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The textbook begins with exercises related to radioactive sources and decay schemes. The problems covered include series decay and how to determine the frequency and energy of emitted particles in disintegrations. The next chapter deals with the interaction of ionizing radiation, including the treatment of photons and charged particles. The main focus is on applications based on the knowledge of interaction, to be used in subsequent work and courses. The textbook then examines detectors and measurements, including both counting statistics and properties of pulse detectors. The chapter that follows is dedicated to dosimetry, which is a major subject in medical radiation physics. It covers theoretical applications, such as different equilibrium situations and cavity theories, as well as experimental dosimetry, including ionization chambers and solid state and liquid dosimeters. A shorter chapter deals with radiobiology, where different cell survival models are considered. The last chapter concerns radiation protection and health physics. Both radioecology and radiation shielding calculations are covered. The textbook includes tables to simplify the solutions of the exercises, but the reader is mainly referred to important websites for importing necessary data.
Quantitative coronary angiography has become an invaluable tool for the interventional cardiologist, providing objective and reproducible measurements of coronary artery dimensions, which can be used to study progression or regression of coronary atherosclerosis, as well as the immediate and long term effects of percutaneous interventions. Until recently, this powerful imaging technology was confined to a small number of so-called high level institutions. Fortunately, with the development of digital cardiac imaging equipment and adaptation of cine-angiographically based computer software for on-line use in the catheterization room, quantitative coronary angiography is now available to all interventionalists. This book is a timely guide for the impending QCA user, providing practical as well as theoretical and scientific information. A comprehensive evaluation of the clinical usefulness of QCA is covered, from the fundamental principles through experimental validation studies, application to clinical trials of a wide range of pharmacological and interventional therapies in the full spectrum of clinical presentation of coronary disease syndromes, evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of various new devices for coronary intervention, together with extensive presentation of its physiological, functional and anatomical correlations, by comparison with other intracoronary measurement and imaging techniques. In addition, evolving theories and concepts in the ever topical restenosis phenomenon' after percutaneous intervention, based on serial QCA studies, are presented and discussed and a potentially unifying methodological approach to further study of this ubiquitous problem is offered. Thisbook, thanks to the collaboration of many experts in the field of intracoronary imaging and measurement, provides stimulating, interesting and practical information, both for the academic scientist and practising clinician.
This volume contains the proceedings of the thirteenth biennial International Conference on Information Processing in Medical Imaging (IPMI XIII), held on the campus of Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Arizona, in June 1993. This conference was the latest in a series of meetings where new developments in the acquisition, analysis and utilization of medical images are presented, discussed, dissected, and extended. Today IPMI is widely recognized as a preeminent international forum for presentation of cutting-edge research in medical imaging and imageanalysis. The volume contains the text of the papers presented orally atIPMI XIII. Over 100 manuscripts were submitted and critically reviewed, of which 35 were selected for presentation. In this volume they are arranged into nine categories: shape description with deformable models, abstractshape description, knowledge-based systems, neural networks, novel imaging methods, tomographic reconstruction, image sequences, statistical pattern recognition, and image quality.
The three-volume set LNCS 9349, 9350, and 9351 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2015, held in Munich, Germany, in October 2015. Based on rigorous peer reviews, the program committee carefully selected 263 revised papers from 810 submissions for presentation in three volumes. The papers have been organized in the following topical sections: quantitative image analysis I: segmentation and measurement; computer-aided diagnosis: machine learning; computer-aided diagnosis: automation; quantitative image analysis II: classification, detection, features, and morphology; advanced MRI: diffusion, fMRI, DCE; quantitative image analysis III: motion, deformation, development and degeneration; quantitative image analysis IV: microscopy, fluorescence and histological imagery; registration: method and advanced applications; reconstruction, image formation, advanced acquisition - computational imaging; modelling and simulation for diagnosis and interventional planning; computer-assisted and image-guided interventions.
