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This research-level reference provides a review of the morphological techniques that have become a primary method of anatomical study correlating structure and function in lung physiology and pathology. Detailing the evolution of anatomy as a research discipline, it explores general structural techn
Biomedical scientists are the foundation of modern healthcare, from cancer screening to diagnosing HIV, from blood transfusion for surgery to food poisoning and infection control. Without biomedical scientists, the diagnosis of disease, the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment, and research into the causes and cures of disease would not be possible. The Fundamentals of Biomedical Science series has been written to reflect the challenges of practicing biomedical science today. It draws together essential basic science with insights into laboratory practice to show how an understanding of the biology of disease is coupled to the analytical approaches that lead to diagnosis. Assuming only a minimum of prior knowledge, the series reviews the full range of disciplines to which a Biomedical Scientist may be exposed - from microbiology to cytopathology to transfusion science. A core text in the Fundamentals of Biomedical Science series, Biomedical Science Practice gives a comprehensive overview of the key laboratory techniques and professional skills that students need to master. The text is supported throughout with engaging clinical case studies, written to emphasize the link between theory and practice, providing a strong foundation for beginning biomedical science students.
This fully updated, self-contained textbook covering modern optical microscopy equips students with a solid understanding of the theory underlying a range of advanced techniques. Two new chapters cover pump-probe techniques, and imaging in scattering media, and additional material throughout covers light-sheet microscopy, image scanning microscopy, and much more. An array of practical techniques are discussed, from classical phase contrast and confocal microscopy, to holographic, structured illumination, multi-photon, and coherent Raman microscopy, and optical coherence tomography. Fundamental topics are also covered, including Fourier optics, partial coherence, 3D imaging theory, statistical optics, and the physics of scattering and fluorescence. With a wealth of end-of-chapter problems, and a solutions manual for instructors available online, this is an invaluable book for electrical engineering, biomedical engineering, and physics students taking graduate courses on optical microscopy, as well as advanced undergraduates, professionals, and researchers looking for an accessible introduction to the field.
Well-structured and adopting a pedagogical approach, this self-contained monograph covers the fundamentals of scanning probe microscopy, showing how to use the techniques for investigating physical and chemical properties on the nanoscale and how they can be used for a wide range of soft materials. It concludes with a section on the latest techniques in nanomanipulation and patterning. This first book to focus on the applications is a must-have for both newcomers and established researchers using scanning probe microscopy in soft matter research. From the contents: * Atomic Force Microscopy and Other Advanced Imaging Modes * Probing of Mechanical, Thermal Chemical and Electrical Properties * Amorphous, Poorly Ordered and Organized Polymeric Materials * Langmuir-Blodgett and Layer-by-Layer Structures * Multi-Component Polymer Systems and Fibers * Colloids and Microcapsules * Biomaterials and Biological Structures * Nanolithography with Intrusive AFM Tipand Dip-Pen Nanolithography * Microcantilever-Based Sensors
Microscopy plays an integral role in the research and development of new medicines. Pharmaceutical Microscopy describes a wide variety of techniques together with numerous practical applications of importance in drug development. The first section presents general methods and applications with an emphasis on the physical science aspects. Techniques covered include optical crystallography, thermal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, microspectroscopy (infrared and Raman), and particle size and shape by image analysis. The second section presents applications of these techniques to specific topics of pharmaceutical interest, including studies of polymorphism, particle size and shape analysis, and contaminant identification. Pharmaceutical Microscopy is designed for those scientists who must use these techniques to solve pharmaceutical problems but do not need to become expert microscopists. Consequently, each section has exercises designed to teach the reader how to use and apply the techniques in the book. Although the focus is on pharmaceutical development, workers in other fields such as food science and organic chemistry will also benefit from the discussion of techniques and the exercises. Provides comprehensive coverage of key microscopy techniques used in pharmaceutical development Helps the reader to solve specific problems in pharmaceutical quality assurance Oriented and designed for pharmaceutical scientists who need to use microscopy but are not expert microscopists Includes a large number of practical exercises to give the reader hands-on experience with the techniques Written by an author with 21 years of experience in the pharmaceutical industry
This open access book provides a comprehensive overview of the application of the newest laser and microscope/ophthalmoscope technology in the field of high resolution imaging in microscopy and ophthalmology. Starting by describing High-Resolution 3D Light Microscopy with STED and RESOLFT, the book goes on to cover retinal and anterior segment imaging and image-guided treatment and also discusses the development of adaptive optics in vision science and ophthalmology. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the reader will learn about the latest developments and most up to date technology in the field and how these translate to a medical setting. High Resolution Imaging in Microscopy and Ophthalmology - New Frontiers in Biomedical Optics has been written by leading experts in the field and offers insights on engineering, biology, and medicine, thus being a valuable addition for scientists, engineers, and clinicians with technical and medical interest who would like to understand the equipment, the applications and the medical/biological background. Lastly, this book is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Gerhard Zinser, co-founder of Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, a scientist, a husband, a brother, a colleague, and a friend.
