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How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.
A dram of fine scotch can transport us to Scotland Highlands or Lowlands, coast or island from anywhere in the world. This fully illustrated book looks at the ingredients and processes, the distilleries, the famous whiskies, and the wealth of colourful tales that make scotch whisky what it is. Inside front: Scotch whisky: words redolent of Highland vistas and wind-blown coasts, carefully guarded family traditions and the living heritage of craft-based distilling. Yet despite these very specific associations it is also the world's most popular spirit, with new devotees flocking constantly from across the globe. Scotch Whisky looks at the history of the industry and drink - from moonlighters and Excisemen through prohibition up to recent competition from trendier clear spirits - and at what makes each malt whisky so unique: the various distilleries, the raw materials, the distillation and maturation, the sometimes minute variations that can make tremendous differences in flavor and aroma. Looking as well at grain whisky and blends, it is the only guide you will need to scotch and the scotch industry, whether touring distilleries or relaxing at home with a dram.
The first few s introduces the reader to the crop, its origin and distribution, varieties cultivated throughout the country and their characteristics. Later the trade of banana, both international and domestic, is explained along with the ways the fruit is consumed in different parts of the world. A exclusively deals with the nutritive and therapeutic values of banana followed by the post harvest aspects at length in seven s with all the latest scientific developments. The last three s explain about the processing and value addition including the waste/by-products utilization. The readers will find it comprehensive with all the information relevant to post harvest aspects of bananas and plantains.
Food Engineering & Technology: A Practice Book deals with objective type questions and answers. The book is aimed to provide number of questions related to almost all the main aspects of the Food Technology. Efforts have been made to cover wide range of topics in accordance to the syllabus of various competitive examinations like JRF, SRF, ARS, GATE, etc. It is expected that the book will be much sought by the students of Food Science/Technology/Engineering and related disciplines who can prepare themselves for both written as well as oral examinations. At the same time, this can be used as a readily available handbook for quick reference by practicing researchers/technologists and engineers. Besides faculty members involved in teaching Food Technology will find the book useful as a good question bank.
Concise Oxford Dictionary defines Resilience as recoiling; springing back; resuming its original shape after bending, stretching, compression etc. With five components of crop production -space, water, energy, light, nutrients- limiting, there are stresses on crops to perform at threshold input yielding optimum output. Droughts and floods, cold and heat waves, forest fires, landslides and mud slips, ice storms, dust storms, hailstorms, thunder clouds associated with lightening and sea level rise are throwing new challenges to farming. This dangerously narrow level of food base prompts to widen the base of grains, vegetables, fruits, spices, industrial crops, mushrooms and aromatic plants. The emphasis so far was more on terrestrial plants, forest plants and lesser on lower plants. The aquatic plants-fresh water, brackish water, marine- were not much explored for edible use except by Chinese and Japanese. Halophytes, bryophytes, ferns and sea weeds are so far climate resilient. The Indo-Burmese Centre of origin (Hindustan centre including North East) is abode of several plants of possible vegetable, fruit and spicy value. The New Life styles consequent to migration for employment have brought newer food and dietary patterns. The urbanization and smaller family size are leading to pre-cooked foods and visitation to restaurants. s on bryophytes, halophytes, microalgae, chasmophytes, pseudocereals, medicinal mushrooms, speciality mushrooms, palmyrah palms, bramakamal, tropical tuber crops, dragon fruits, broad dhaniya, plants for dyes, kale and ornamental ginger are authored by eminent working scientists from 21 Universities and Research Institutes in Japan and India. The crops for the future especially climate resilient are to be identified and promoted in an emerging production scenario of new life style foods and convenient speciality foods getting attention by the new generation. The present book Climate Resilient Crops for the Future carries 17 s authored by men of eminence in respective areas concerning to the above areas.
Two thirds of U.S. adults are overweight, and childhood obesity and diabetes are on the rise. To reverse these health problems, experts are urging Americans to eat healthier. Food labels contain information to help consumers who want to make healthy food choices. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees federal labelling rules for 80 percent of foods. This book explores Food Labelling in the U.S., wherein the FDA needs to better leverage resources, improve oversight and effectively use available data to help consumers select healthy foods. FDA's oversight and enforcement efforts have not kept pace with the growing number of food firms. As a result, FDA has little assurance that companies comply with food labelling laws and regulations for, among other things, preventing false or misleading labelling. FDA has reported that limited resources and authorities challenge its efforts to carry out its food safety responsibilities -- these challenges also impact efforts to oversee food labelling laws. As discussed in this book, the FDA's Food Protection Plan cites the need for authority to, among other things, collect a re-inspection user fee, accredit third-party inspectors, and require recalls when voluntary recalls are not effective.
The papers included in this book have a broad coverage of the topics related to new technologies in functional foods and nutraceuticals, fruits and vegetables and their by-products as valuable ingredients for functional foods and nutraceuticals, potential bioactive components from various food sources, trends and development of nutraceuticals and functional foods as well as functional food and nutraceuticals as ingredients in the value addition for health promotion, standardization and quality control. This compilation helps to overcome the problems faced in exploring the potential of nutraceuticals in naturopathy and device strategies to encounter such problems.
