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After the collapse of the erstwhile Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the East European communist bloc, capitalism abandoned its liberal programmes worldwide, and this brought about three-fourths of the worlds population at the mercy of the blind and ruthless forces of the market. In India too, the wave of liberalization under a new economic policy, which had been agreed upon and promoted by both the big political parties, i.e. Congress party and the Bharatiya Janata Party, put untold pressures, uncertainties and hardships on the toiling masses. Welfare schemes and subsidies to goods and services provided by the state were slowly withdrawn and the representative class of finance capital took a reactionary posture in political and social life. In India, the crisis at grass-roots' levels has led to a historical unity among trade unions affiliated with different political parties, and there is hope that they may join hands in the struggle for better living conditions. Against this backdrop, this book, which is an outcome of a national seminar, tries to understand and analyse the conditions of the working class people in India. Various dimensions of working class peoples life and politics have been deliberated here. Also, an attempt has been made to present a working class perspective on various economic and social issues of contemporary Indian society.
This is the fifth volume of Current Studies on the Indus Civilization. This is a special volume consisting only of Vivek Dangis work titled Archaeology of the Ghaggar Basin: Settlement Archaeology of Meham Block, Rohtak, Haryana, India. This monograph contains seven chapters, i.e. Nomenclature and Geographical Features; Explorations; Settlement Pattern; Study of Pottery; Study of Miscellaneous Objects; Study of Coins and Inscriptions; and History of the Region.
K S Singh was a versatile scholar apart from being an administrator and an ardent practitioner of historical ethnography. In course of his long tenure of explorations on tribal matters, spanning over four decades, Dr Singh penned many essays on tribal movements, tribal peasant interactions, tribal customary law, tribal economy and so on. Much to the chagrin of historians and anthropologists, he had adopted a combined methodology of historical research and anthropological field work in making his points before the readers and decision makers. The present volume presents a selection of those landmark essays penned by Dr Singh on tribal movements in India.
Since 1994 South Africa has undergone a steady erosion of its indigenous built environment, with a concomitant loss of indigenous building technology and its specialised terminology. This glossary is based on the premise that you cannot understand the culture of a people unless you have a grasp of the nuances and hidden meanings of their language and brings together in one single volume the terminologies that are used by southern Africa's rural builders. It covers the terminology used by indigenous builders as well as subsequent colonial white settlers including buildings of the so-called Cape Dutch, English Georgian, Victorian and Indian Traditions. The text is set out in alphabetical order. It comprises of each term in its original language, its translation where appropriate into isiZulu, and its definition in English and isiZulu. One of the strengths of this book is its visual component of accompanying sketches that expertly illustrate the terms. This book is designed not only to assist in the teaching of architecture, but also to aid others who are interested in the field. Researchers and practitioners in disciplines such as anthropology, archaeology, culture studies and building science will find it a valuable addition to their libraries.
This guide to scoring crown and root traits in human dentitions substantially builds on a seminal 1991 work by Turner, Nichol, and Scott. It provides detailed descriptions and multiple illustrations of each crown and root trait to help guide researchers to make consistent observations on trait expression, greatly reducing observer error. The book also reflects exciting new developments driven by technology that have significant ramifications for dental anthropology, particularly the recent development of a web-based application that computes the probability that an individual belongs to a particular genogeographic grouping based on combinations of crown and root traits; as such, the utility of these variables is expanded to forensic anthropology. This book is ideal for researchers and graduate students in the fields of dental, physical, and forensic anthropology and will serve as a methodological guide for many years to come.
The third edition of Introducing Medical Anthropology: A Discipline in Action, provides students with a first exposure to the growing field of medical and health anthropology. The narrative is guided by unifying themes. First, health-oriented anthropologists are very involved in the process of helping, to varying degrees, to change the world around them through their work in applied projects, policy initiatives, and advocacy. Second, the authors present the fundamental importance of culture and social relationships in health and illness by demonstrating that illness and disease involve complex biosocial processes and that resolving them requires attention to a range of factors beyond biology. Third, through an examination of the issue of health inequality, this book underlines the need for an analysis that moves beyond cultural or even ecological models of health toward a comprehensive biosocial approach. Such an approach integrates biological, cultural, and social factors in building unified theoretical understandings of the origin of ill health, while contributing to the building of effective and equitable national health-care systems. NEW TO THIS EDITION All chapter have been updated or expanded. New Organization oThe former chapter 6, Health Disparity, Health Inequality, is now chapter 4 oThe former chapter 7, Health and the Environment: Toward a Healthier World, is now chapter 5 oThe former chapter 4, Ethnomedicine: The Worlds of Treatment and Healing, is now chapter 6 oThe former chapter 5, Plural Medical Systems: Complexity, Complementarity, and Conflict, is now chapter 7 oNEW: Chapter 8, The Biopolitics of Life: Biotechnology, Biocapital, and Bioethics
Rock art images around the world are often difficult for us to decipher as modern viewers. Based on authentic records of the beliefs, rituals and daily life of the nineteenth-century San peoples, and of those who still inhabit the Kalahari Desert, this book adopts a new approach to hunter-gatherer rock art by placing the process of image-making within the social framework of production. Lewis-Williams shows how the San used this imagery not simply to record hunts and the animals that they saw, but rather to sustain the social network and status of those who made them. By drawing on such rich and complex records, the book reveals specific, repeated features of hunter-gatherer imagery and allows us insight into social relations as if through the eyes of the San themselves.
