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Part of the Oxford Textbooks in Clinical Neurology series, the Oxford Textbook of Clinical Neurophysiology includes sections that provide a summary of the basic science underlying neurophysiological techniques, a description of the techniques themselves, including normal values, and a description of the use of the techniques in clinical situations. Much of diagnostic neurophysiology is essentially pattern recognition which is illustrated throughout the text using audio and video examples. Divided into four key sections, this book begins with the scientific basis of clinical neurophysiology (Section 1) before exploring specific techniques including Electromyography, Intracranial EEG recordings, and Magnetoencephalography (Section 2). The final two sections explore clinical aspects of both the peripheral nervous system (Section 3) and the central nervous system (Section 4).
Focused on stem cell applications, this book bridges the fields of biomaterials, offering new insights into constructing and regenerating tissues and organs. Its unique feature is linking diseases of the human body to current thinking on how to deal with them in the context of current concepts and technologies by means of an in-depth focus on biomaterials. The book assembles recent advances and covers a range of topics related to stem cell biology, biomaterials and technological approaches such as bioreactors written by top researchers in the field. Stem cells of both embryonic and adult origin are discussed with applications ranging, but not limited to, nerve regeneration, liver, pancreas, skin, trachea, cartilage and bone repair and cardiovascular therapy. Developments in the field reflecting the design and construction of the human body and its principal anatomy are discussed from a materials point of view. The book will be a valuable tool for biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians as well as stem cell biologists involved in basic research and applications of adult and embryonic stem cells. It will also be a source of reference for students in biotechnology, biomedical engineering, biology, biochemistry, materials sciences, pharmaceuticals, and veterinary and human medicine.
Stem cells potentially offer a novel therapeutic platform to treat bone disease. They also help the scientist understand the molecular and cellular aetiology of bone disorders. Gaining knowledge on the nature and application of stem cell sciences is a prerequisite for understanding their potential in treating or preventing bone disorders. Stem Cells and Bone Tissue is designed to address these areas in three sections: Introductory Text and Sources of Stem Cells for Skeletal Tissue Cellular and Molecular Aspects Conditions, Applications, Treatments and Repairs Coverage includes general aspects of stems cells, sources of stems cells, isolation and purification, applications in regeneration, nanoscale topography, myostatin (GDF-8) signalling, c-Jun, Lnk, cell-derived Factor 1/CXCR4, chromatin remodelling, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, hypophosphatasia, osteopetrosis, osteogenesis, and many other areas of merit too numerous to mention.
This new study guide is a companion to the bestselling textbook Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology for Nursing and Healthcare Students, and is designed to help and support you with this subject area, by testing and consolidating your knowledge of anatomy and physiology. Jam-packed with tips, hints, activities and exercises, this workbook will guide you through the core areas of anatomy and physiology, and provide you with loads of help with your studies. Designed to support all styles of learning, Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology Workbook provides you with a wide range of activities including: * Clear illustrations for tracing, copying, shading and colouring in * Blank diagrams for labelling * Multiple choice questions * Fill in the gap exercises * Learning tips and hints * Crosswords * Word searches Also available: Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology for Nursing and Healthcare Students 2nd edition the bestselling textbook upon which this study guide is based.
Molecular Aspects of Aging: Understanding Lung Aging covers recent research in the mechanisms that contribute to cellular senescence. Covering universal themes in aging, such as the exhaustion of stem cells and subsequent loss of the regenerative refueling of organs as well as immunosenescence, this text illuminates new directions for research not yet explored in the still poorly investigated area of molecular mechanisms of lung aging. The molecular nature of general aging processes is explored with targeted coverage on how to analyze lung aging through experimental approaches.
From a biomedical engineering perspective, this book takes an analytic, quantitative approach to describing the basic components of physiological regulators and control systems (PRCs). In Endogenous and Exogenous Regulation and Control of Physiological Systems, the author provides grounding in the classical methods of designing linear and nonlinear systems. He also offers state-of-the-art material on the potential of PRCs to treat immune system ailments, most notably AIDS and cancer.
