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We live in an incredible period in history. The Computer Revolution may be even more life-changing than the Industrial Revolution. We can do things with computers that could never be done before, and computers can do things for us that could never be done before. But our love of computers should not cloud our thinking about their limitations. We are told that computers are smarter than humans and that data mining can identify previously unknown truths, or make discoveries that will revolutionize our lives. Our lives may well be changed, but not necessarily for the better. Computers are very good at discovering patterns, but are useless in judging whether the unearthed patterns are sensible because computers do not think the way humans think. We fear that super-intelligent machines will decide to protect themselves by enslaving or eliminating humans. But the real danger is not that computers are smarter than us, but that we think computers are smarter than us and, so, trust computers to make important decisions for us. The AI Delusion explains why we should not be intimidated into thinking that computers are infallible, that data-mining is knowledge discovery, and that black boxes should be trusted.
Are psychometric tests valid for a new reality of artificial intelligence systems, technology-enhanced humans, and hybrids yet to come? Are the Turing Test, the ubiquitous CAPTCHAs, and the various animal cognition tests the best alternatives? In this fascinating and provocative book, Jose Hernandez-Orallo formulates major scientific questions, integrates the most significant research developments, and offers a vision of the universal evaluation of cognition. By replacing the dominant anthropocentric stance with a universal perspective where living organisms are considered as a special case, long-standing questions in the evaluation of behavior can be addressed in a wider landscape. Can we derive task difficulty intrinsically? Is a universal g factor - a common general component for all abilities - theoretically possible? Using algorithmic information theory as a foundation, the book elaborates on the evaluation of perceptual, developmental, social, verbal and collective features and critically analyzes what the future of intelligence might look like.
'A thought-provoking look at the technology that is changing the world of business and the benefits, pitfalls, and challenges for society as a whole.' - Kenneth I. Chenault, former chief executive officer, American Express Company Throughout the twentieth century, technology and economics drove a dominant logic: bigger was almost always better. It was smart to scale up - to take advantage of classic economies of scale. But in the unscaled economy, size and scale have become a liability. Today's most successful companies - Uber, Airbnb, Amazon, Salesforce - have defied the traditional 'economies of scale' approach by renting scale instead of spending vast amounts of money building it. And a new generation of upstarts is using artificial intelligence to automate tasks that once required expensive investment, enabling them to grow big without the bloat of giant organisations. In Unscaled, Hemant Taneja convincingly shows how the unscaled economy is remaking massive, deeply-rooted industries and opening up fantastic possibilities for entrepreneurs, imaginative companies and resourceful individuals. Beyond that, it can be the model for solving some of the world's greatest problems, including climate change and soaring healthcare costs, potentially reversing many of the ills brought on by mass industrialization. The unscale wave has only just started. To succeed in business today, companies, CEOs and leaders everywhere must unlearn what they have been taught - they must embrace an unscaled mindset.
Written by world-class leaders in type-2 fuzzy logic control, this book offers a self-contained reference for both researchers and students. The coverage provides both background and an extensive literature survey on fuzzy logic and related type-2 fuzzy control. It also includes research questions, experiment and simulation results, and downloadable computer programs on an associated website. This key resource will prove useful to students and engineers wanting to learn type-2 fuzzy control theory and its applications.
We live in a world increasingly ruled by technology; we seem as governed by technology as we do by laws and regulations. Frighteningly often, the influence of technology in and on our lives goes completely unchallenged by citizens and governments. We comfort ourselves with the soothing refrain that technology has no morals and can display no prejudice, and it's only the users of technology who distort certain aspects of it. But is this statement actually true? Dr Robert Smith thinks it is dangerously untrue in the modern era. Having worked in the field of artificial intelligence for over 30 years, Smith reveals the mounting evidence that the mechanical actors in our lives do indeed have, or at least express, morals: they're just not the morals of the progressive modern society that we imagined we were moving towards. Instead, as we are just beginning to see - in the US elections and Brexit to name but a few - there are increasing incidences of machine bigotry, greed and the crass manipulation of our basest instincts. It is easy to assume that these are the result of programmer prejudices or the product of dark forces manipulating the masses through the network of the Internet. But what if there is something more fundamental and explicitly mechanical at play, something inherent within technology itself? This book demonstrates how non-scientific ideas have been encoded deep into our technological infrastructure. Offering a rigorous, fresh perspective on how technology has brought us to this place, Rage Inside the Machine challenges the long-held assumption that technology is an apolitical and amoral force. Shedding light on little-known historical stories and investigating the complex connections between scientific philosophy, institutional prejudice and new technology, this book offers a new, honest and more truly scientific vision of ourselves.
