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Drawing on twenty-four years of experience in government, Michael H. Armacost explores how the contours of the U.S. presidential election system influence the content and conduct of American foreign policy. He examines how the nomination battle impels candidates to express deference to the foreign policy DNA of their party and may force an incumbent to make wholesale policy adjustments to fend off an intra-party challenge for the nomination. He describes the way reelection campaigns can prod a chief executive to fix long-neglected problems, kick intractable policy dilemmas down the road, settle for modest course corrections, or scapegoat others for policies gone awry. Armacost begins his book with the quest for the presidential nomination and then moves through the general election campaign, the ten-week transition period between Election Day and Inauguration Day, and the early months of a new administration. He notes that campaigns rarely illuminate the tough foreign policy choices that the leader of the nation must make, and he offers rare insight into the challenge of aligning the roles of an outgoing incumbent (who performs official duties despite ebbing power) and the incoming successor (who has no official role but possesses a fresh political mandate). He pays particular attention to the pressure for new presidents to act boldly abroad in the early months of his tenure, even before a national security team is in place, decision-making procedures are set, or policy priorities are firmly established. He concludes with an appraisal of the virtues and liabilities of the system, including suggestions for modestly adjusting some of its features while preserving its distinct character.
This Handbook seeks to better understand the fundamental characteristics of hybrid organisations from different sectors, countries, activities and contexts. Presenting a series of groundbreaking approaches to hybridity, this comprehensive Handbook on Hybrid Organisations brings together internationally renowned scholars in an innovative empirical study. Offering guidance in the prolific and rapidly growing field of hybrid organisations, chapters review the various types of hybrid forms across the public, private and third sectors. Contributors not only explore the role and contribution of hybrid organisations globally, but also develop critical new theories about the place of hybrids in a new organisational reality. Pioneering and thorough, this Handbook is vital reading for scholars and students of public and social administration, organisational theory, business and management studies and the third sector. Policymakers and organisation leaders responding to the development of hybrid forms will also benefit from its unique insight into the new environment for hybrid organisations. Contributors include: E. Beaton, A. Blessing, A.E. Boardman, B. Boers, R. Bolden, C. Child, C. Cornforth, J. Crotty, J.-L. Denis, B. Doherty, E. Dowin Kennedy, A. Ellis Paine, A. Evers, E. Ferlie, L. Fuglsang, J. Garde, M. Gulbrandsen, N. Haigh, K. Hall, H. Haugh, M. Hill, D. Holt, K. Hulse, B. Huybrechts, C. Jacobs, Karre, K. Kreutzer, H. Lipovsaka, D. Littlewood, S. Ljubinovsky, F. Lyon, P. Marcel, R. Millar, R. Miller, V. Milligan, J.K. Moller, M.A. Moore, D. Mullins, M. Nordqvist, V. Pestoff, J. Rijpens, A. Soetens, J. Soukopova, A. Thomasson, T. Thune, G. Vacecova, N. van Gestel, A.C. van Lint, P.A.M. Vermeulen, A.R. Vining, D.L. Weimer, R. Winter
Lee Kuan Yew once described the opportunity to remake Singapore as 'a chance of a lifetime'. This book explores Lee's pivotal role in Singapore's urban development during his years as prime minister from 1959 to 1990. A Chance of a Lifetime recognizes Lee's achievements from the standpoint of Singapore's 50th anniversary of independence and looks forward to challenges that the city-state might encounter over the next 50 years. The book is broken up into the four main components of Singapore's urban development: planning, housing, greening and water management. Each of these factors has been key in helping create modern Singapore. There is also a chapter that discusses the transformational challenges for Singapore, and the world, over the next 50 years. Singapore's small land size and lack of hinterland meant that it had to strategize to solve issues that other countries are only starting to face now, making Singapore a leader in areas such as vertical greenery and water reclamation. Featuring the Centre for Liveable Cities 2012 interview with Lee and rarely seen archival images of Singapore's transformation from mudflat to metropolis, A Chance of a Lifetime opens with an introduction by former president S R Nathan and closes with an epilogue by Ambassador Tommy Koh.
