both of which are common features of everyday medical practice. The book presents novel methods based on interval-valued fuzzy sets and the theory of their cardinalities.
This book outlines the principle and display methods of stereopsis, the biological effects of image viewing, and the effects on the human body, as well as its clinical significance. The authors also present the latest research findings and future prospects for stereopsis methods. In the field of medical care, the technique is useful for the 3-dimensional identification of lesions and affected regions; however, stereoscopic images can cause unpleasant symptoms including motion sickness, headache, and visual fatigue. With increasing opportunities for using the stereoscopic viewing technique in various other fields outside medicine, it is important to resolve the underlying issues of stereoscopic viewing and improve the diagnostic accuracy, safety of surgery and reduce the stress for physicians. Written by pioneering authors, Stereopsis and Hygiene is a valuable resource for both new and established researchers and students seeking comprehensive information on stereoscopic imaging methods as well as professionals working in environmental/occupational health and health promotion.
This volume is about ultra high-speed cameras, which enable us to see what we normally do not see. These are objects that are moving very fast, or that we just ignore. Ultra high-speed cameras invite us to a wonderland of microseconds. There Alice (the reader) meets a ultra high-speed rabbit (this volume) and travels together through this wonderland from the year 1887 to 2017. They go to the horse riding ground and see how a horse gallops. The rabbit takes her to a showroom where various cameras and illumination devices are presented. Then, he sends Alice into semiconductor labyrinths, wind tunnels, mechanical processing factories, and dangerous explosive fields. Sometimes Alice is large, and at other times she is very small. She sits even inside a car engine. She falls down together with a droplet. She enters a microbubble, is thrown out with a jet stream, and finds herself in a human body. Waking up from her dream, she sees children playing a game: "I see what you do not see, and this is....". Alice thinks: "The ultra high-speed rabbit showed me many things which I had never seen. Now I will go again to this wonderland, and try to find something new.
Personal genome testing, gene editing for life-threatening diseases, synthetic life: once the stuff of science fiction, twentieth- and twenty-first-century advancements blur the lines between scientific narrative and scientific fact. This examination of bioengineering in popular and literary culture shows that the influence of science on science fiction is more reciprocal than we might expect. Looking closely at the work of Margaret Atwood, Richard Powers, and other authors, as well as at film, comics, and serial television such as Orphan Black, Everett Hamner shows how the genome age is transforming both the most commercial and the most sophisticated stories we tell about the core of human personhood. As sublime technologies garner public awareness beyond the genre fiction shelves, they inspire new literary categories like "slipstream" and shape new definitions of the human, the animal, the natural, and the artificial. In turn, what we learn of bioengineering via popular and literary culture prepares the way for its official adoption or restriction-and for additional representations. By imagining the connections between emergent gene testing and editing capacities and long-standing conversations about freedom and determinism, these stories help build a cultural zeitgeist with a sharper, more balanced vision of predisposed agency. A compelling exploration of the interrelationships among science, popular culture, and self, Editing the Soul sheds vital light on what the genome age means to us, and what's to come.
This book offers present-day retrospectives and future perspectives on 'phytobiont' studies in the context of phyto-micro restitution, filling some of the information gaps in this promising research field. It discusses several ecosystem restitution strategies using dissimilar groups of microbes alone or in association with plants, as well as advances in metagenomics technology for studying in situ micro and macro communities in contaminated soil. It addresses topics such as the status quo, and the perspectives of microbial researchers and scientists, foresters, students, environmentalists, agriculturists and professional engineers. The rising pollution levels caused by xenobiotics is one of the biggest problems of our times, and as such the book comprehensively elaborates the latest research in this field and describes how the issue can be tackled using micro-organisms. With detailed diagrams and illustrations, the book is a valuable resource for experts and novices in the field of microbial bioremediation, phyto-bioremediation and environmental microbiology
This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.