Hyaluronic acid is an essential part of connective, epithelial and neural tissues, and contributes to cell proliferation and migration. It is used as a stimulating agent for collagen synthesis and is a common ingredient in skin-care products, a multi-billion dollar industry, as it is believed to be a key factor in fighting the aging process. Hyaluronic Acid: Production, Properties, Application in Biology and Medicine consists of six chapters discussing the various issues of hyaluronic acid research. In Chapter 1, a historical analysis recounts the discovery and milestones of the research leading to the practical applications of hyaluronan. Chapter 2 is dedicated to biological role of the hyaluronic acid in nature, in particular in the human body. The chapter starts from the phylogenesis of hyaluronic acid, then describes hyaluronan functions in human ontogenesis and especially the role which hyaluronan plays in extracellular matrix of the different tissues. Chapter 3 describes the methods to manufacture and purify hyaluronic acid, including the analytical means for assessing quality of the finished product. Chapter 4 discusses the structure and rheological properties of hyaluronic acid considering effects on conformation and biological properties related to molecular weight. In Chapter 5, the physical and chemical methods for modifying the structure of hyaluronan are discussed including cross-linking using bi-functional reagents, solid-phase modification and effects of the combined action of high pressures and shift deformation. The final chapter focuses on the products derived from hyaluronic acid, including therapeutics composed of modified hyaluronan conjugated to vitamins, amino acids and oligo-peptides. The biological roles and medical applications of this polysaccharide have been extensively studied and this book provides a wealth of scientific data demonstrating the critical role of hyaluronic acid and its promise as a multifaceted bio-macromolecule. Approaching hyaluronic acid from multiple angles, this book links relationships between its biological functions, structure and physical chemical properties. It will be an invaluable resource to researchers, both industrial and academic, involved in all aspects of hyaluronan-based technologies.
Drawing together the best of text, video and interactive material for the complete A&P learning resource for nurses. Effective, holistic nursing is impossible without a firm grasp of how the human body functions, but knowledge of the scientific theory on its own is not enough. Using the person-centred practice framework as a guiding principle, this book brings anatomy and physiology to life combining the best of print and online learning into one integrated package. Key features: Connects theory with nursing practice exploring the science from the perspective of a fictional family Supported by a rich array of video material including interactive figures, animations and mini-tutorials - perfect for visual learners Full of engaging activities designed to complement self-directed learning Written with the needs of nurses firmly in mind, focusing on the essential information Supported by a SAGE Edge website containing complete access to videos, animations, student revision material, action plans, downloadable figures, over 800 flashcards, and a bank of 170 online multiple choice questions for assessment use. More than just a book! Get 12 months FREE access to an interactive eBook* when you buy the paperback! (Print paperback version only, ISBN 9781473938465) *interactivity only available through Vitalsource eBook Each purchase includes 12 months access to an interactive eBook version which seamlessly blends the traditional textbook format with the best of online learning. Students can study when and how they want and make use of additional tools including search, highlighting, annotation note sharing and much more.
Novartis Foundation Symposium 291
The Biology of Extracellular Molecular Chaperones
The heat shock, or cell stress, response was first identified in the polytene chromosomes of "Drosophila," This was later related to the appearance of novel proteins within stressed cells, and the key signal stimulating this appearance was identified as the presence of unfolded proteins within the cell. It is now known that this is a key mechanism enabling cells to survive a multitude of physical, chemical and biological stresses.
Since the promulgation of the 'molecular chaperone' concept as a general cellular function to control the process of correct protein folding, a large number of molecular chaperones and protein folding catalysts have been identified, and it has been recognized that not all molecular chaperones are stress proteins and vice versa. The discovery of molecular chaperones as folding proteins went hand-in-hand with their recognition as potent immunogens in microbial infection. It was subsequently shown that administration of molecular chaperones such as Hsp60, Hsp70 or Hsp90 could inhibit experimental autoimmune diseases and cancer.
More recently evidence has accumulated to show that certain molecular chaperones are also present on the surface of cells or in extracellular fluids. A new paradigm is emerging: at least some molecular chaperones are secreted proteins with pro- or anti-inflammatory actions, regulating the immune response in human diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition to having direct effects on cells, molecular chaperones can bind peptides and present them to T cells to modulateimmune responses. This may be significant in the treatment of cancer.
This book brings researchers together to review and discuss: our current knowledge of cell stress response and molecular chaperones the changing paradigms of protein trafficking and function cell stress proteins as immunomodulators and pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling molecules the role of these proteins in various chronic diseases and their potential as preventative or therapeutic agents.
"The Biology of Extracellular Molecular Chaperones" will be of particular interest to immunologists, cell and molecular biologists, microbiologists and virologists, as well as clinical researchers working in cardiology, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.
The HEP issue on Metabolic Control provides a state-of the art overview over both classical concepts and emerging areas in metabolism and associated disorders. In this context, metabolic control is highlighted at various levels of complexity ranging from transcriptional mechanisms in metabolic pathway control over metabolic communication routes in physiology and pathophysiology to current treatment modalities and options in metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Dedicated chapters by leading experts in their fields provide a concise overview over important areas in metabolic research at a molecular level, including the role of the central nervous system in metabolism, inflammation and metabolism, pancreatic hormone signaling, brown adipose tissue, and therapeutic concepts.