The third edition of this volume focuses on experimental models that are useful for investigating various aspects of cytoskeleton structure and function. Animal, plant, protist, and fungal models highlight twenty-four chapters that provide detailed protocols for live and fixed-cell imaging, dynamics of cytoskeleton components, cell and organelle motility, and genetics and proteomics. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, protocols in each chapter are up-to-date menus organized in a useful step-by-step format appropriate for novice and established investigators. Each chapter is equipped with a valuable notes section that provides a troubleshooting guide and helpful, and often unpublished, technical information aimed at ensuring success with implementation of the protocols. Authoritative and thorough, Cytoskeleton Methods and Protocols, Third Edition helps researchers expand their understanding of cytoskeleton structure and function.
Since its discovery, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has become a technique of choice for non-destructive surface characterization with sub-molecular resolution. The AFM has also emerged as a problem-solving tool in applications relevant to particle-solid and particle-liquid interactions, design, fabrication, and characterization of new materials, and development of new technologies for processing and modification of materials. This volume is a comprehensive review of AFM techniques and their application in adhesion studies. It is intended for both researchers and students in engineering disciplines, physics and biology. Over 100 authors contributed to this book, summarizing current status of research on measurements of colloidal particle-solid adhesion and molecular forces, solid surface imaging and mapping, and discussing the contact mechanics models applicable to particle-substrate and particle-particle systems.
The first book on the topic, with each chapter written by pioneers in the field, this essential resource details the fundamental theory, applications, and future developments of liquid cell electron microscopy. This book describes the techniques that have been developed to image liquids in both transmission and scanning electron microscopes, including general strategies for examining liquids, closed and open cell electron microscopy, experimental design, resolution, and electron beam effects. A wealth of practical guidance is provided, and applications are described in areas such as electrochemistry, corrosion and batteries, nanocrystal growth, biomineralization, biomaterials and biological processes, beam-induced processing, and fluid physics. The book also looks ahead to the future development of the technique, discussing technical advances that will enable higher resolution, analytical microscopy, and even holography of liquid samples. This is essential reading for researchers and practitioners alike.
This unique book on super-resolution microscopy techniques presents comparative, in-depth analyses of the strengths and weaknesses of the individual approaches. It was written for non-experts who need to understand the principles of super-resolution or who wish to use recently commercialized instruments as well as for professionals who plan to realize novel microscopic devices. Explaining the practical requirements in terms of hardware, software and sample preparation, the book offers a wealth of hands-on tips and practical tricks to get a setup running, provides invaluable help and support for successful data acquisition and specific advice in the context of data analysis and visualization. Furthermore, it addresses a wide array of transdisciplinary fields of applications. The author begins by outlining the joint efforts that have led to achieving super-resolution microscopy combining advances in single-molecule photo-physics, fluorophore design and fluorescent labeling, instrument design and software development. The following chapters depict and compare current main standard techniques such as structured illumination microscopy, single-molecule localization, stimulated emission depletion microscopy and multi-scale imaging including light-sheet and expansion microscopy. For each individual approach the experimental setups are introduced, the imaging protocols are provided and the various applications illustrated. The book concludes with a discussion of future challenges addressing issues of routine applications and further commercialization of the available methods. Guiding users in how to make choices for the design of their own experiments from scratch to promising application, this one-stop resource is intended for researchers in the applied sciences, from chemistry to biology and medicine to physics and engineering.