In the Lahul region of Himachal Pradesh, Hindu and Tibetan cultures coexist. This region is also known as 'Garsha Kandoling' to Tibetans, which means 'Garsha, a garden of Dakini'. The people of Lahul live 3,400 metres above sea level in a challenging mountainous environment. Most of the original inhabitants are Mongoloid, and believe in Tibetan Buddhism. Their traditional ways of life are also Tibetan-like, and suitably adapted for the rigours of life at high altitude. This book is based on fieldwork conducted from 1987 onwards. In the first half of the book, anthropological data about Lahuli society is presented. Various topics such as the means of inheriting wealth, gender issues, and marriage customs (including the practice of adopting a bridegroom into the brides family) are discussed. The discussion is thematically focused on the issue of opposing principles between the household (Kyum), and family (Jinmad). Polyandry, a unique form of marriage in Tibet, can be understood as a means of mediation between these principles. The second half of the book describes a utopian religious movement that developed in the early 1960s and which later led to the tragic journey undertaken to discover Demojong, a Beyul (hidden country) that was said to exist near Kanchenjunga. The leader of this movement -- Terton Tulshuk Lingpa (1916-63), was a Ningmapa yogi from Tibet. Following Indias Independence in 1947, Lahuli society and culture has been transformed dramatically. But as this intimate portrait drawn by a Japanese anthropologist shows, the people of Lahul have successfully re-organised and adapted their way of life, whilst preserving their traditional values and religion.
The World Heritage community is currently adopting policies to mainstream human rights as part of a wider sustainability agenda. This interdisciplinary book combines a state of the art review of World Heritage policy and practice at the global level with ethnographic case studies from the Asia-Pacific region by leading scholars in the field. By joining legal reviews, anthropology and practitioner experience through in-depth case studies, it shows the diversity of human rights issues in both natural and cultural heritage sites. From site-designation to their conservation and management, the book explores the various rights issues and analyses the diverse social, cultural and legal challenges and responses at both regional and global level. Detailed case studies are included from Australia, Cambodia, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines and Vietnam. The book will appeal to both natural and cultural heritage professionals and human rights and heritage scholars, and will serve as a useful compendium for courses use allowing students to compare, contrast and contextualize different contexts.
How do ordinary Muslims deal with and influence the increasingly pervasive Islamic norms set by institutions of the state and religion? Becoming Better Muslims offers an innovative account of the dynamic interactions between individual Muslims, religious authorities, and the state in Aceh, Indonesia. Relying on extensive historical and ethnographic research, David Kloos offers a detailed analysis of religious life in Aceh and an investigation into today's personal processes of ethical formation. Aceh is known for its history of rebellion and its recent implementation of Islamic law. Debunking the stereotypical image of the Acehnese as inherently pious or fanatical, Kloos shows how Acehnese Muslims reflect consciously on their faith and often frame their religious lives in terms of gradual ethical improvement. Revealing that most Muslims view their lives through the prism of uncertainty, doubt, and imperfection, he argues that these senses of failure contribute strongly to how individuals try to become better Muslims. He also demonstrates that while religious authorities have encroached on believers and local communities, constraining them in their beliefs and practices, the same process has enabled ordinary Muslims to reflect on moral choices and dilemmas, and to shape the ways religious norms are enforced. Arguing that Islamic norms are carried out through daily negotiations and contestations rather than blind conformity, Becoming Better Muslims examines how ordinary people develop and exercise their religious agency.
Western society has never been more interested in interiority. Indeed, it seems more and more people are deliberately looking inward--toward the mind, the body, or both. Michal Pagis's Inward focuses on one increasingly popular channel for the introverted gaze: vipassana meditation, which has spread from Burma to over forty countries and counting. Lacing her account with vivid anecdotes and personal stories, Pagis turns our attention not only to the practice of vipassana but to the communities that have sprung up around it. Inward is also a social history of the westward diffusion of Eastern religious practices spurred on by the lingering effects of the British colonial presence in India. At the same time Pagis asks knotty questions about what happens when we continually turn inward, as she investigates the complex relations between physical selves, emotional selves, and our larger social worlds. Her book sheds new light on evergreen topics such as globalization, social psychology, and the place of the human body in the enduring process of self-awareness.