This book brings a comprehensive treatise about obesity, examining the measures that can be taken to stop and even reduce obesity if these right measures are taken in time. Recent studies show that obesity is on the increase at an alarming rate, especially in the industrialized and affluent countries. A number of reasons have been put forward for this increase, including life style choices, over-eating, over-use of commercially processed food, addiction for fast food, high caloric diet specially containing high levels of sugar and fat, lack of exercise and sedentary life style. Also genetic make up has been associated with obesity. Obesity can lead to a variety of lethal diseases, notably coronary heart disease, cancer and diabetes. These diseases account for the highest number of human death amongst all other causes. There are also a number of other side effects associated with obesity including increased stress, loss of intelligentsia, pancreatitis, premature birth and osteoarthritis. In recent years media have been playing important roles in highlighting the lethality and damage caused by obesity, nevertheless no significant effects can be seen in the population and obesity remains on the increase, especially amongst children. The editors believe that it is important that more education, campaign and research are used to stop this increasing disease.
Get the review and application tools you need to master difficult pathophysiology concepts! Designed to be used with the Understanding Pathophysiology, 6th Edition textbook, this extensively revised study guide utilizes a wide variety of engaging chapter activities, including application-based case scenarios and thousands of interactive questions, to help you easily integrate and apply pathophysiology information to clinical practice. New features of this study guide edition include nearly 30 new case scenarios, Teach These People About Pathophysiology questions, active headings, and more images from the main text. As with previous editions, answers to all questions can be found in the back of the study guide. Close alignment with format of the main text enables users to go back and forth between the resources with ease. Answer key found in the back of the study guide offers one place for users to check answers and evaluate progress. NEW! Over 2,650 interactive questions in a variety of formats are used throughout the study guide to help users truly master and apply high-level pathophysiology content from the main text. A wide variety of engaging chapter activities reinforce the application of pathophysiology concepts through: matching definitions, choosing correct words, completing sentences, categorizing clinical examples, explaining pictures, describing differences, and teaching others about pathology. NEW! Teach These People about Pathophysiology questions pose questions directly from the patient's point of view. NEW! 30+ case scenarios feature brief cases with short answer style questions to provide real-world examples of how content would be used in the clinical setting. NEW! Active headings carry more impact in breaking up question types with language such as "Match these Definitions" instead of "Matching" or "Respond to these Clinical Situations" instead of "Short Answer". NEW! Nearly 70 images from the main textbook are incorporated and used in "Explain the Pictures" and "Draw Your Answers" questions to help engage users with visual learning.
This atlas provides ultrastructural morphological images of human spermatozoa. Sperm morphology plays an essential role in sperm-oocyte interactions and early embryonic development, and human sperm ultrastructural morphology offers a valuable reference tool for assessing certain etiologies of male infertility and reproductive failure. However, the ultrastructural morphology of human sperm has not been systematically evaluated or thoroughly described in the literature. Using 470 original and unpublished images, the book shows various ultrastructural morphological phenotypes; defects of the sperm head, neck, middle piece, principal piece, and terminal piece; as well as artefacts of sperm ultrastructural morphology and phenomena related to inadequate preparation, demonstrating many sperm phenotypes and surface structural appearances for the first time. As such, it helps researchers and practitioners in andrology, reproductive medicine, and reproductive pathology gain a better understanding of human sperm ultrastructural morphology.
Pathophysiology and Pharmacology in Nursing has been carefully designed to provide an integrated introduction to both the biology of disease and the therapeutic agents that are used to manage them. It covers the basics of pharmacology, the core pathological concepts of inflammation, infection and cancer, as well as a systems based consideration of the pathophysiology and relevant pharmacology of common disorders. New to the second edition: All content updated and mapped to the 2018 NMC standards Two new chapters on 'Mental health conditions' and 'Renal conditions. The ideal starting point for student nurses to develop a robust, integrated knowledge of human disease and pharmacology, enabling them to provide care that is based on up-to-date knowledge of this important subject.
This book explores several subtypes of muscarinic receptors that modulate smooth muscle activity. Main topics include a classification of muscarinic receptors, biochemical responses that occur in smooth muscle, the role of muscarinic receptors in the function of gastrointestinal and genitourinary smooth muscle, and prejunctional muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle. Discussions cover the current state of research and are intended to generate further research into the design of novel therapeutics for disorders of smooth muscle function.