Why the number of young Americans from mixed families is surging and what this means for the country's future Americans are under the spell of a distorted and polarizing story about their country's future the majority-minority narrative which contends that inevitable demographic changes will create a society with a majority made up of minorities for the first time in the United States's history. The Great Demographic Illusion reveals that this narrative obscures a more transformative development: the rising numbers of young Americans from ethno-racially mixed families, consisting of one white and one nonwhite parent. Examining the unprecedented significance of mixed parentage in the twenty-first-century United States, Richard Alba looks at how young Americans with this background will play pivotal roles in the country's demographic future. Assembling a vast body of evidence, Alba explores where individuals of mixed parentage fit in American society. Most participate in and reshape the mainstream, as seen in their high levels of integration into social milieus that were previously white dominated. Yet, racism is evident in the very different experiences of individuals with black-white heritage. Alba's portrait squares in key ways with the history of immigrant-group assimilation, and indicates that, once again, mainstream American society is expanding and becoming more inclusive. Nevertheless, there are also major limitations to mainstream expansion today, especially in its more modest magnitude and selective nature, which hinder the participation of black Americans and some other people of color. Alba calls for social policies to further open up the mainstream by correcting the restrictions imposed by intensifying economic inequality, shape-shifting racism, and the impaired legal status of many immigrant families. Countering rigid demographic beliefs and predictions, The Great Demographic Illusion offers a new way of understanding American society and its coming transformation.
With advancement in modern technology human life span in 21st century has significantly improved as compared to past centuries. Indeed, the manufacturing and household wastes have also boosted in the same era, presenting a hazardous condition to the various living beings. However, through smart methodologies, it can be possible to recycle/reuse of the different types of wastes as a feedstock convenient for specialized manufacturing technologies, such as 3D printing. This means that through proper facilities the waste can be used as the raw material for the printing technologies with characteristic at par with the virgin feedstock. Furthermore, producing the feedstock using waste materials will help to reduce the cost of the processing material, productivity and eco-friendliness of this manufacturing technology. This book will cover a boarder aspect of such efforts wherein various applications and state of art solutions will be discussed in a comprehensive way. This book will be much interest for academics, research and entrepreneur who are working in the field materials science, 3D printing, and manufacturing because of its coverage of state of art solution in the field of commercial, industrial and healthcare products.
Governments, Competition and Utility Regulation continues the series of annual books, published in association with the Institute of Economic Affairs and the London Business School, which critically reviews the state of utility regulation and competition policy. The book contains incisive chapters on competition policy and trade, antitrust and consumer welfare, merger control and efficiency, emissions trading, Ofcom and convergence, energy regulation and competition, regulating the London Underground, the future of water regulation and European merger control. Chapters on each topic are followed by comments from regulators, competition authority chairmen and other experts in the relevant fields. The book provides analysis of and commentaries on the most significant developments in regulation and competition policy, drawing on experiences in Britain, the United States and the European Union, as well as in international trade negotiations. It will be of value to practitioners, policymakers and academics who are concerned with regulation, deregulation and policies to promote competition.
Work is an important part of living, whether you wait on customers, build a business or cook for your family. As such, we all have important stories to tell about our work.
A guide to the literature on corruption. The articles illustrate and explain the scope, incidence and consequences of corruption in a variety of political settings in the developed world, covering issues such as the American experience of sleaze and sleaze and the sense of malaise in Germany.
A collection of articles on corruption. It discusses the variety of prescriptions presented as ways of controlling corruption. Topics covered include: the political dimensions of corruption cleanups; redesigning the state to fight corruption; and the role of public administration.
Developments in French Politics 5 provides a systematic assessment of French politics following the 2012 presidential and parliamentary elections. Bringing together an entirely new set of specially-commissioned chapters, its central theme is whether the discourse of reform - initiated by Sarkozy - has been translated into tangible change.
