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After reading this intriguing book, a glass of wine will be more than hints of blackberries or truffles on the palate. Written by the author of the popular, award-winning website DrVino.com, "Wine Politics" exposes a little-known but extremely influential aspect of the wine business - the politics behind it. Tyler Colman systematically explains how politics affects what we can buy, how much it costs, how it tastes, what appears on labels, and more. He offers an insightful comparative view of wine-making in Napa and Bordeaux, tracing the different paths American and French wines take as they travel from vineyard to dining room table. Colman also explores globalization in the wine business and illuminates the role of behind-the-scenes players such as governments, distributors, and prominent critics who wield enormous clout. Throughout, "Wine Politics" reveals just how deeply politics matters - right down to the taste of the wine in your glass tonight.
To meet growing demand, the FAO has estimated that world poultry production needs to grow by 2-3% per year to 2030. Much of the increase in output already achieved has been as a result of improvements in commercial breeds combined with rearing in more intensive production systems. However, more intensive systems and complex supply chains have increased the risk of rapid transmission of animal diseases and zoonoses. Consumer expectations of sensory and nutritional quality have never been higher. At the same time consumers are more concerned about the environmental impact of poultry production as well as animal welfare. Drawing on an international range of expertise, this book reviews research on safety, quality and sustainability issues in poultry production. Part 1 discusses risks from pathogens, detection and safety management on farms and in slaughterhouse operations. Part 2 looks at ways of enhancing the flavour, colour, texture and nutritional quality of poultry meat. Finally, the book reviews the environmental impact of poultry production. Achieving sustainable production of poultry meat Volume 1: Safety, quality and sustainability will be a standard reference for poultry and food scientists in universities, government and other research centres and companies involved in poultry production. It is accompanied by two further volumes which review poultry breeding, nutrition, health and welfare.
"The coffee tells my story." -Alfred Peet At a time when most Americans drank coffee percolated from canned grounds, the son of a coffee roaster from a small town in the Netherlands laid the foundation for specialty coffee in the United States. When Alfred Peet opened Peet's Coffee, Tea & Spices in Berkeley, California, in 1966, and started selling small batches of on-site, hand-roasted coffee beans, the renowned roastmaster had no way of knowing that he was brewing a coffee revolution and defining the coffee culture we know and love today.
Today's wine industry is characterized by regional differences not only in the wines themselves but also in the business models by which these wines are produced, marketed, and distributed. In Old World countries such as France, Spain, and Italy, small family vineyards and cooperative wineries abound. In New World regions like the United States and Australia, the industry is dominated by a handful of very large producers. This is the first book to trace the economic and historical forces that gave rise to very distinctive regional approaches to creating wine.
James Simpson shows how the wine industry was transformed in the decades leading up to the First World War. Population growth, rising wages, and the railways all contributed to soaring European consumption even as many vineyards were decimated by the vine disease phylloxera. At the same time, new technologies led to a major shift in production away from Europe's traditional winemaking regions. Small family producers in Europe developed institutions such as regional appellations and cooperatives to protect their commercial interests as large integrated companies built new markets in America and elsewhere. Simpson examines how Old and New World producers employed diverging strategies to adapt to the changing global wine industry.
"Creating Wine" includes chapters on Europe's cheap commodity wine industry; the markets for sherry, port, claret, and champagne; and the new wine industries in California, Australia, and Argentina.
The Handbook of Organic and Fair Trade Food Marketing provides a practical guide to successful marketing in these two dynamic sectors, underpinned by case-histories and lessons from companies that have been successful in these areas, including Green & Black's, Yeo Valley and Duchy Originals. It includes a review of the international markets for organic and fair trade food and drink; an analysis of organic and fair trade consumers; a review of successful retailing practice and a section on organic and fair trade divergence and convergence. Chapters are also included on perspectives from the USA, Germany and Italy. The book is written by industry experts, augmented by academic contributions where appropriate, offering for the first time the practical marketing advice required by companies in this sector.
Risk analysis offers a tool that national food safety authorities can use to make significant gains in food safety. Encompassing three major components (risk management, risk assessment and risk communication), risk analysis provides a systematic, disciplined approach for making food safety decisions. It provides food safety regulators with the information and evidence they need for effective decision-making, contributing to better food safety outcomes and improvements in public health. FAO and WHO have developed this guide to assist food safety regulators' understanding and use of risk analysis in national food safety frameworks. The primary audience is food safety officials at the national government level. The publication provides essential background information, guidance and practical examples of ways to apply food safety risk analysis. It complements and is aligned with other documents that have been produced or are being developed by FAO, WHO and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. This guide is the first of a two-part set. The second part will comprise a number of educational elements for capacity building, and include a slide presentation for use in training, a collection of up-to-date FAO and WHO tools and training materials related to food safety risk analysis, and specific examples and case studies of risk analysis carried out at the national and international level. Both parts will also become available on CD-ROM.