Adipokines (also called adipocytokines) are a group of peptides secreted by adipose tissue. They have diverse roles, from functions in the individual cell to the whole body. This volume examines a wide range of specific adipokines as well as their general cellular aspects, including thermal stress and adipokine expression, central nervous system roles for adiponectin in neuroendocrine and autonomic function, and astroglial leptin receptors. It discusses related diseases and conditions such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, heart and rheumatic diseases, and allergies and sleep disorders.
Studies of human movement have proliferated in recent years. This greatly expanded and thoroughly updated reference surveys the literature on the corticospinal control of spinal cord circuits in human subjects, showing how different circuits can be studied, their role in normal movement and how they malfunction in disease states. Chapters are highly illustrated and consistently organised, reviewing, for each pathway, the experimental background, methodology, organisation and control, role during motor tasks and changes in patients with CNS lesions. Each chapter concludes with a helpful resume that can be used independently of the main text to provide practical guidance for clinical studies. The final four chapters bring together the changes in transmission in spinal and corticospinal pathways during movement and how they contribute to the desired movement. This book is essential reading for research workers and clinicians involved in the study, treatment and rehabilitation of movement disorders.
This timely and exciting new book brings together for the first time the readily available choices of dietary supplements and their relationship to injury rehabilitation. Nutrition Applied to Injury Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine supports the rational use of specific nutrients for specific healing conditions. Guidelines for nutritional programs applied to specific conditions are provided for practical application.
This book provides up-to-date scientific information on the pathways by which psychosocial stress can affect the auditory system and describes current approaches to the management of patients with stress-related tinnitus. The latest evidence is presented on aspects such as the role of stress hormones in auditory function, the effects of allostatic load, circadian sensitivity to auditory trauma, and the association between stress-related biomarkers and tinnitus. The clinically oriented chapters discuss psychometric instruments of value in the tinnitus clinic and present stress-related tinnitus treatment protocols and outcome measures. It is widely acknowledged that the tinnitus percept acts as a stressor. However, it is also now evident that psychosocial stress can play a causative role in tinnitus and that the impact varies according to the level, duration, and quality of the stress. Assessment of the types and levels of stress in tinnitus patients before, during, and after treatment is therefore very important. Healthcare professionals attending tinnitus patients will benefit from the information that this book provides on the relationship between tinnitus and stress and from the practical guidance that it offers.
This book covers the latest research on male infertility. The topics discussed range from understanding the genetic basis of infertility, to its causes and treatment. Since infertility is also of great interest to the general public, the book also includes a detailed description of what infertility is and how one can understand the different types. Given the complex etiology of infertility, the book includes a number of chapters defining the known and probable causes of male infertility. Providing detailed information suitable for patients and clinicians alike, it also features a separate section on treatment, the ultimate goal.
In three Volumes this mini book series presents current knowledge and new perspectives on cartilage as a specialized yet versatile tissue. This third volume provides insight into current and future treatment strategies for repair of cartilage lesions. This book addresses Professors, researchers and PhD students who are interested in musculoskeletal and cartilage pathobiology and tissue-engineering.
With the recent renaissance in mitochondrial biology and increasing recognition of their role in many diseases, this book provides a timely summary of the current state-of-the-art in mitochondrial research. The book opens with the regulation of mitochondrial replication and biogenesis and reviews the mechanisms and functional consequences of mitochondrial fission and fusion. Further chapters address mitochondria and oxidative stress and their roles in cell signalling and cell death. The book includes extensive, fascinating discussion of the biochemistry of mitochondrial cell signalling (especially involving calcium) and of oxidative stress. The nature of the proteins engaged in these processes, many only recently discovered, is covered in detail.
Mitochondria have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. They are also affected in cancer, ageing and cardiovascular disease. The final section of the book reviews mitochondrial mutations and their consequences in ageing and other phenotypic manifestations. The authors discuss how mitochondrial proteins might constitute important therapeutic targets and describe initial attempts to develop compounds that can regulate their function.
The human body is a complicated and beautiful machine, governed by the laws of physics and chemistry. By understanding its physiology - how it performs its varied functions - it is possible to build strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. In this latest edition, expanded and restructured coverage of sensory physiology and the respiratory system, a new comprehensive glossary of key terms, and additional online learning resources make Human Physiology even more student-friendly than its predecessors. Human Physiology provides clear explanations of the principles that govern the body's physiological processes and shows how these can be applied. This is the ideal course companion for any student needing a solid foundation in the subject for a future career in human biology, biomedical science, or medicine. Online resources Student resources - Numerical and clinical problems - Multiple choice questions - Web links Lecturer resources - Figures from the book
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