CI Techniques & Algorithms for a Variety of Medical Imaging
A compilation of the latest trends in the field, Computational Intelligence in Medical Imaging: Techniques and Applications explores how intelligent computing can bring enormous benefit to existing technology in medical image processing as well as improve medical imaging research. The contributors also cover state-of-the-art research toward integrating medical image processing with artificial intelligence and machine learning approaches.
The book presents numerous techniques, algorithms, and models. It describes neural networks, evolutionary optimization techniques, rough sets, support vector machines, tabu search, fuzzy logic, a Bayesian probabilistic framework, a statistical parts-based appearance model, a reinforcement learning-based multistage image segmentation algorithm, a machine learning approach, Monte Carlo simulations, and intelligent, deformable models. The contributors discuss how these techniques are used to classify wound images, extract the boundaries of skin lesions, analyze prostate cancer, handle the inherent uncertainties in mammographic images, and encapsulate the natural intersubject anatomical variance in medical images. They also examine prostate segmentation in transrectal ultrasound images, automatic segmentation and diagnosis of bone scintigraphy, 3-D medical image segmentation, and the reconstruction of SPECT and PET tomographic images.
More than 400 diagnoses that are delineated, referenced, and lavishly illustrated highlight the third edition of this bestselling reference. Award-winning educator Dr. Carl Merrow and his expert author team provide carefully updated information in a concise, bulleted format, keeping you current with recent advances in pediatric radiology. Succinct text, outstanding illustrations, and up-to-date content make this title a must-have reference for both general radiologists and pediatric imaging specialists who need a single, go-to guide in this fast-changing area. Concise, bulleted text provides efficient information on more than 400 diagnoses that are clearly illustrated with 2,500 superb images Meticulously updated throughout, with new diagnoses and hundreds of new images that provide the most current information in the field Expanded coverage of normal development and variations in childhood, including brain myelination, variant positions of important bowel anatomy, and bone marrow changes on MR Increased focus on the molecular/genetic basis of many diseases, including changes in current medical terminology as well as appearances by alternate modalities Expert guidance on new MR techniques for the evaluation of disease, including the use of newer contrast agents, acute and chronic pediatric musculoskeletal traumatic injuries often seen in young athletes, and congenital airway anomalies, such as CHAOS and tracheal agenesis New and revised classifications and staging systems of various pediatric disorders, including neoplasms, vascular anomalies, and childhood interstitial lung diseases (ChILD) Expert Consult eBook version included with purchase, which allows you to search all of the text, figures, images, and references from the book on a variety of devices
Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the European Community and organized in Brussels, Belgium, October 1988 by the U. of Louvain Medical School, discuss problems related to the study of receptors and energy metabolism, particularly in relationship with the compartmental analysis and the modelling
Some 25 years ago, the coronary care unit concentrated high technology and the acutely ill patients who might benefit from it in a single, recognizable space. Since then, that space and its technical equipment have changed, as has part of its population. Acute ischemia, silent and manifest, occurs within and outside of the coronary care unit as pain, arrhythmia, or pump failure. Its detection and treatment require the utilization of many diagnostic techniques and skills, not the least of which is two-dimensional Doppler echocardio- graphy, which is gaining importance. Future developments, in tandem with computer technology, may add to this importance by enabling tissue identification, spatial representation, and Doppler flow mapping. This book describes the state of the art for the practicing clinician using Doppler echocardi?graphy at the bedside of patients with acute ischemic manifestations of coronary heart disease. The first requirement is to move from the echo laboratory to the coronary care unit, emergency department, operating room, or catheterization laboratory, using equipment suited for that purpose. The second, more trying imperative is to secure good cooper- Ition between those treating the acutely ill patient and the investigator who interferes with his probes. If successful ceeding in both, rewarding results can be obtained, since echocardiography is a very sensitive and specific tool for recognizing and quantifying early ischemia.
