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This volume highlights the remarkable new developments in brain imaging, including those that apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET), that allow us to non invasively study the living human brain in health and in disease. These technological advances have allowed us to obtain new and powerful insights into the structure and function of the healthy brain as it develops across the life cycle, as well as the molecular make up of brain systems and circuits as they develop and change with age. New brain imaging technologies have also given us new insights into the causes of many common brain disorders, including ADHD, schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer's disease, which collectively affect a large segment of the population. These new insights have major implications for understanding and treating these brain disorders, and are providing clinicians with the first ever set of biomarkers that can be used to guide diagnosis and monitor treatment effects. The advances in brain imaging over the last 20 years, summarized in this volume, represent a major advance in modern biomedical sciences.
This book covers peripheral vascular anatomy, hemodynamics, physics, and peripheral vascular doppler ultrasound testing. Table of Contents: Introduction Hemodynamics Doppler Physics Arteries of the Extremities Waveform Analysis Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) Brachial Artery Pressure for Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) Study Posterior Tibial Artery Waveform and Pressure for ABI Study Segmental Pressures Study Toe Brachial Index (TBI) Toe Pressure Study Venous Reflux Study Pulse Volume Arterial Studies (PVR) Instrumentation Doppler Testing Equipment and Supplies ABI Form Insurance Reimbursement Nutrition for Mild PAD Exercise Desktop Yoga Healthy Gourmet Wheat, Gluten, Dairy, Egg, and Yeast, Free Recipes Biometabolic Analysis
Terahertz biomedical imaging has become an area of interest due to its ability to simultaneously acquire both image and spectral information. Terahertz imaging systems are being commercialized, with increasing trials performed in a biomedical setting. As a result, advanced digital image processing algorithms are needed to assist screening, diagnosis, and treatment. "Pattern Recognition and Tomographic Reconstruction" presents these necessary algorithms, which will play a critical role in the accurate detection of abnormalities present in biomedical imaging. Terhazertz tomographic imaging and detection technology contributes to the ability to identify opaque objects with clear boundaries, and would be useful to both in vivo and ex vivo environments, making this book a must-read for anyone in the field of biomedical engineering and digital imaging.
The main purpose of this book is to present emerging neuroimaging data in order to define the role of primary and secondary structural and hemodynamic disturbances in different phases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to analyze the potential of diffusion tensor MRI, tractography and CT perfusion imaging in evaluating the dynamics of TBI. The authors present a new MRI classification of brain stem and hemispheric cortical/subcortical damage localization that is of significant prognostic value. New data are provided regarding the pathogenesis and dynamics of diffuse and focal brain injuries and qualitative and quantitative changes in the brain white matter tracts. It is shown that diffuse axonal injury can be considered a clinical model of multidimensional "split brain" with commissural, association and projection fiber disorders. The book will be of interest for neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists and others with an interest in the subject.
PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects -- such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism -- are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.
Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonology is a definitive reference to imaging and differential diagnosis for pediatric pulmonology. Diseases and disorders seen in everyday clinical practice are featured, including infections, developmental disorders, airway abnormalities, diffuse lung diseases, focal lung diseases, and lung tumors. Organized to support the clinical thought process, the text begins with a series of clinical algorithms that provide a starting point for formulating a diagnosis. The physician will be able to identify the differentials by symptom complex and accordingly determine what test would be effective and how to proceed. The balance of the book is image-based and presents a comprehensive, multi-modality approach, with an emphasis on plain film and cross-sectional imaging. The imaging sections are correlated with pathology and clinical findings to help readers learn what the modality of choice can enable them to see. Edited by Robert H. Cleveland, MD, Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School and Chief of the Division of Diagnostic Radiology at Children's Hospital Boston, the book includes a talented group of associate editors and contributing authors who are noted experts in pathology, pulmonology, and radiology, making Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonology an ideal reference for all physicians involved in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric pulmonary issues.
This book is about a new surgical procedure, surgical hysteroscopy, for out-patients. It is both a diagnostic approach and a surgical procedure. As a simple and non-aggresive technique, it is a "patient-friendly" procedure with a little surgical trauma as it avoids hysterectomy or laparotomy procedures thus preserving the genital tract. It is the leading procedure in the treatment of uterine bleeding. It has also proved to be an essential investigation technique of in the assessment of infertility. This book is the result of surgical practice and teaching experience in the field of hysteroscopic procedures.
The major progress in computer vision allows us to make extensive use of medical imaging data to provide us better diagnosis, treatment and predication of diseases. Computer vision can exploit texture, shape, contour and prior knowledge along with contextual information from image sequence and provide 3D and 4D information that helps with better human understanding. Many powerful tools have been available through image segmentation, machine learning, pattern classification, tracking, reconstruction to bring much needed quantitative information not easily available by trained human specialists. The aim of the book is for both medical imaging professionals to acquire and interpret the data, and computer vision professionals to provide enhanced medical information by using computer vision techniques. The final objective is to benefit the patients without adding to the already high medical costs.