Whole Body Vibrations: Physical and Biological Effects on the Human Body allows an understanding about the qualities and disadvantages of vibration exposure on the human body with a biomechanical and medical perspective. It offers a comprehensive range of principles, methods, techniques and tools to provide the reader with a clear knowledge of the impact of vibration on human tissues and physiological processes. The text considers physical, mechanical and biomechanical aspects and it is illustrated by key application domains such as sports and medicine. Consisting of 11 chapters in total, the first three chapters provide useful tools for measuring, generating, simulating and processing vibration signals. The following seven chapters are applications in different fields of expertise, from performance to health, with localized or global effects. Since unfortunately there are undesirable effects from the exposure to mechanical vibrations, a final chapter is dedicated to this issue. Engineers, researchers and students from biomedical engineering and health sciences, as well as industrial professionals can profit from this compendium of knowledge about mechanical vibration applied to the human body. Provides biomechanical and medical perspectives to understanding the qualities and disadvantages of vibration exposure on the human body Offers a range of principles, methods, techniques, and tools to evaluate the impact of vibration on human tissues and physiological processes Explores mechanical vibration techniques used to improve human performance Discusses the strong association between health and human well-being Explores physical, mechanical, and biomechanical aspects of vibration exposure in domains such as sports and medicine
A significant portion of biomedical applications necessitates the establishment of an interface between the cells of the patient and the components of the device. In many cases, such as in implants and engineered tissues, the interaction of the cells with the biomaterial is one of the main determinants of the success of the system. Cell and Material Interface: Advances in Tissue Engineering, Biosensor, Implant, and Imaging Technologies explores this interaction and its control at length scales ranging from the nano to the macro. Featuring contributions from leading molecular biologists, chemists, and material scientists, this authoritative reference: Presents practical examples of cell and material interface-based applications Reflects the interdisciplinary nature of bioengineering, covering topics such as biosensing, immunology, and controlled delivery Explains the role of the cell and material interface in the context of cardiac and skin tissue engineering, nanoparticles, natural polymers, and more Cell and Material Interface: Advances in Tissue Engineering, Biosensor, Implant, and Imaging Technologies addresses concepts essential to biomaterial production methods and cell and material interactions. The book provides a solid starting point for elucidating and exploiting the different aspects of cellular interactions with materials for biomedical engineering.
This book explores how conditions for childbearing are changing in the 21st century under the impact of new biomedical technologies. Selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) - technologies that aim to prevent or promote the birth of particular kinds of children - are increasingly widespread across the globe. Wahlberg and Gammeltoft bring together a collection of essays providing unique ethnographic insights on how SRTs are made available within different cultural, socio-economic and regulatory settings and how people perceive and make use of these new possibilities as they envision and try to form their future lives. Topics covered include sex-selective abortions, termination of pregnancies following detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. This is invaluable reading for scholars of medical anthropology, medical sociology and science and technology studies, as well as for the fields of gender studies, reproductive health and genetic disease research.
Built on a decade of experience with novel molecular diagnostics, this practice-oriented guide shows how to cope with validation issues during all stages of biomarker development, from the first clinical studies to the eventual commercialization of a new diagnostic test.
Increasingly, biomedical scientists and engineers are involved in projects, design, or research and development that involve humans or animals. The book presents general concepts on professionalism and the regulation of the profession of engineering, including a discussion on what is ethics and moral conduct, ethical theories and the codes of ethics that are most relevant for engineers. An ethical decision-making process is suggested. Other issues such as conflicts of interest, plagiarism, intellectual property, confidentiality, privacy, fraud, and corruption are presented. General guidelines, the process for obtaining ethics approval from Ethics Review Boards, and the importance of obtaining informed consent from volunteers recruited for studies are presented. A discussion on research with animals is included. Ethical dilemmas focus on reproductive technologies, stem cells, cloning, genetic testing, and designer babies. The book includes a discussion on ethics and the technologies of body enhancement and of regeneration. The importance of assessing the impact of technology on people, society, and on our planet is stressed. Particular attention is given to nanotechnologies, the environment, and issues that pertain to developing countries. Ideas on gender, culture, and ethics focus on how research and access to medical services have, at times, been discriminatory towards women. The cultural aspects focus on organ transplantation in Japan, and a case study of an Aboriginal child in Canada; both examples show the impact that culture can have on how care is provided or accepted. The final section of the book discusses data collection and analysis and offers a guideline for honest reporting of results, avoiding fraud, or unethical approaches. The appendix presents a few case studies where fraud and/or unethical research have occurred. Table of Contents: Introduction to Ethics / Experiments with Human Subjects or Animals / Examples of Ethical Dilemmas in Biomedical Research / Technology and Society / Gender, Culture, and Ethics / Data Collection and Analysis
This book deals with the adhesion, friction and contact mechanics of living organisms. Further, it presents the remarkable adhesive abilities of the living organisms which inspired the design of novel micro- and nanostructured adhesives that can be used in various applications, such as climbing robots, reusable tapes, and biomedical bandages. The technologies for both the synthesis and construction of bio-inspired adhesive micro- and nanostructures, as well as their performance, are discussed in detail. Representatives of several animal groups, such as insects, spiders, tree frogs, and lizards, are able to walk on (and therefore attach to) tilted, vertical surfaces, and even ceilings in different environments. Studies have demonstrated that their highly specialized micro- and nanostructures, in combination with particular surface chemistries, are responsible for this impressive and reversible adhesion. These structures can maximize the formation of large effective contact areas on surfaces of varying roughness and chemical composition under different environmental conditions.