In Grocery, bestselling author Michael Ruhlman offers incisive commentary on America's relationship with its food and investigates the overlooked source of so much of it-the grocery store. In a culture obsessed with food-how it looks, what it tastes like, where it comes from, what is good for us-there are often more questions than answers. Ruhlman proposes that the best practices for consuming wisely could be hiding in plain sight-in the aisles of your local supermarket. Using the human story of the family-run Midwestern chain Heinen's as an anchor to this journalistic narrative, he dives into the mysterious world of supermarkets and the ways in which we produce, consume, and distribute food. Grocery examines how rapidly supermarkets-and our food and culture-have changed since the days of your friendly neighborhood grocer. But rather than waxing nostalgic for the age of mom-and-pop shops, Ruhlman seeks to understand how our food needs have shifted since the mid-twentieth century, and how these needs mirror our cultural ones. A mix of reportage and rant, personal history and social commentary, Grocery is a landmark book from one of our most insightful food writers.
We all witness, in advertising and on supermarket shelves, the fierce competition for our food dollars. In this engrossing expose, Marion Nestle goes behind the scenes to reveal how the competition really works and how it affects our health. The abundance of food in the United States - enough calories to meet the needs of every man, woman, and child twice over - has a downside. Our over-efficient food industry must do everything possible to persuade people to eat more - more food, more often, and in larger portions - no matter what it does to waistlines or well-being. Like manufacturing cigarettes or building weapons, making food is big business. Food companies in 2000 generated nearly $900 billion in sales. They have stakeholders to please, shareholders to satisfy, and government regulations to deal with. It is nevertheless shocking to learn precisely how food companies lobby officials, co-opt experts, and expand sales by marketing to children, members of minority groups, and people in developing countries. We learn that the food industry plays politics as well as or better than other industries, not least because so much of its activity takes place outside the public view. Editor of the 1988 "Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health", Nestle is uniquely qualified to lead us through the maze of food industry interests and influences. She vividly illustrates food politics in action: watered-down government dietary advice, schools pushing soft drinks, diet supplements promoted as if they were First Amendment rights. When it comes to the mass production and consumption of food, strategic decisions are driven by economics - not science, not common sense, and certainly not health. No wonder most of us are thoroughly confused about what to eat to stay healthy. An accessible and balanced account, "Food Politics" will forever change the way we respond to food industry marketing practices. By explaining how much the food industry influences government nutrition policies and how cleverly it links its interests to those of nutrition experts, this path-breaking book helps us understand more clearly than ever before what we eat and why.
This book presents current research on the benefits as well as the risks of fish consumption. The health benefits discussed include the reduction of cardiovascular disease, the decreased risk of various malignancies, specifically, colorectal, breast, prostate and lung cancers. Public perceptions of both the benefits and risks of self-caught fish by people in the coastal estuaries of New York and New Jersey are also presented. Contaminants that accumulate in the tissue of the fish and the associated risks are examined as well. This book presents new emerging health problems being linked to shellfish consumption. New studies are included on fish consumption in reproductive-aged women as related to foetal health. Finally, since there is a reduced availability of fish in an ever increasing world population, the possibility that the health benefits of eating fish can be obtained by largely vegetable sources is discussed.
The contents of your pint glass have a much richer history than you could have imagined. Through the story of the hop, Hoptopia connects twenty-first century beer drinkers to lands and histories that have been forgotten in an era of industrial food production. The craft beer revolution of the late twentieth century is a remarkable global history that converged in the agricultural landscapes of Oregon's Willamette Valley. The common hop, a plant native to Eurasia, arrived to the Pacific Northwest only in the nineteenth century, but has thrived within the region's environmental conditions so much that by the first half of the twentieth century, the Willamette Valley claimed the title "Hop Center of the World." Hoptopia integrates an interdisciplinary history of environment, culture, economy, labor, and science through the story of the most indispensible ingredient in beer.