This book presents the cutting-edge technologies of knee joint vibroarthrographic signal analysis for the screening and detection of knee joint injuries. It describes a number of effective computer-aided methods for analysis of the nonlinear and nonstationary biomedical signals generated by complex physiological mechanics. This book also introduces several popular machine learning and pattern recognition algorithms for biomedical signal classifications. The book is well-suited for all researchers looking to better understand knee joint biomechanics and the advanced technology for vibration arthrometry. Dr. Yunfeng Wu is an Associate Professor at the School of Information Science and Technology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
This book is instrumental to building a bridge between scientists and clinicians in the field of spine imaging by introducing state-of-the-art computational methods in the context of clinical applications. Spine imaging via computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other radiologic imaging modalities, is essential for noninvasively visualizing and assessing spinal pathology. Computational methods support and enhance the physician's ability to utilize these imaging techniques for diagnosis, non-invasive treatment, and intervention in clinical practice. Chapters cover a broad range of topics encompassing radiological imaging modalities, clinical imaging applications for common spine diseases, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, quantitative analysis, data reconstruction and visualization, statistical modeling, image-guided spine intervention, and robotic surgery. This volume serves a broad audience as contributions were written by both clinicians and researchers, which reflects the intended readership as well, being a potentially comprehensive book for all spine related clinicians, technicians, scientists, and graduate students.
Maximize your interpretative skills in breast imaging with this clinically oriented resource . Ideal for residents in radiology , this image-rich text fosters the development of skills necessary to facilitate and maximize interpretive skills in all aspects of breast imaging from mammography ultrasound , and MRI to imaging-guided procedures . This title will also help readers learn how to incorporate clinical and imaging findings to pathology during diagnosis and patient management. With Clinical Breast Imaging readers will: Master key concepts required to care for patients presenting for breast imaging, with an emphasis on clinical relevance and imaging-pathology concordance-all enhanced by high quality images , chapter summaries and patient discussions. Prepare for board exams with comprehensive self-assessment questions in both the printed book and interactive eBook. Become well-versed in how to describe relevant findings, all while incorporating recommended terminology for mammography , breast ultrasound and breast magnetic resonance imaging. Now with the print edition, enjoy the bundled interactive eBook edition, offering tablet, smartphone, or online access to: Complete content with cross-linked pages for easier navigation Powerful search tool that pulls results from book content, user notes and the web Highlighting tool to emphasize and easily reference key content Share tool to collaborate with friends and colleagues during note-taking Tab tool to flag important content for future reference
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Workshop on Computer Assisted and Robotic Endoscopy, CARE 2014, held in conjunction with MICCAI 2014, in Boston, MA, USA, in September 2014. The 12 papers presented focus on recent technical advances associated with computer vision; graphics; robotics and medical imaging; external tracking systems; medical device control systems; information processing techniques; endoscopy; planning and simulation.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis can improve the effectiveness of treatment and increase a patient's chances of survival. Thus, there is an urgent need for new technology to diagnose small, malignant lung nodules early as well as large nodules located away from large diameter airways because the current technology-namely, needle biopsy and bronchoscopy-fail to diagnose those cases. However, the analysis of small, indeterminate lung masses is fraught with many technical difficulties. Often patients must be followed for years with serial CT scans in order to establish a diagnosis, but inter-scan variability, slice selection artifacts, differences in degree of inspiration, and scan angles can make comparing serial scans unreliable. Lung Imaging and Computer Aided Diagnosis brings together researchers in pulmonary image analysis to present state-of-the-art image processing techniques for detecting and diagnosing lung cancer at an early stage. The book addresses variables and discrepancies in scans and proposes ways of evaluating small lung masses more consistently to allow for more accurate measurement of growth rates and analysis of shape and appearance of the detected lung nodules. Dealing with all aspects of image analysis of the data, this book examines: Lung segmentation Nodule segmentation Vessels segmentation Airways segmentation Lung registration Detection of lung nodules Diagnosis of detected lung nodules Shape and appearance analysis of lung nodules Contributors also explore the effective use of these methodologies for diagnosis and therapy in clinical applications. Arguably the first book of its kind to address and evaluate image-based diagnostic approaches for the early diagnosis of lung cancer, Lung Imaging and Computer Aided Diagnosis constitutes a valuable resource for biomedical engineers, researchers, and clinicians in lung disease imaging.