Sustainability strives to meet the needs of the present without compromising the future, but increasingly recognizes the tradeoffs among these many needs. Who benefits? Who bears the burden? How are these difficult decisions made? Are people aware of these hard choices? This timely volume brings the perspectives of ethnography and archaeology to bear on these questions by examining case studies from around the world. Written especially for this volume, the essays by an international team of scholars offer archaeological and ethnographic examples from the southwestern United States, the Maya region of Mexico, Africa, India, and the North Atlantic, among other regions. Collectively, they explore the benefits and consequences of growth and development, the social costs of ecological sustainability, and tensions between food and military security.
Studies of immigration to the United States have traditionally focused on a few key states and urban centers, but recent shifts in nonwhite settlement mean that these studies no longer paint the whole picture. Many Latino newcomers are flocking to places like the Southeast, where traditionally few such immigrants have settled, resulting in rapidly redrawn communities. In this historic moment, Jennifer Jones brings forth an ethnographic look at changing racial identities in one Southern city: Winston-Salem, North Carolina. This city turns out to be a natural experiment in race relations, having quickly shifted in the past few decades from a neatly black and white community to a triracial one. Jones tells the story of contemporary Winston-Salem through the eyes of its new Latino residents, revealing untold narratives of inclusion, exclusion, and interracial alliances. The Browning of the New South reveals how one community's racial realignments mirror and anticipate the future of national politics.
Ethnologia Europaea is an interdisciplinary, peer reviewed journal with a focus on European cultures and societies. It carries material of great interests not only for European ethnologists and anthropologists but also sociologists, social historians and scholars involved in cultural studies. The journal was started in 1967 and since then it has acquired a central position in the international and interdisciplinary cooperation between scholars inside and outside Europe. Ethnologia Europaea is an A ranked journal according to the European Science Foundation journal evaluation (European Reference Index for the Humanities initial list).
Humanity is at a crossroads. We face mounting inequality, escalating political violence, warring fundamentalisms and an environmental crisis of planetary proportions. How can we fashion a world that has room for everyone, for generations to come? What are the possibilities, in such a world, of collective human life? These are urgent questions, and no discipline is better placed to address them than anthropology. It does so by bringing to bear the wisdom and experience of people everywhere, whatever their backgrounds and walks of life. In this passionately argued book, Tim Ingold relates how a field of study once committed to ideals of progress collapsed amidst the ruins of war and colonialism, only to be reborn as a discipline of hope, destined to take centre stage in debating the most pressing intellectual, ethical and political issues of our time. He shows why anthropology matters to us all. Introducing Polity's Why It Matters series: In these short and lively books, world-leading thinkers make the case for the importance of their subjects and aim to inspire a new generation of students.
Knowledge of the origin and spread of farming has been revolutionised in recent years by the application of new scientific techniques, especially the analysis of ancient DNA from human genomes. In this book, Stephen Shennan presents the latest research on the spread of farming by archaeologists, geneticists and other archaeological scientists. He shows that it resulted from a population expansion from present-day Turkey. Using ideas from the disciplines of human behavioural ecology and cultural evolution, he explains how this process took place. The expansion was not the result of 'population pressure' but of the opportunities for increased fertility by colonising new regions that farming offered. The knowledge and resources for the farming 'niche' were passed on from parents to their children. However, Shennan demonstrates that the demographic patterns associated with the spread of farming resulted in population booms and busts, not continuous expansion.
This is the sixth volume of Current Studies on the Indus Civilization. The book contains three papers. In the first paper, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, one of the most eminent scholars specializing in Harappan archaeology, writes on the terracotta model carts and wheeled vehicles of the Indus civilization. This is followed by a paper by P. Eltsov, which investigates the history of an ancient South Asian city through the analysis of ancient texts and archaeological data. The last paper written by Vivek Dangi, is a preliminary report on his archaeological explorations in the Chautang basin of Haryana.
Are emotions human universals? Is the concept of emotion an invention of Western tradition? If people in other cultures live radically different emotional lives how can we ever understand them? Using vivid, often dramatic, examples from around the world, and in dialogue with current work in psychology and philosophy, Andrew Beatty develops an anthropological perspective on the affective life, showing how emotions colour experience and transform situations; how, in turn, they are shaped by culture and history. In stark contrast with accounts that depend on lab simulations, interviews, and documentary reconstruction, he takes the reader into unfamiliar cultural worlds through a 'narrative' approach to emotions in naturalistic settings, showing how emotions tell a story and belong to larger stories. Combining richly detailed reporting with a careful critique of alternative approaches, he argues for an intimate grasp of local realities that restores the heartbeat to ethnography.