PNL is the gold standard for the management of large and/or otherwise complex renal stones. Since its introduction in the seventies PNL has undergone considerable evolution, mainly driven by the improvement in access techniques, endoscopic instrument technology, lithotripsy devices and drainage management. The conventional prone position for PNL has been challenged in the last two decades by a variety of modifications, including the supine and Galdakao-modified supine Valdivia positions, which make simultaneous retrograde working access to the collecting system possible and have proven anesthesiological advantages. The Galdakao-modified supine Valdivia position allowed the development of ECIRS (Endoscopic Combined IntraRenal Surgery), a technique exploiting a combined antegrade and retrograde approach to the upper urinary tract, using both rigid and flexible endoscopes with the related accessories. The synergistic teamwork of ECIRS provides a safe and efficient, minimally-invasive procedure for the treatment of all kinds of urolithiasis. The aim of this book is to share with the urologic community worldwide our experience, our standardization of all the steps, and tips and tricks for the procedure.
"Quick Reference Guide for Ob & Gyn Sonography" is an essential book for students, practicing sonographers, residents and ob/gyn physicians. Measurements, terms and abbreviations, scanning tips, helpful Spanish phrases, and much more Small enough to fit in your scrub pocket.
The area of molecular imaging has matured over the past decade and is still growing rapidly. Many concepts developed for molecular biology and cellular imaging have been successfully translated to in vivo imaging of intact organisms. Molecular imaging enables the study of processes at a molecular level in their full biological context. Due to the high specificity of the molecular readouts the approach bears a high potential for diagnostics. It is fair to say that molecular imaging has become an indispensable tool for biomedical research and drug discovery and development today.This volume familiarizes the reader with the concepts of imaging and molecular imaging in particular. Basic principles of imaging technologies, reporter moieties for the various imaging modalities, and the design of targeted probes are described in the first part. The second part illustrates how these tools can be used to visualize relevant molecular events in the living organism. Topics covered include the studies of the biodistribution of reporter probes and drugs, visualization of the expression of biomolecules such as receptors and enzymes, and how imaging can be used for analyzing consequences of the interaction of a ligand or a drug with its molecular target by visualizing signal transduction, or assessing the metabolic, physiological, or structural response of the organism studied. The final chapter deals with visualization of cell migration, for example in the context of cell therapies.The second edition covers novel developments over recent years, in particular regarding imaging technologies (hybrid techniques) and novel reporter concepts. Novel biomedical applications have been included, where appropriate. All the chapters have been thoroughly reworked and the artwork updated.
A MCQ book provides oppurtunity for in-depth analysis physics of MRI and USG.
With the increasing interest in the experimental and clinical application of molecular imaging many institutions create research groups or interdisciplinary centers focussing on the complex development process of this new methodology. The aim of this textbook of molecular imaging is to provide an up to date review of this rapidly growing field and to discuss basic methodological aspects necessary for the interpretation of experimental and clinical results. Emphasis is placed on the interplay of imaging technology and probe development, since the physical properties of the imaging approach need to be closely linked with the biologic application of the probe (i.e. nanoparticles and microbubbles). Various chemical strategies are discussed and related to the biologic applications. Reporter-gene imaging is beeing addressed not only in experimental protocols, but also first clinical applications are discussed. Finally, strategies of imaging to characterize apoptosis and angiogenesis are described and discussed in the context of possible clinical translation.
Nous sommes entrA(c) dans une civilisation de l'image et du numA(c)rique. L'imagerie mA(c)dicale numA(c)rique offre au clinicien des outils nouveaux, riches de promesses, et en pleine A(c)volution. Or ces techniques ne peuvent se concevoir sans utilisation de l'informatique. Mais cette imagerie utilise une information complexe, volumineuse, non structurA(c)e, souvent multimA(c)dia. Elle pose donc A l'informaticien des problA]mes difficiles qu'il ne sait pas encore parfaitement rA(c)soudre. Par consA(c)quent, la recherche d'outils informatique adaptA(c)s et la determination de leur meilleur mode d'utilisation est un domaine riche de possibilitA(c) de collaboration entre mA(c)decins et informaticiens. La premiA]re confA(c)rence organisA(c)e dans le cadre des Entretiens de Lyon a permis A des informaticiens et A des mA(c)decins, ensemble, d'une part d'A(c)tudier les aspects informatiques des bases de donnA(c)es d'imagerie mA(c)dicale, d'autre part de rechercher comment faire A(c)voluer les systA]mes d'imagerie mA(c)dicale (PACS) vers une intA(c)gration dans des systA]mes d'information hospitaliers, d'autre part encore de dA(c)terminer par quelles techniques pourraient Aatre obtenues et mieux visualisA(c)es des images mA(c)dicales notamment tridimensionnelles, enfin d'A(c)tudier les systA]mes experts mA(c)dicaux et les problA]mes d'intelligence artificielle appliquA(c)e A la mA(c)decine.