The purpose and subject of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of all types of phantoms used in medical imaging, therapy, nuclear medicine and health physics. For ionizing radiation, dosimetry with respect to issues of material composition, shape, and motion/position effects are all highlighted. For medical imaging, each type of technology will need specific materials and designs, and the physics and indications will be explored for each type. Health physics phantoms are concerned with some of the same issues such as material heterogeneity, but also unique issues such as organ-specific radiation dose from sources distributed in other organs. Readers will be able to use this book to select the appropriate phantom from a vendor at a clinic, to learn from as a student, to choose materials for custom phantom design, to design dynamic features, and as a reference for a variety of applications. Some of the information enclosed is found in other sources, divided especially along the three categories of imaging, therapy, and health physics. To our knowledge, even though professionally, many medical physicists need to bridge the three catagories described above.
Reflecting the increased importance of the collaborations between radiation oncology and informatics professionals, Informatics in Radiation Oncology discusses the benefits of applying informatics principles to the processes within radiotherapy. It explores how treatment and imaging information is represented, stored, and retrieved as well as how this information relates to other patient data. The book deepens your knowledge of current and emerging information technology and informatics principles applied to radiation oncology so that all the data gathered from laboratory results to medical images can be fully exploited to make treatments more effective and processes more efficient.
After introducing the basics of informatics and its connection to radiation oncology, the book examines the process of healthcare delivery in radiation oncology, the challenges of managing images in radiotherapy, and the burgeoning field of radiogenomics. It then presents teaching, clinical trials, and research tools and describes open access clinical imaging archives in radiotherapy, techniques for maximizing information from multimodality imaging, and the roles of images in treatment planning. It also looks at how informatics can improve treatment planning, the safety and efficiency of delivery systems, image-guided patient positioning, and patient assessment. The book concludes with discussions on how outcomes modeling evaluates the effectiveness of treatments, how quality control informatics improves the reliability of processes, and how to perform quality assurance on the informatics tools.
With contributions from a host of top international experts in radiation oncology, medical physics, and informatics, this book leads the way in moving the field forward. It encourages you to find new ways of applying informatics to radiation oncology and help your patients in their fight against cancer."
Data compiled by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention indicates an alarming and continuing increase in the prevalence of autism. Despite intensive research during the last few decades, autism remains a behavioral defined syndrome wherein diagnostic criteria lack in construct validity. And, contrary to other conditions like diabetes and hypertension, there are no biomarkers for autism. However, new imaging methods are changing the way we think about autism, bringing us closer to a falsifiable definition for the condition, identifying affected individuals earlier in life, and recognizing different subtypes of autism. The imaging modalities discussed in this book emphasize the power of new technology to uncover important clues about the condition with the hope of developing effective interventions. Imaging the Brain in Autism was created to examine autism from a unique perspective that would emphasize results from different imaging technologies. These techniques show brain abnormalities in a significant percentage of patients, abnormalities that translate into aberrant functioning and significant clinical symptomatology. It is our hope that this newfound understanding will make the field work collaborative and provide a path that minimizes technical impediments.
Biomedical imaging is a relatively young discipline that started with Conrad Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of the x-ray in 1895. X-ray imaging was rapidly adopted in hospitals around the world. However, it was the advent of computerized data and image processing that made revolutionary new imaging modalities possible. Today, cross-sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of the organs inside the human body is possible with unprecedented speed, detail and quality. This book provides an introduction into the principles of image formation of key medical imaging modalities: X-ray projection imaging, x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and radionuclide imaging. Recent developments in optical imaging are also covered. For each imaging modality, the introduction into the physical principles and sources of contrast is provided, followed by the methods of image formation, engineering aspects of the imaging devices, and a discussion of strengths and limitations of the modality. With this book, the reader gains a broad foundation of understanding and knowledge how today's medical imaging devices operate. In addition, the chapters in this book can serve as an entry point for the in-depth study of individual modalities by providing the essential basics of each modality in a comprehensive and easy-to-understand manner. As such, this book is equally attractive as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate biomedical imaging classes and as a reference and self-study guide for more specialized in-depth studies.