The 'modern' Western world was introduced to Indian Jews in 1665 when Menasseh Bene Israel of Amsterdam petitioned Oliver Cromwell's government to permit Jews to return to England from where they had been expelled in 1290, citing the tolerant maharajas of Cochin as examples of pragmatic and tolerant leadership to be emulated in England. Over the next 350 years, books, magazine and newspaper articles, travel diaries, and a variety of government and commercial documents have explored Indian Jewish experience, often sensationally. Over the past half-century, modern scholarship has applied historical, sociological, anthropological, political, cultural, literary, and folkloristic perspectives, and all the while Indian Jews themselves have narrated their stories to ever-fascinated audiences. This bibliography, compiled over three decades of research, is designed to assist students and scholars who wish to explore India's rich and varied Jewish heritage. It is organised by communities. First are general works on Indian Jewry, followed by: sections on the Cochin Jews; the Bene Israel of Maharashtra; the little-known Mughal Jews; the 'Baghdadi' communities of Indian port cities; the Ashkenazim, many of whom but not all were refugees to India from Nazi-dominated Europe; and finally, recent Judaising movements of north-east India and in Andhra Pradesh.
After establishing the Spanish Protectorate in Northern Morocco (19121956), Spain needed to create a system of colonial policies for the territory it was now to govern. Education became one instrument among many at the service of colonization. Spain created its own colonial educational model based on Spanish schools, Spanish-Arab schools and Spanish-Jewish schools, which coexisted with Koranic madrasas and Talmudic, Alliance Israelite Universelle and nationalist schools. The institutions created for Moroccans by the Spaniards united tradition the Arabic and Hebrew languages and Muslim and Jewish religions with the models and principles of the schools in Spain at the time. The end goal was to instruct the population according to a pro-Spanish, colonizer-friendly ideology in order to control the society and territory in a way that complemented military policies. The coup detat led by General Franco in Spain in 1936 brought about a change in policy in the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco. The Franco governments innovation was to Moroccanize the teaching paradigm, which transformed the Spanish-Arab educational model into a Moroccan model. The Spanish-Arab concept gave way to a Moroccan concept, which entailed the recognition of a national identity based on linguistic and religious precepts on the part of Spain. This process of Moroccanization did not develop under the same terms in other parts of the country, which gave the Spanish Protectorate its distinctive traits. Spain developed a policy that combined educational and cultural aspects through a discourse of Spanish-Arab brotherhood. The establishment of cultural institutions was a sign of this symbiosis and the policy became an important part of how the regime presented itself abroad.
Read this specially designed new edition of Jared Diamond's Pulitzer-prize winning exploration of what makes us human. Why has human history unfolded so differently across the globe? In this Pulitzer Prize-winning book, Jared Diamond puts the case that geography and biogeography, not race, moulded the contrasting fates of Europeans, Asians, Native Americans, sub-Saharan Africans, and aboriginal Australians. An ambitious synthesis of history, biology, ecology and linguistics, Guns, Germs and Steel remains a groundbreaking and humane work of popular science. PATTERNS OF LIFE: SPECIAL EDITIONS OF GROUNDBREAKING SCIENCE BOOKS
Presenting a ground-breaking revitalization of contemporary social theory, this book revisits the rise of the modern world to reopen the dialogue between anthropology and sociology. Using concepts developed by a series of 'maverick' anthropologists who were systematically marginalised as their ideas fell outside the standard academic canon, such as Arnold van Gennep, Marcel Mauss, Paul Radin, Lucien Levy-Bruhl and Gregory Bateson, the authors argue that such concepts are necessary for understanding better the rise and dynamics of the modern world, including the development of the social sciences, in particular sociology and anthropology. Concepts discussed include liminality, imitation, schismogenesis and trickster, which provide an anthropological 'toolkit' for readers to develop innovative understandings of the underlying power mechanisms of globalized modernity. Aimed at graduate students and researchers, the book is clearly structured. Part I introduces the 'maverick' anthropologists, while Part II applies the maverick tool-kit to revisit the history of sociological thought and the question of modernity.
Cultural memory has in recent years been taken up with enthusiasm across the domain of area studies and the humanities generally. Ireland, with its trauma-filled history and huge global diaspora, presents an ideal subject for work in this vein. This series as a whole seeks to construct a landscape of cultural memory in Ireland, focusing in particular on how cognitive capacity for memory might influence the formation of cultural memory and how that cultural memory shifts over time. Volume 3 focuses on the impact of the Famine and the Troubles on the formation and study of Irish cultural memory. Topics considered include hunger strikes, monuments to the Famine, trauma and the politics of memory in the Irish peace process, and Ulster Loyalist battles in the twenty-first century. Gathering the work of leading scholars such as Margaret Kelleher, Joseph Lennon, David Lloyd, Joseph Valente, and Gerald Dawe, this collection is an essential contribution to the field of Irish studies.
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