Biomedical scientists are the foundation of modern healthcare, from cancer screening to diagnosing HIV, from blood transfusion for surgery to food poisoning and infection control. Without biomedical scientists the diagnosis of disease, the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment, and research into the causes and cures of disease would not be possible. The Fundamentals of Biomedical Science series has been written to reflect the challenges of practicing biomedical science today. It draws together essential basic science with insights into laboratory practice to show how an understanding of the biology of disease is coupled to the analytical approaches that lead to diagnosis. Assuming only a minimum of prior knowledge, the series reviews the full range of disciplines to which a Biomedical Scientist may be exposed-from microbiology to cytopathology to transfusion science. Histopathology describes the processes and practices that are central to the role of the histopathology biomedical scientist, from presampling to diagnosis to laboratory management. It demonstrates throughout how an understanding of cell and tissue physiology is vital to the successful identification of clinical conditions.
The go-to resource for microscopists on biological applications of field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) The evolution of scanning electron microscopy technologies and capability over the past few years has revolutionized the biological imaging capabilities of the microscope--giving it the capability to examine surface structures of cellular membranes to reveal the organization of individual proteins across a membrane bilayer and the arrangement of cell cytoskeleton at a nm scale. Most notable are their improvements for field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), which when combined with cryo-preparation techniques, has provided insight into a wide range of biological questions including the functionality of bacteria and viruses. This full-colour, must-have book for microscopists traces the development of the biological field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) and highlights its current value in biological research as well as its future worth. Biological Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy highlights the present capability of the technique and informs the wider biological science community of its application in basic biological research. Starting with the theory and history of FEGSEM, the book offers chapters covering: operation (strengths and weakness, sample selection, handling, limitations, and preparation); Commercial developments and principals from the major FEGSEM manufacturers (Thermo Scientific, JEOL, HITACHI, ZEISS, Tescan); technical developments essential to bioFEGSEM; cryobio FEGSEM; cryo-FIB; FEGSEM digital-tomography; array tomography; public health research; mammalian cells and tissues; digital challenges (image collection, storage, and automated data analysis); and more. Examines the creation of the biological field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM) and discusses its benefits to the biological research community and future value Provides insight into the design and development philosophy behind current instrument manufacturers Covers sample handling, applications, and key supporting techniques Focuses on the biological applications of field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), covering both plant and animal research Presented in full colour An important part of the Wiley-Royal Microscopical Series, Biological Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy is an ideal general resource for experienced academic and industrial users of electron microscopy--specifically, those with a need to understand the application, limitations, and strengths of FEGSEM.
This book features reviews by leading experts on the methods and applications of modern forms of microscopy. The recent awards of Nobel Prizes awarded for super-resolution optical microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy have demonstrated the rich scientific opportunities for research in novel microscopies. Earlier Nobel Prizes for electron microscopy (the instrument itself and applications to biology), scanning probe microscopy and holography are a reminder of the central role of microscopy in modern science, from the study of nanostructures in materials science, physics and chemistry to structural biology. Separate chapters are devoted to confocal, fluorescent and related novel optical microscopies, coherent diffractive imaging, scanning probe microscopy, transmission electron microscopy in all its modes from aberration corrected and analytical to in-situ and time-resolved, low energy electron microscopy, photoelectron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy in biology, and also ion microscopy. In addition to serving as an essential reference for researchers and teachers in the fields such as materials science, condensed matter physics, solid-state chemistry, structural biology and the molecular sciences generally, the Springer Handbook of Microscopy is a unified, coherent and pedagogically attractive text for advanced students who need an authoritative yet accessible guide to the science and practice of microscopy.
The examination of structure at the microscopic scale, between micrometers and angstrom units, has changed dramatically in recent decades. Many new types of microscopy have emerged, notably the many scanning-probe designs, some of which also allow manipulation of atoms to form wanted structures, while others now permit direct observation of moving proteins in liquids. The traditional electron microscope is being revolutionized by the arrival of aberration correctors and monochromators, which bring the resolution below the Angstrom and electron-volt level. The "laboratory in a microscope" concept is rapidly evolving, as nanostructures are observed forming under controlled conditions at atomic resolution (the carbon nanotube being the most famous recent example). Electron holography and scanning transmission electron microscopy have become indispensable tools of the semiconductor industry. The oldest form of microscopy, optical microscopy, has been rejuvenated by the development of fluorescent, confocal, and two-photon variants. Analytical Scanning X-ray microscopes and Photoemission microscopes at synchrotons now routinely provide spatially resolved electronic structure maps. Tomographic imaging has vastly increased the information content of practically all forms of microscopy, as reflected in the award of a recent Nobel Prize. Molecular biology is benefiting enormously from progress in this technique. Most of these developments are responses to the urgent needs of researchers to characterize new useful nanostructures at the atomic level.