Privatization is now a universal practice and is the result of a set of interrelated factors, all of which are explored in this collection. Privatization has also become an academic industry, generating a vast outpouring of books and articles. This authoritative two volume collection, which includes a new introduction by the editors, concentrates on the public policy of privatization, and explores its dimensions by presenting key theoretical and empirical articles. The volumes are also clearly interdisciplinary, bringing together for the first time articles informed by political science, economics and sociology. The collection will be invaluable for both practitioners and academics, especially those involved in the study of applied economics, public policy and political science.
This important two-volume set presents the most significant published literature on both the national and international dimensions of environmental policy. In Volume I, the articles by leading scholars in the field offer reviews of the comparative literature on national environmental policies and compare the changes in awareness of environmental issues in Europe, the US and Japan. They investigate how different countries have established the institutions to deal with environmental policy making and explore how the polices are implemented and the results they achieve. Volume II is devoted to the international scene. It reviews the theoretical research on international environmental policy, explores the politics and problems of international policymaking, examines the connections between national and international environmental policies and investigates the impact of international policy agreements on individual nations and their effectiveness. This authoritative collection will be invaluable to all students, academics, politicians and policymakers who have an interest in environmental policy.
Aligning global governance to the challenges of sustainability is one of the most urgent international issues to be addressed. This book is a timely and up-to-date compilation of the main pieces of the global environmental governance puzzle. Essential Concepts of Global Environmental Governance synthesizes writing from an internationally diverse range of well-known experts. Each entry defines a central concept in global environmental governance, presents its historical evolution and related debates, and includes key bibliographical references. This new edition takes stock of several recent developments in global environmental politics including the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the UN Global Pact for the Environment attempt in 2017, and the 2018 Oceans Plastics Charter. More precisely, this book: offers cutting-edge analysis of the state of global environmental governance; presents an up-to-date debate on sustainable development at the global level; gives an in-depth exploration of current architecture of global environmental governance; examines the interaction between environmental politics and other policy fields such as trade, development, and security; provides a critical review of the recent global environmental governance literature. Innovative thinking and high-profile expertise come together to create a volume that is accessible to students, scholars, and practitioners alike.
This book examines the extent to which spatial economic convergence has taken place in the European Union and analyses the effectiveness of regional policy. The authors examine the differing economic features of the European regions and provide an institutional background to regional policy at both the national and Union level. Theories of economic growth are discussed and assessed in terms of the relative performance of regional economies in Europe. The authors then analyse the extent to which economic convergence, for example in terms of income and employment, has materialized across regions using a variety of techniques including mean reversion and time varying parameter procedures. The analysis is both at the level of the entire EU area and at more disaggregate levels that look at specific regions of the Union and at specific sectors. The book offers an assessment of some of the key regional policy instruments used and pays particular attention to the role of infrastructure investment as a tool for enhancing regional growth. It also considers the extent to which some non-regional specific policies impact upon the development of regional economies and explores the implications of closer monetary ties between member states. This book will be of interest to academics and policymakers concerned with regional science, European studies and macroeconomics.
The Planning Commission played a crucial role in the type of development that India followed after independence. However, even though most economic analyses of India mention the five-year plans, the Planning Commission as an institution remains little studied. This is why this book proposes to look backward, examining the history of the idea of planning and the history and experience of planning in India. It also looks forward, trying to evaluate, beyond ideologies, which role the practice of planning has and should have in contemporary India. It then proposes that the NITI Aayog, the think tank founded on 1st January 2015 after the demise of the Planning Commission, could learn from this experience. This book addresses three leading questions: why plan economic development? How to plan? And what exactly can/should be planned? These questions are interrelated and the contributors of this volume, each with their own focus, propose elements of replies.