This book explores the concern about the dramatic increase in childhood obesity in the United States which has prompted Congress to request that the Federal Trade Commission conduct a study of food and beverage marketing to children and adolescents. The results of that study - an analysis of 2006 expenditures and activities by 44 companies - are presented here. Included are not only the traditional measured media - television, radio, and print, but also activities on the Internet and other new electronic media, as well as previously unmeasured forms of marketing to young people, such as packaging, in-store advertising, event sponsorship, and promotions that take place in schools. Integrated advertising campaigns that combine several of these techniques and often involve cross-promotions - linking a food or beverage to a licensed character, a new movie, or a popular television program, dominate today's landscape of advertising to youth. The data presented in this book tell the story of food and beverage marketing in a year just preceding, or early in the development of, industry self-regulatory activities designed to reduce or change the profile of such marketing to children. Furthermore, this book, which compiles information not previously assembled or available to the research community, may serve as a benchmark for measuring future progress with respect to these initiatives.
The global food-supply chain is vulnerable to threats from a
variety of directions. Hence food security and safety remains a hot
topic worldwide in academic research arenas and food industry
practices. This book describes efforts from academia, government,
and industry to counter food terrorism and to protect the food
supply against any threat. In addition, it evaluates the global
food supply, production capabilities, and food availability during
and after disasters. Articles in the book assess food safety
emergencies, and the prevention of, and response to deliberate
contamination by microbial or chemical substances. Minimization of
health and economic risks following a terrorist act or
unintentional contamination is likewise discussed. The book also
examines novel preservation techniques, methods to produce safe
food products, and other concerns for ensuring a stable and safe
This is an update to the landmark guide to foodborne diseases and how to prevent them.It is estimated that more than 100 million foodrelated illnesses are recorded in the United States alone each year, from undercooked fastfood hamburgers to chicken contaminated with salmonella. Today, there are added worries due to increased potential for food contamination on the global market, the prospect of terrorism against the food supply, and the lack of adequate regulation of food products and handling. Food safety has become a daily concern. Written by renowned food expert Morton Satin, ""Food Alert!, Second Edition"" provides an up-to-date and comprehensive examination of the causes, dangers, and prevention of foodborne diseases.New and updated topics include: the deficiencies of modern food handling that allow germs and bacteria to thrive; protection and prevention from exposure to foodborne illnesses; immediate steps one should take if food poisoning strikes; the 20 most common causes of foodborne illnesses in the kitchen; increasingly complex food labeling; the growing threat of bioterrorism; new government, industry, and consumer advocacy initiatives; up-to-date information on inadequate reporting of foodborne disease incidents; and, more.
Canned foods are a significant component of the diet of most people in both developed and developing countries, offering a wider choice of nutritious, good quality foods in a convenient form all year. During canning, both desirable and undesirable changes occur in nutritional and sensory properties of foods, resulting from heat treatment employed for the destruction of microorganisms to achieve the desired commercial sterility. The extent of thermal processing, in terms of both temperature and duration of the treatment, is dependent upon the chemical and physical composition of the product, the canning medium and the conditions of storage, determining the product quality in terms of its sensory properties and nutrient content. This book reviews the major principles and operations used during food canning, identifies the nutritional and sensory changes occurring during the process and their effect on the quality of canned foods. In addition, it explains the use of response surface methodology (RSM) as modelling and optimisation techniques used in the canning industry in recent times to manipulate canning processes to maintain the nutritional and sensory qualities of canned foods, using two recent studies where RSM was used to study the effect of pre-canning processes including blanching time, soaking time and sodium hexametaphosphate [(NaPO3)6] salt concentration on moisture, minerals, leached solids, phytates, tannins and hardness (texture) of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and bambara groundnut (Voandzei subterranea). Regression models were developed to predict the pre-canning parameters that yield the best quality products, with minimal effects on the nutritional and textural properties of the products. The optimal conditions found to achieve the optimum quality of the canned cowpeas were blanching time of 5 min, soaking time of 12 h and [(NaPO3)6] salt concentration of 0.5%, and for the bambara groundnut; blanching time of 8 min, soaking time of 12 h and [(NaPO3)6] salt concentration of 0.5%. The combination of blanching, soaking and [(NaPO3)6] salt were modelled using RSM to retain the nutritional (mineral) content of products while reducing the anti-nutritional factors and the hardness of the canned products with acceptable quality characteristics, indicating that as recent advances in canning technology, modelling techniques could be used to control canning operations while retaining desirable product quality characteristics.
The Pacific Food System Outlook represents the first regionwide coordinated effort to provide the outlook for the Pacific food system. The food system includes not just production agriculture, but also the whole complex of economic relationships and linkages that tie the region's food consumers to producers. The goal of the ""Pacific Food System Outlook"" is to help increase knowledge about the diverse components of this vital segment of the global economy.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. In developed countries there are intricate standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries the main issue is simply the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. This book presents important analyses of the issues.
This book contains s written by young enthusiastic scientists, teachers and researchers who are involved in research, teaching and extension of modern scientific agricultural principles and practices in different parts of India. Attempts have been made to cover various aspects of modern agriculture viz. genetic improvement of crop plants, modern methods in plant breeding, seed science, ground water resources management, integrated farming systems, horticultural crops, biological control for sustainable agriculture, underutilized fruit plants health enhancing foods, role of enzymes in food processing, bioinformatics and molecular diagnostics etc., but still many facets lingering due to vast nature of agriculture itself. The major aim of this book is to provide glimpse of important arena to enhance food and nutritional security in a sustainable way.
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