In "Science of Microscopy," comprehensive reviews set these innovations in the context of microscopy today. Each contribution presents a form of microscopy or occasionally a microscopic technique, and provides information about the instruments involved and their areas of application. The contributions are written in such a way that the reader can understand how the various instruments function, their strengths and weaknesses, and whether they are suitable for a particular scientific investigation. Science of Microscopy will be an indispensable guide to both a wide range of scientists in university laboratories and to engineers and scientists in industrial R&D departments.
Key FeaturesFull-length essays on each type of instrument or techniqueApplications to both materials science and thebiomedical sciencesEssay-length treatmentby respected experts in each fieldCovers the latest developments as well as background information for the beginning microscopist"
Publisher's Note: Products purchased from Third Party sellers are not guaranteed by the publisher for quality, authenticity, or access to any online entitlements included with the product. Cutting-edge quantitative phase imaging techniques and their applicationsFilled with unique, full-color images taken by advanced quantitative phase imaging (QPI), Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues thoroughly explores this innovative technology and its biomedical applications. An introductory background on optical imaging and traditional optical microscopy is included to illustrate concept development. The book explains how various visualization modalities can be obtained by numerical calculations. This authoritative resource reveals how to take full advantage of the unprecedented capabilities of QPI, such as rendering scattering properties of minute subcellular structures and nanoscale fluctuations in live cells. Coverage includes: Groundwork Spatiotemporal field correlations Image characteristics Light microscopy Holography Point scanning QPI methods Principles of full-field QPI Off-axis full-field methods Phase-shifting techniques Common-path methods White light techniques Fourier transform light scattering (FTLS) Current trends in QPI
A detailed presentation of the physics of electron beam-specimen interactions Electron microscopy is one of the most widely used characterisation techniques in materials science, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences. This book examines the interactions between the electron beam and the specimen, the fundamental starting point for all electron microscopy. Detailed explanations are provided to help reinforce understanding, and new topics at the forefront of current research are presented. It provides readers with a deeper knowledge of the subject, particularly if they intend to simulate electron beam-specimen interactions as part of their research projects. The book covers the vast majority of commonly used electron microscopy techniques. Some of the more advanced topics (annular bright field and dopant atom imaging, atomic resolution chemical analysis, band gap measurements) provide additional value, especially for readers who have access to advanced instrumentation, such as aberration-corrected and monochromated microscopes. Electron Beam-Specimen Interactions and Simulation Methods in Microscopy offers enlightening coverage of: the Monte-Carlo Method; Multislice Simulations; Bloch Waves in Conventional and Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy; Bloch Waves in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy; Low Energy Loss and Core Loss EELS. It also supplements each chapter with clear diagrams and provides appendices at the end of the book to assist with the pre-requisites. A detailed presentation of the physics of electron beam-specimen interactions Each chapter first discusses the background physics before moving onto simulation methods Uses computer programs to simulate electron beam-specimen interactions (presented in the form of case studies) Includes hot topics brought to light due to advances in instrumentation (particularly aberration-corrected and monochromated microscopes) Electron Beam-Specimen Interactions and Simulation Methods in Microscopy benefits students undertaking higher education degrees, practicing electron microscopists who wish to learn more about their subject, and researchers who wish to obtain a deeper understanding of the subject matter for their own work.