The two volumes of this new edition of the Handbook cover the basic biological, medical, physical, and electrical engineering principles. They also include experimental results concerning how electric and magnetic fields affect biological systems-both as potential hazards to health and potential tools for medical treatment and scientific research. They also include material on the relationship between the science and the regulatory processes concerning human exposure to the fields. Like its predecessors, this edition is intended to be useful as a reference book but also for introducing the reader to bioelectromagnetics or some of its aspects. FEATURES * New topics include coverage of electromagnetic effects in the terahertz region, effects on plants, and explicitly applying feedback concepts to the analysis of biological electromagnetic effects * Expanded coverage of electromagnetic brain stimulation, characterization and modeling of epithelial wounds, and recent lab experiments on at all frequencies * Section on background for setting standards and precautionary principle * Discussion of recent epidemiological, laboratory, and theoretical results; including: WHO IARC syntheses of epidemiological results on both high and low frequency fields, IITRI lab study of cancer in mice exposed to cell phone-like radiation, and other RF studies * All chapters updated by internationally acknowledged experts in the field
This is the first time that human organs, such as the heart, liver, kidney, stomach, uterus, skin, lung, pancreas and breast can be manufactured automatically and precisely for clinical transplantation, drug screening and metabolism model establishment. Headed by Professor Xiaohong Wang (also the founder and director) in the Center of Organ Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, this group has focused on organ manufacturing for over ten years. A series of technical bottleneck problems, such as vascular and nerve system establishment in a construct, multiple cell types and material system incorporation, and stem cell sequential engagement, have been overcome one by one. Two technical approaches have been exploited extensively. One is multiple nozzle rapid prototyping (RP), additive manufacturing (AM), or three-dimension (3D) printing. The other is combined mold systems. More than 110 articles and 40 patents with a series of theories and practices have been published consequently. In the future, all the failed organs (including the brain) in the human body can be substituted easily like a small accessory part in a car. Everyone can get benefit from these techniques, which ultimately means that the lifespan of humans, therefore, can be greatly prolonged from this time point. This book examines the progress made in the field and the developments made by these researchers (and authors) in the field.
This book provides an up-to-date analysis of the governance of biotechnology in post-Soviet Russia. The rapid advancement of the life sciences over the past few decades promises to bring tremendous benefits, but also raises significant social, ethical, legal, and security risks. Nations' adaptability to the twin challenges of attempting to secure the benefits while reducing the risks and threats is a large and still burgeoning governance challenge. Here, Novossiolova cuts across several sets of literature, bringing together elements of the anthropological study of culture; history of science and technology; management and international governance; and Soviet history and politics. Due to its multidisciplinary approach, in-depth analysis, accessible style, and extensive reference list, this text offers invaluable insights into the normative dimensions of the governance of biotechnology, unpacking both the formal and intangible attributes and artefacts of biotechnology policy and practice in Russia.
This book collects new results, concepts and further developments of NMF. The open problems discussed include, e.g. in bioinformatics: NMF and its extensions applied to gene expression, sequence analysis, the functional characterization of genes, clustering and text mining etc. The research results previously scattered in different scientific journals and conference proceedings are methodically collected and presented in a unified form. While readers can read the book chapters sequentially, each chapter is also self-contained. This book can be a good reference work for researchers and engineers interested in NMF, and can also be used as a handbook for students and professionals seeking to gain a better understanding of the latest applications of NMF.
This book discusses the emerging field of industrial neuroscience, and reports on the authors' cutting-edge findings in the evaluation of mental states, including mental workload, cognitive control and training of personnel involved either in the piloting of aircraft and helicopters, or in managing air traffic. It encompasses neuroimaging and cognitive psychology techniques and shows how they have been successfully applied in the evaluation of human performance and human-machine interactions, and to guarantee a proper level of safety in such operational contexts. With an introduction to the most relevant concepts of neuroscience, neurophysiological techniques, simulators and case studies in aviation environments, it is a must-have for both students and scientists in the field of aeronautic and biomedical engineering, as well as for various professionals in the aviation world. This is the first book to intensively apply neurosciences to the evaluation of human factors and mental states in aviation.
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