This book is an introduction to diagnostic radiology (including nuclear medicine). Written in a user-friendly format, it takes into account that radiology is divided into many subspecialties that constitute a universe of their own. The book is subdivided into ten sections, such as musculoskeletal, thoracic, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and breast imaging. Each chapter is presented with an introduction of the subspecialty and ten case studies with illustrations and comments from anatomical, physiopathological and radiological standpoints and with bibliographic recommendations. This book is aimed at radiologists, radiology residents, medical students, nurses, technicians, and anybody else beginning to work in the radiological Written for: Medical students, residents of radiology, nurses, technicians
Exploring a wide spectrum of oncologic imaging technologies with current and future applications ranging from ultrasound and PET to MRI, this reference analyzes recent developments concerning every available imaging technique-furnishing the most up-to-date research on technological advances in cancer imaging and their potential impact on patient care and treatment.
In this book the authors describe their original research on the potential of both standard and high-resolution electroencephalography (EEG) for analyzing brain activity in response to TV advertising. When engineering techniques, neuroscience concepts and marketing stimuli converge in one research field, known as neuromarketing, various theoretical and practical aspects need to be considered. The book introduces and discusses those aspects in detail, while showing several experiments performed by the authors during their attempts to measure both the cognitive activity and emotional involvement of the test subjects. In these experiments, the authors apply simultaneous EEG, galvanic skin response and heart rate monitoring, and show how significant variations of these variables can be associated with attention to, memorization or enjoyment of the presented stimuli. In particular, this book shows the central role of statistical analysis in recovering significant information on the scalp and cortical areas involved, along with variations of activity in the autonomous nervous system. From an economic and marketing perspective, the aim of this work is to promote a better understanding of how mass consumer advertising of (established) brands affects brain systems. From a neuroscience perspective, the broader goal is to provide a better understanding of both the neural mechanisms underlying the impact of affect and cognition on memory, and the neural correlates of choice and decision-making. => Please download the extra material for this book http://extras.springer.com
Intraoperative imaging technologies have taken an ever-increasing role in the daily practice of neurosurgeons and the increasing attention and interest necessitated international interaction and collaboration. The Intraoperative Imaging Society was formed in 2007. This book brings together highlights from the second meeting of the Intraoperative Imaging Society, which took place in Istanbul-Turkey from June 14 to 17, 2009. Included within the contents of the book is an overview of the emergence and development of the intraoperative imaging technology as well as a glimpse on where the technology is heading. This is followed by in detail coverage of intraoperative MRI technology and sections on intraoperative CT and ultrasonography. There are also sections on multimodality integration, intraoperative robotics and other intraoperative technologies. We believe that this book will provide an up-to date and comprehensive general overview of the current intraoperative imaging technology as well as detailed discussions on individual techniques and clinical results.
Mammography is an important tool for detecting breast cancer at an early stage. When coupled with appropriate treatment, early detection can reduce breast cancer mortality. At the request of Congress, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) commissioned a study to examine the current practice of mammography and breast cancer detection, with a focus on the FDAa (TM)s oversight via the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA), to identify areas in need of improvement. Enacted in 1993, MQSA provides a general framework for ensuring national quality standards in facilities performing screening mammography, requires that each mammography facility be accredited and certified, and mandates that facilities will undergo annual inspections. This book recommends strategies for achieving continued progress in assuring mammography quality, including changes to MQSA regulation, as well as approaches that do not fall within the purview of MQSA. Specifically, this book provides recommendations aimed at improving mammography interpretation; revising MQSA regulations, inspections, and enforcement; ensuring an adequate workforce for breast cancer screening and diagnosis; and improving breast imaging quality beyond mammography.
Liver metastases are a frequent and often fatal occurrence in cancer patients, particularly those with malignancies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While recent improvements in surgical techniques and a more aggressive approach to resection of liver metastases have improved long term survival for some patients, most patients with hepatic metastases still succumb to their disease. To improve these dismal statistics, a better understanding of the biology of liver metastasis, particularly the early stages that can be targeted for prevention, is essential.