The scanning tunneling microscope and the atomic force microscope, both capable of imaging and manipulating individual atoms, were crowned with the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986, and are the cornerstones of nanotechnology today. The first edition of this book has nurtured numerous beginners and experts since 1993. The second edition is a thoroughly updated version of this 'bible' in the field. The second edition includes a number of new developments in the field. Non-contact atomic-force microscopy has demonstrated true atomic resolution. It enables direct observation and mapping of individual chemical bonds. A new chapter about the underlying physics, atomic forces, is added. The chapter on atomic force microscopy is substantially expanded. Spin-polarized STM has enabled the observation of local magnetic phenomena down to atomic scale. A pedagogical presentation of the basic concepts is included. Inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy has shown the capability of studying vibrational modes of individual molecules. The underlying theory and new instrumentation are added. For biological research, to increase the speed of scanning to observe life phenomena in real time is a key. Advances in this direction are presented as well. The capability of STM to manipulate individual atoms is one of the cornerstones of nanotechnology. The theoretical basis and in particular the relation between tunneling and interaction energy are thoroughly presented, together with experimental facts.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an amazing technique that allies a versatile methodology (that allows measurement of samples in liquid, vacuum or air) to imaging with unprecedented resolution. But it goes one step further than conventional microscopic techniques; it allows us to make measurements of magnetic, electrical or mechanical properties of the widest possible range of samples, with nanometre resolution. This book will demystify AFM for the reader, making it easy to understand, and to use. It is written by authors who together have more than 30 years experience in the design, construction, and use of AFMs and will explain why the microscopes are made the way they are, how they should be used, what data they can produce, and what can be done with the data. Illustrative examples from the physical sciences, materials science, life sciences, nanotechnology and industry demonstrate the different capabilities of the technique.
Microscopy is a dynamic area of science, incorporating both basic classroom microscopes and sophisticated research style instruments that can be driven by light, electrons, or X-rays. The rate of advance in the area over the last 50 years has led to a number of technological advances. In this Very Short Introduction Terence Allen, an established expert on microscope techniques, describes the scientific principles behind the main forms of microscopy, and the exciting new developments in the field. Focusing on the main underlying principles, and introducing the power of what is achievable today using microscopes, Allen demonstrates how microscopy impinges on almost every aspect of our daily lives; from medical diagnosis to quality control in manufacture. Beginning with a brief history of the early stages of microscopy development, Allen then concludes with a comprehensive account of the diverse spectrum of microscopy available today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Written by a pioneer in the field, this text provides a complete introduction to X-ray microscopy, providing all of the technical background required to use, understand and even develop X-ray microscopes. Starting from the basics of X-ray physics and focusing optics, it goes on to cover imaging theory, tomography, chemical and elemental analysis, lensless imaging, computational methods, instrumentation, radiation damage, and cryomicroscopy, and includes a survey of recent scientific applications. Designed as a 'one-stop' text, it provides a unified notation, and shows how computational methods in different areas are linked with one another. Including numerous derivations, and illustrated with dozens of examples throughout, this is an essential text for academics and practitioners across engineering, the physical sciences and the life sciences who use X-ray microscopy to analyze their specimens, as well as those taking courses in X-ray microscopy.
An introductory level guide to electron diffraction in the TEM - This book is a practical guide to electron diffraction in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Case studies and examples are used to provide an invaluable introduction to the subject for those new to the technique. The book explains the basic methods used to obtain diffraction patterns with the TEM. The numerous illustrations aid the understanding of the conclusions reached. * Gives useful case studies and examples to guide the new user * User-friendly approach with simple explanations and informative illustrations Explains the basic methods of how to obtain images and patterns with the TEM, and how to interpret them. TAMs are used in many labs, and allow users to explore the structure of a specimen of interest (e.g. a section through a particular material, crystal or tissue). The TEM is used to pass electrons through a sample, and the electrons are scattered or diffracted in order to produce an image. This book looks at the patterns produced by diffracted electrons to study the appearance, orientation and structure of the sample.
The book is concerned with the theory, background, and practical use of transmission electron microscopes with lens correctors that can correct the effects of spherical aberration. The book also covers a comparison with aberration correction in the TEM and applications of analytical aberration corrected STEM in materials science and biology. This book is essential for microscopists involved in nanoscale and materials microanalysis especially those using scanning transmission electron microscopy, and related analytical techniques such as electron diffraction x-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS).
The International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress (INTERM2013) was organized on October 10-13, 2013. The aim of the congress was to bring together scientists from various branches to discuss the latest advances in the field of microscopy. The contents of the congress have been broadened to a more "interdisciplinary" scope, so as to allow all scientists working on related subjects to participate and present their work.
These proceedings include 39 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 12 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The 39 papers are grouped into the following sections:
- Applications of Microscopy in the Physical Sciences
- Applications of Microscopy in the Biological Sciences
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