Science world luminary John Brockman assembles twenty-five of the most important scientific minds, people who have been thinking about the field artificial intelligence for most of their careers, for an unparalleled round-table examination about mind, thinking, intelligence and what it means to be human.
More than sixty years ago, mathematician-philosopher Norbert Wiener published a book on the place of machines in society that ended with a warning: "we shall never receive the right answers to our questions unless we ask the right questions.... The hour is very late, and the choice of good and evil knocks at our door."
In the wake of advances in unsupervised, self-improving machine learning, a small but influential community of thinkers is considering Wiener's words again. In Possible Minds, John Brockman gathers their disparate visions of where AI might be taking us.
The fruit of the long history of Brockman's profound engagement with the most important scientific minds who have been thinking about AI--from Alison Gopnik and David Deutsch to Frank Wilczek and Stephen Wolfram--Possible Minds is an ideal introduction to the landscape of crucial issues AI presents. The collision between opposing perspectives is salutary and exhilarating; some of these figures, such as computer scientist Stuart Russell, Skype co-founder Jaan Tallinn, and physicist Max Tegmark, are deeply concerned with the threat of AI, including the existential one, while others, notably robotics entrepreneur Rodney Brooks, philosopher Daniel Dennett, and bestselling author Steven Pinker, have a very different view. Serious, searching and authoritative, Possible Minds lays out the intellectual landscape of one of the most important topics of our time.
Over the coming decades, Artificial Intelligence will profoundly impact the way we live, work, wage war, play, seek a mate, educate our young, and care for our elderly. It is likely to greatly increase our aggregate wealth, but it will also upend our labor markets, reshuffle our social order, and strain our private and public institutions. Eventually it may alter how we see our place in the universe, as machines pursue goals independent of their creators and outperform us in domains previously believed to be the sole dominion of humans. Whether we regard them as conscious or unwitting, revere them as a new form of life or dismiss them as mere clever appliances, is beside the point. They are likely to play an increasingly critical and intimate role in many aspects of our lives. The emergence of systems capable of independent reasoning and action raises serious questions about just whose interests they are permitted to serve, and what limits our society should place on their creation and use. Deep ethical questions that have bedeviled philosophers for ages will suddenly arrive on the steps of our courthouses. Can a machine be held accountable for its actions? Should intelligent systems enjoy independent rights and responsibilities, or are they simple property? Who should be held responsible when a self-driving car kills a pedestrian? Can your personal robot hold your place in line, or be compelled to testify against you? If it turns out to be possible to upload your mind into a machine, is that still you? The answers may surprise you.
Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools -- chaos, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms -- for analyzing complexity and complex systems.There are updates throughout the book as well. These take into account important advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. The chapter "Economic Reality" has also been revised to reflect a change in emphasis in Simon's thinking about the respective roles of organizations and markets in economic systems.
A new vision of the future of games and game design, enabled by AI. Can games measure intelligence? How will artificial intelligence inform games of the future? In Playing Smart, Julian Togelius explores the connections between games and intelligence to offer a new vision of future games and game design. Video games already depend on AI. We use games to test AI algorithms, challenge our thinking, and better understand both natural and artificial intelligence. In the future, Togelius argues, game designers will be able to create smarter games that make us smarter in turn, applying advanced AI to help design games. In this book, he tells us how. Games are the past, present, and future of artificial intelligence. In 1948, Alan Turing, one of the founding fathers of computer science and artificial intelligence, handwrote a program for chess. Today we have IBM's Deep Blue and DeepMind's AlphaGo, and huge efforts go into developing AI that can play such arcade games as Pac-Man. Programmers continue to use games to test and develop AI, creating new benchmarks for AI while also challenging human assumptions and cognitive abilities. Game design is at heart a cognitive science, Togelius reminds us-when we play or design a game, we plan, think spatially, make predictions, move, and assess ourselves and our performance. By studying how we play and design games, Togelius writes, we can better understand how humans and machines think. AI can do more for game design than providing a skillful opponent. We can harness it to build game-playing and game-designing AI agents, enabling a new generation of AI-augmented games. With AI, we can explore new frontiers in learning and play.