"Simply brilliant, both in its granular storytelling and its enormous compassion" --The New York Times Book Review The story of two refugee families and their hope and resilience as they fight to survive and belong in America The welcoming and acceptance of immigrants and refugees has been central to America's identity for centuries--yet America has periodically turned its back at the times of greatest humanitarian need. After the Last Border is an intimate look at the lives of two women as they struggle for the twenty-first century American dream, having won the "golden ticket" to settle as refugees in Austin, Texas. Mu Naw, a Christian from Myanmar struggling to put down roots with her family, was accepted after decades in a refugee camp at a time when America was at its most open to displaced families; and Hasna, a Muslim from Syria, agrees to relocate as a last resort for the safety of her family--only to be cruelly separated from her children by a sudden ban on refugees from Muslim countries. Writer and activist Jessica Goudeau tracks the human impacts of America's ever-shifting refugee policy as both women narrowly escape from their home countries and begin the arduous but lifesaving process of resettling in Austin, Texas--a city that would show them the best and worst of what America has to offer. After the Last Border situates a dramatic, character-driven story within a larger history--the evolution of modern refugee resettlement in the United States, beginning with World War II and ending with current closed-door policies--revealing not just how America's changing attitudes toward refugees has influenced policies and laws, but also the profound effect on human lives.
In its continuing quest for competitiveness in world markets, the EU has recently moved away from a technology policy towards an innovation policy. In other words, from a strategy almost entirely focused on supporting collaborative alliances, the EU now has a broader policy vision which aims to engender a positive institutional environment for European innovators. This fresh policy direction has forced the EU to take a novel approach to understanding the relationship between public action and the innovation process at both the national and European level. Adopting a strong interdisciplinary approach, the author skilfully examines the politics and economics of the new innovation policy of the EU, addressing such diverse topics as research and knowledge production, the changing regime of intellectual property rights, building the information society, standard setting, risk assessment and the social sustainability of innovation. The conclusions pose many theoretical questions which will require further research, most notably the extent to which EU innovation policy underpins a European system of innovation. This book will be an invaluable source of reference for academics and researchers interested in the economics of innovation, EU political economy, science, technology and politics. It will also help policy makers to understand the complex interactions between regional, national and supranational innovation policy.
Melting ice sheets and warming oceans are causing the seas to rise. By the end of this century, hundreds of millions of people living at low elevations along coasts will be forced to retreat to higher and safer ground. Because of sea-level rise, major storms will inundate areas farther inland and will lay waste to critical infrastructure, such as water-treatment and energy facilities, creating vast, irreversible pollution by decimating landfills and toxic-waste sites. This big-picture, policy-oriented book explains in gripping terms what rising oceans will do to coastal cities and the drastic actions we must take now to remove vulnerable populations. The authors detail specific threats faced by Miami, New Orleans, New York, and Amsterdam. Aware of the overwhelming social, political, and economic challenges that would accompany effective action, they consider the burden to the taxpayer and the logistics of moving landmarks and infrastructure, including toxic-waste sites. They also show readers the alternative: thousands of environmental refugees, with no legitimate means to regain what they have lost. The authors conclude with effective approaches for addressing climate-change denialism and powerful arguments for reforming U.S. federal coastal management policies.
Beyond the New Public Management is an important book which provides a comprehensive analysis of current conceptual debates in public management and governance; and critically reviews attempts made over the last two decades to apply the 'new public management' model in developed and developing countries. The book brings together a number of outstanding specialists who examine the range of ideas and concepts of the new models of reform, paying particular attention to the 'new public management' model and to strategies of good governance. It evaluates progress made by governments and aid donors in putting these ideas into practice. Using case studies from both the developed and developing world, it emphasises the extent to which public management and governance reforms are being applied throughout the international arena. The examples used focus on the problems of policy and institutional transfers between the industrialised world and developing countries. Multidisciplinary in its approach, the book draws on literature and research from management studies, political science, sociology, economics and development studies; and points to issues likely to dominate the future research agenda. This thoughtful and wide-ranging book will be essential reading for academics, students and practitioners of public management, public policy, governance and development.
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