Once cancer cells enter the liver, several different scenarios may occur. The cancer cells may be immediately destroyed by local defence mechanisms, they may enter a state of dormancy as solitary cells and never produce a metastasis, initiate a short-lived process of proliferation that is aborted before a metastasis is established or actively proliferate to form macrometastases. The chapters in Part I of this book provide insight into the cellular/molecular mechanisms that determine which of these scenarios prevails. Written by experts researchers in the filed of metastasis, these chapters provide state-of-the art reviews on the cellular and molecular processes that impact the early stages of the metastatic process. The unique microenvironment of the liver, its various anatomical, cellular and molecular features and the impact they have on metastasis are highlighted. In addition, the role of inflammation (pre-existing and tumor-induced), host innate and adaptive immune responses, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and the unique molecular signatures of metastatic tumor cells are reviewed with an underscoring of the translational implications of the current state of knowledge.
Against this background, the chapters in Part II of the book provide critical reviews on major aspects of the clinical management of hepatic metastases. These include imaging strategies, surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment approaches and the use of targeted biological therapeutics such as anti-angiogenic drugs as treatment modalities.
By combining information on biological and clinical aspects of liver metastasis, this volume will serve as an excellent resource for scientists, clinicians, clinician/ scientists and trainees in the domains of oncology, surgical oncology, hepatobiliary physiology and radiology. "
In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.
Biomedical imaging is a relatively young discipline that started with Conrad Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of the x-ray in 1895. X-ray imaging was rapidly adopted in hospitals around the world. However, it was the advent of computerized data and image processing that made revolutionary new imaging modalities possible. Today, cross-sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of the organs inside the human body is possible with unprecedented speed, detail and quality. This book provides an introduction into the principles of image formation of key medical imaging modalities: X-ray projection imaging, x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and radionuclide imaging. Recent developments in optical imaging are also covered. For each imaging modality, the introduction into the physical principles and sources of contrast is provided, followed by the methods of image formation, engineering aspects of the imaging devices, and a discussion of strengths and limitations of the modality. With this book, the reader gains a broad foundation of understanding and knowledge how today's medical imaging devices operate. In addition, the chapters in this book can serve as an entry point for the in-depth study of individual modalities by providing the essential basics of each modality in a comprehensive and easy-to-understand manner. As such, this book is equally attractive as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate biomedical imaging classes and as a reference and self-study guide for more specialized in-depth studies.
Podrid's Real-World ECGs: A Master's Approach to the Art and Practice of Clinical ECG Interpretation Podrid's Real-World ECGs combines traditional case-based workbooks with a versatile Web-based program to offer students, health care professionals, and physicians an indispensable resource for developing and honing the technical skills and systematic approach needed to interpret ECGs with confidence. ECGs from real patient cases offer a complete and in-depth learning experience by focusing on fundamental electrophysiologic properties and clinical concepts as well as detailed discussion of important diagnostic findings and relevant management decisions. Six comprehensive volumes encompass more than 600 individual case studies--plus an online repository of hundreds more interactive case studies (www.realworldECGs.com)--that include feedback and discussion about the important waveforms and clinical decision-making involved. From an introductory volume that outlines the approaches and tools utilized in the analysis of all ECGs to subsequent volumes covering particular disease entities for which the ECG is useful, readers will take away the in-depth knowledge needed to successfully interpret the spectrum of routine to challenging ECGs they will encounter in their own clinical practice. Volume 2, Myocardial Abnormalities, breaks down the essential skills necessary for diagnosing acute myocardial ischemia as well as acute and chronic myocardial infarction--arguably the most important component of the ECG armamentarium across the spectrum of health care professions. It also demonstrates the skills needed for the diagnosis of myocardial hypertrophy, atrial abnormality, and pericarditis.
In the diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders, the use of neuroimaging has expanded widely and has been an exciting, important modality for unlocking the causes of abnormal motor control. With ever improving machinery, data collection techniques and analysis methods, researchers are now being presented with an exponentially increasing amount of data that they must wade through and interpret in the context of existing knowledge about movement disorders. In Neuroimaging in Movement Disorders, the editors have produced a gold-standard resource that brings together an impressive international group of authorities in their respective fields to outline the current state of knowledge. Controversies, such as conflicting findings and methodological limitations, are covered and provide the reader with a comprehensive yet pragmatic understanding of the state of science. The chapters offer both comprehensive reviews of various neuroimaging methods and also more in-depth summaries of the contributions made by neuroimaging in individual movement disorders. Although many of the neuroimaging methods that are discussed have not been routinely used in clinical practice, the authors skillfully provide the reader with adequate detail to understand the requirements for using these methods and in some cases even the starting knowledge to begin local implementation. Neuroimaging in Movement Disorders is an indispensable reference that will be of value to all physicians and researchers involved in the care of patients with movement disorders.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference
proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Statistical
Atlases and Computational Models of the Heart: Imaging and
Modelling Challenges, STACOM 2012, held in conjunction with MICCAI
2012, in Nice, France, in October 2012.
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