With the increasing public interest in artificial intelligence (AI), there is also increasing interest in learning about the benefits that AI can deliver to society. This book focuses on research advances in AI that benefit the conservation of wildlife, forests, coral reefs, rivers, and other natural resources. It presents how the joint efforts of researchers in computer science, ecology, economics, and psychology help address the goals of the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Written at a level accessible to conservation professionals and AI researchers, the book offers both an overview of the field and an in-depth view of how AI is being used to understand patterns in wildlife poaching and enhance patrol efforts in response, covering research advances, field tests and real-world deployments. The book also features efforts in other major conservation directions, including protecting natural resources, ecosystem monitoring, and bio-invasion management through the use of game theory, machine learning, and optimization.
Genetic and Evolutionary Computation: Medical Applications provides an overview of the range of GEC techniques being applied to medicine and healthcare in a context that is relevant not only for existing GEC practitioners but also those from other disciplines, particularly health professionals. There is rapidly increasing interest in applying evolutionary computation to problems in medicine, but to date no text that introduces evolutionary computation in a medical context. By explaining the basic introductory theory, typical application areas and detailed implementation in one coherent volume, this book will appeal to a wide audience from software developers to medical scientists. Centred around a set of nine case studies on the application of GEC to different areas of medicine, the book offers an overview of applications of GEC to medicine, describes applications in which GEC is used to analyse medical images and data sets, derive advanced models, and suggest diagnoses and treatments, finally providing hints about possible future advancements of genetic and evolutionary computation in medicine. * Explores the rapidly growing area of genetic and evolutionary computation in context of its viable and exciting payoffs in the field of medical applications. * Explains the underlying theory, typical applications and detailed implementation. * Includes general sections about the applications of GEC to medicine and their expected future developments, as well as specific sections on applications of GEC to medical imaging, analysis of medical data sets, advanced modelling, diagnosis and treatment. * Features a wide range of tables, illustrations diagrams and photographs.
Whilst most research concentrates on the imagined future of robotics, this book brings together a group of international researchers to explore the different ways that robots and humans engage with one another at this point in history. Robotic design is advancing at an incredible pace, and consequently the role of robots has expanded beyond mechanical work in the industrial sector to the social and domestic environment. From kitchen table pets in the shape of dinosaurs or baby seals, to robot arms that assist with eating, to self-driving cars, this book explores the psychological impact of robotic engagement, especially in domestic settings. Each chapter explores a different aspect of humanoid robotics, for example, the relationship between robotics and gender, citizenship, moral agency, ethics, inequality, and psychological development, as well as exploring the growing role of robots in education, care work, and intimate relationships. Drawing on research from across the fields of psychology, anthropology, and philosophy, this ground-breaking volume discusses the emerging social side of robotics. By examining our relationship with robots now, this book offers a new and innovative opportunity for understanding our future with robots and robotic culture. Designing Robots, Designing Humans will be interest to researchers of artificial intelligence and humanoid robotics, as well as researchers from cognitive and social psychology, philosophy, computer science, anthropology, linguistics and engineering backgrounds.
This book discusses in-depth the concept of distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) and its application to cognitive communications In this book, the authors present an overview of cognitive communications, encompassing both cognitive radio and cognitive networks, and also other application areas such as cognitive acoustics. The book also explains the specific rationale for the integration of different forms of distributed artificial intelligence into cognitive communications, something which is often neglected in many forms of technical contributions available today. Furthermore, the chapters are divided into four disciplines: wireless communications, distributed artificial intelligence, regulatory policy and economics and implementation. The book contains contributions from leading experts (academia and industry) in the field. Key Features: * Covers the broader field of cognitive communications as a whole, addressing application to communication systems in general (e.g. cognitive acoustics and Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) * Illustrates how different DAI based techniques can be used to self-organise the radio spectrum * Explores the regulatory, policy and economic issues of cognitive communications in the context of secondary spectrum access * Discusses application and implementation of cognitive communications techniques in different application areas (e. g. Cognitive Femtocell Networks (CFN) * Written by experts in the field from both academia and industry Cognitive Communications will be an invaluable guide for research community (PhD students, researchers) in the areas of wireless communications, and development engineers involved in the design and development of mobile, portable and fixed wireless systems., wireless network design engineer. Undergraduate and postgraduate students on elective courses in electronic engineering or computer science, and the research and engineering community will also find this book of interest.
Inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil examines the next step in the evolutionary process of the union of human and machine. Kurzweil foresees the dawning of a new civilization where we will be able to transcend our biological limitations and amplify our creativity, combining our biological skills with the vastly greater capacity, speed and knowledge-sharing abilities of our creations. In practical terms, human ageing and illness will be reversed; pollution will be stopped and world hunger and poverty will be solved. There will be no clear distinction between human and machine, real reality and virtual reality. 'The Singularity is Near' offers a view of the coming age that is both a dramatic culmination of centuries of technological ingenuity and a genuinely inspiring vision of our ultimate destiny.
The gripping inside story of the race to build conversationally capable computers Chat with the author: ask your Alexa device to `open the voice computing book' __________________ The next great technological disruption is coming. The titans of Silicon Valley are racing to build the last, best computer that the world will ever need. They know that whoever successfully creates it will revolutionise our relationship with technology - and make billions of dollars in the process. They call it conversational AI. Computers that can speak and think like humans do may seem like the stuff of science fiction, but they are rapidly moving towards reality. In Talk to Me, veteran tech journalist James Vlahos meets the researchers at Google, Amazon and Apple who are leading the way to a voice computing revolution. He explores how voice tech will transform every sector of society: handing untold new powers to businesses, upending traditional notions of privacy, revolutionising access to information, and fundamentally altering the way we understand human consciousness. And he even tries to understand the significance of the revolution firsthand - by building a chatbot version of his terminally ill father. Vlahos's research leads him to one fundamental question: What happens when our computers become as articulate, compassionate, and creative as we are? __________________ `Brilliant and essential . . . You'll find insights and meaning on every page, and you'll keep turning them. This book is dynamite.' NICHOLAS THOMPSON, editor-in-chief of Wired `Conversational AI is a genuine paradigm shift in our experience with technology. Vlahos brings the whole story to life . . . A thoughtful and enjoyable read.' TOM GRUBER, co-creator of Siri `The baton of disruption has been passed from the smart phone to voice, and Vlahos helps make sense of this tectonic shift.' SCOTT GALLOWAY, author of The Four `Voice computing is revolutionising the way we interact with our devices. Talk to Me offers a road map showing how we got to this point and the opportunities and risks that lie ahead.' MARTIN FORD, author of The Rise of the Robots `James Vlahos has written an excellent book on how voice computing has become more and more of a growing presence in our everyday world.' RAY KURZWEIL, author of The Singularity Is Near
Through 12 thought-provoking questions, a philosopher and a scientist explore the real-world ramifications of transhumanism - the tech movement that seeks to improve the human condition through science. Should we enhance the human condition with technology? Does anyone really want to live for a thousand years? Could AI end up destroying mankind? Discover the incredible potential of mankind's near future as a Doctor and a Philosopher debate the big questions surrounding the incredible potential of transhumanism. This movement - that seeks to improve the human condition through science - has fast become one of the most controversial the scientific community have ever faced. As scientists in California make great strides in using advanced technology to enhance human intellect and physiology, the ethical and moral questions surrounding its possibilities have never been more pressing. Should we change the way we reproduce? Could we enhance the human body with technology to the point where we are all technically cyborgs? Is it possible to make love to a robot? Doctor and entrepreneur Laurent Alexandre and tech-philosopher Jean Michel Besnier go head to head on the big questions in an entertaining and thought-provoking debate on the fundamental principles of transhumanism.
This book provides a reference guide for researchers, scientists and industrialists working in the area of soft computing, and highlights the latest advances in and applications of soft computing techniques in multidisciplinary areas. Gathering papers presented at the International Conference on Soft Computing: Theories and Applications (SoCTA 2016), which was held in Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, on December 28-30, 2016, it focuses on applying soft computing to solve real-life problems arising in various domains, from medical and healthcare to supply chain management, image processing and cryptanalysis. The term soft computing represents an umbrella term for computational techniques like fuzzy logic, neural networks and nature inspired algorithms. In the past few decades, there has been an exponential rise in the application of soft computing techniques to address complex and intricate problems in diverse spheres of life. The versatility of these techniques has made them a favourite among scientists and researchers alike.