This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of optical approaches used in brain imaging and therapy. It covers a variety of imaging approaches including diffuse optical imaging, laser speckle imaging, photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography. A number of laser-based therapeutic techniques are reviewed, including photodynamic therapy, fluorescence guided resection and photothermal therapy. Fundamental principles and instrumentation are discussed for each imaging and therapeutic approach.
Traditional research methodologies in the human respiratory system have always been challenging due to their invasive nature. Recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have accelerated this research. This book compiles and details recent advances in the modelling of the respiratory system for researchers, engineers, scientists, and health practitioners. It breaks down the complexities of this field and provides both students and scientists with an introduction and starting point to the physiology of the respiratory system, fluid dynamics and advanced CFD modeling tools. In addition to a brief introduction to the physics of the respiratory system and an overview of computational methods, the book contains best-practice guidelines for establishing high-quality computational models and simulations. Inspiration for new simulations can be gained through innovative case studies as well as hands-on practice using pre-made computational code. Last but not least, students and researchers are presented the latest biomedical research activities, and the computational visualizations will enhance their understanding of physiological functions of the respiratory system.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an important innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.
Bone Tumors: A Practical Guide to Imaging is a concise guide to common tumors encountered by physicians in daily practice. The authors make use of high-yield facts, differential diagnoses, and extensive radiological images to introduce a wide range of bone tumors, focusing on their classic appearance and location in order to provide readers with a solid foundation of knowledge for tumor recognition and evaluation. The book includes explanations of methods for properly evaluating bone lesions, common imaging modalities used for diagnosis, and individual chapters covering different classes of benign and malignant tumors, including cartilage, osseous, fibrous, miscellaneous, and bone metastases. The book concludes with a comprehensive selection of 75 unknown cases, including brief clinical history, description of imaging findings, best differential diagnoses, and short discussion revealing the most likely diagnosis. Bone Tumors is an ideal resource for practicing physicians and residents in radiology, orthopedic surgery, pathology, and primary care. About the Authors Jim S. Wu, MD, is Assistant Professor of Radiology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School. Mary G. Hochman, MD, is Chief of the Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Assistant Professor of Radiology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Digital Mammography, IWDM 2012, held in Philadelphia, PA, USA, in July 2012. The 42 revised full papers and 58 revised poster papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous initial submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on contrast-enhancing imaging, digital mammography methods, tomosynthesis system design, tomosynthesis - image quality and dose, clinical tomosynthesis, functional breast imaging, breast computed tomography, computer-aided diagnosis and image processing, tomosynthesis reconstruction, and breast density.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Biomedical Image Registration, WBIR 2012, held in Nashville, Tennessee, USA, in July 2012. The 20 full papers and 11 poster papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 44 submitted papers. They full papers are organized in the following topical sections: multiple image sets; brain; non-rigid anatomy; and frameworks and similarity measures.
Inspite of considerable progress in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, pulmonary embolism has remained a threat to the patient and a challenge for the physician both in conservative, as well as in operative disciplines. Pulmonary embolism is according to pathology observations still the most frequently overlooked clinical diagnosis. In 1-5 per 100 autopsies, clinically unexpected pulmonary emboli are found. In addition, the sequelae of recurrent pulmonary emboli, the syndrome of pulmonary hypertension with or without right heart failure, continues to present a therapeutic dilemma - and no progress is in sight. In intensive care medicine pulmonary embolism, either acute, massive, and/or recur- rent, continues to be both a therapeutic as well as a preventive challenge mobilizing pharmacotherapeutic, catheter-interventional, and operative resources. Diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive strategies are currently in use. Their basis, however, seems surprisingly thin, as far as our knowledge on the natural course of this chameleon-like illness with and without fibrinolytic, anticoagulative, catheter or opera- tive treatment is concerned. A large European multicenter register has been initiated by Professors Kasper and Geibel with the help of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceutics, in order to better describe the natural course of pulmonary embolism under current treat- ment modalities. Furthermore, recently the clinical significance of the valve patent foramen ovale as a source of paradoxical emboli is beginning to be better understood. Many concepts therefore require revision.
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