Artificial intelligence, including machine learning, has emerged as a transformational science and engineering discipline. Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Computational Agents presents AI using a coherent framework to study the design of intelligent computational agents. By showing how the basic approaches fit into a multidimensional design space, readers learn the fundamentals without losing sight of the bigger picture. The new edition also features expanded coverage on machine learning material, as well as on the social and ethical consequences of AI and ML. The book balances theory and experiment, showing how to link them together, and develops the science of AI together with its engineering applications. Although structured as an undergraduate and graduate textbook, the book's straightforward, self-contained style will also appeal to an audience of professionals, researchers, and independent learners. The second edition is well-supported by strong pedagogical features and online resources to enhance student comprehension.
The field of artificial intelligence (AI) and the law is on the cusp of a revolution that began with text analytic programs like IBM's Watson and Debater and the open-source information management architectures on which they are based. Today, new legal applications are beginning to appear and this book - designed to explain computational processes to non-programmers - describes how they will change the practice of law, specifically by connecting computational models of legal reasoning directly with legal text, generating arguments for and against particular outcomes, predicting outcomes and explaining these predictions with reasons that legal professionals will be able to evaluate for themselves. These legal applications will support conceptual legal information retrieval and allow cognitive computing, enabling a collaboration between humans and computers in which each does what it can do best. Anyone interested in how AI is changing the practice of law should read this illuminating work.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems, OPODIS 2014, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, in December 2014. The 32 papers presented together with two invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 98 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on consistency; distributed graph algorithms; fault tolerance; models; radio networks; robots; self-stabilization; shared data structures; shared memory; synchronization and universal construction.
This book constitutes the revised selected papers of the 9th Italian Workshop on Advances in Artificial Life and Evolutionary Computation held in Vietri sul Mare, Italy, in May 2014, in conjunction with the 24th Italian Workshop on Neural Networks, WIRN 2014. The 16 papers presented have been thoroughly reviewed and selected from 40 submissions. They cover the following topics: artificial neural networks; fuzzy inference systems; rough set; approximate reasoning; and optimization methods such as evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, particle swarm optimization.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, ICAART 2013, held in Barcelona, Spain, in February 2013. The 20 revised full papers presented together with one invited paper were carefully reviewed and selected from 269 submissions. The papers are organized in two topical sections on artificial intelligence and on agents.
This book describes the authors' investigations of computational sarcasm based on the notion of incongruity. In addition, it provides a holistic view of past work in computational sarcasm and the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Sarcastic text is a peculiar form of sentiment expression and computational sarcasm refers to computational techniques that process sarcastic text. To first understand the phenomenon of sarcasm, three studies are conducted: (a) how is sarcasm annotation impacted when done by non-native annotators? (b) How is sarcasm annotation impacted when the task is to distinguish between sarcasm and irony? And (c) can targets of sarcasm be identified by humans and computers. Following these studies, the book proposes approaches for two research problems: sarcasm detection and sarcasm generation. To detect sarcasm, incongruity is captured in two ways: `intra-textual incongruity' where the authors look at incongruity within the text to be classified (i.e., target text) and `context incongruity' where the authors incorporate information outside the target text. These approaches use machine-learning techniques such as classifiers, topic models, sequence labelling, and word embeddings. These approaches operate at multiple levels: (a) sentiment incongruity (based on sentiment mixtures), (b) semantic incongruity (based on word embedding distance), (c) language model incongruity (based on unexpected language model), (d) author's historical context (based on past text by the author), and (e) conversational context (based on cues from the conversation). In the second part of the book, the authors present the first known technique for sarcasm generation, which uses a template-based approach to generate a sarcastic response to user input. This book will prove to be a valuable resource for researchers working on sentiment analysis, especially as applied to automation in social media.
The past sixty years have witnessed astonishing bursts of growth in the field of Artificial Intelligence - the science and computational technologies that teach machines to sense, learn, reason and take action. AI is already changing our lives, in ways that benefit health, productivity and entertainment. Are we on the threshold of an AI-dominated world, in which humans will no longer be necessary?
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