Focusing on the interactions of producers, sellers and consumers of meat across the world, Richard Perren elucidates aspects of the evolution of the international economy and the part played by the investment of capital and the enterprise of individuals. The study utilises the government reports and papers issued by all countries involved in the meat trade, including North and South America, Australia, New Zealand and Britain. Beginning in the nineteenth century allows a comprehensive analysis of how an efficient meat exporting industry was built. The industry required investment, which was part of the general process of economic development. Perren focuses on the nature of the firms involved with the trade, the part played in the industry's development by foreign investment and the encouragement given by governments. Close attention is also paid to the stimulus of war, the impact of animal health and food hygiene regulations on producers and the competing demands of interest groups involved in the food businesses. By taking an historical as well as a contemporary approach, the book contributes to the current discussion on the effectiveness of animal and meat inspection in identifying farm livestock diseases such as tuberculosis and BSE. This study advances our knowledge of the process of food distribution in the industrialising and post-industrial economies, and leads to a comprehensive understanding of an important component of the international food chain.
In Grocery, bestselling author Michael Ruhlman offers incisive commentary on America's relationship with its food and investigates the overlooked source of so much of it the grocery store. In a culture obsessed with food how it looks, what it tastes like, where it comes from, what is good for us there are often more questions than answers. Ruhlman proposes that the best practices for consuming wisely could be hiding in plain sight in the aisles of your local supermarket. Using the human story of the family-run Midwestern chain Heinen's as an anchor to this journalistic narrative, he dives into the mysterious world of supermarkets and the ways in which we produce, consume, and distribute food. Grocery examines how rapidly supermarkets and our food and culture have changed since the days of your friendly neighborhood grocer. But rather than waxing nostalgic for the age of mom-and-pop shops, Ruhlman seeks to understand how our food needs have shifted since the mid-twentieth century, and how these needs mirror our cultural ones. A mix of reportage and rant, personal history and social commentary, Grocery is a landmark book from one of our most insightful food writers.
With full access to the Bournville archives, Dr. Chinn has traced the history of this distinguished family and its long established business.
Introduced at the 1876 Centennial Exposition and powered by an historic advertising campaign, Hires Root Beer-launched 10 years before Coca-Cola-blazed the trail for development of the American soft drink industry. Its inventor, Charles Elmer Hires, has been described as "a tycoon with the soul of a chemist." In addition to creating root beer, Hires, a devoted family man and a pillar of the Quaker community, became a leading importer of botanical commodities, an authority on the vanilla bean. Starting from scratch, he also built one of the world's largest condensed milk companies.Charles E. Hires and the Drink that Wowed a Nation chronicles the humble origin and meteoric business success of this extraordinary entrepreneur. Author Bill Double uses published interviews, correspondence, newspaper reports, magazine articles, financial data, and a small family archive to tell this story of native ingenuity. Here, the rough-hewn capitalism of the gilded age, the evolution of the neighborhood drugstore, the rise of advertising in creating mass markets, and the emerging temperance movement all come together in a biography that, well, fizzes with entrepreneurial spirit.
Building on recent scholarship in the sociology of food, Claire Lamine uses in-depth case studies from France and Brazil to compile a critical survey of social science approaches to sustainability transitions in agrifood systems. Lamine addresses the diverse pathways of transition encountered across multiple levels, from the farm through farmers' networks and food chains, to the territorial scale of regions. She also explores the efforts made by those involved in the agricultural world to create new connections between agriculture, food, environment and health, while also taking social equity issues into account. Lamine's work adopts a comparative perspective to explore the translation of agroecology into government programmes and the specific modes of governance involved in France and Brazil - two countries that pioneer in implementing agroecology yet which differ both in visions and context. Providing new options for understanding the complex issue of agrifood transitions, this book will make an impact for those studying food systems, geography, sociology, politics and agriculture.
For the first 150 years of their existence, "natural foods" were consumed primarily by body-builders, hippies, religious sects, and believers in nature cure. And those consumers were dismissed by the medical establishment and food producers as kooks, faddists, and dangerous quacks. In the 1980s, broader support for natural foods took hold and the past fifteen years have seen an explosion everything from healthy-eating superstores to mainstream institutions like hospitals, schools, and workplace cafeterias advertising their fresh-from-the-garden ingredients.Building Nature's Market shows how the meaning of natural foods was transformed as they changed from a culturally marginal, religiously inspired set of ideas and practices valorizing asceticism to a bohemian lifestyle to a mainstream consumer choice. Laura J. Miller argues that the key to understanding this transformation is to recognize the leadership of the natural foods industry. Rather than a simple tale of cooptation by market forces, Miller contends the participation of business interests encouraged the natural foods movement to be guided by a radical skepticism of established cultural authority. She challenges assumptions that private enterprise is always aligned with social elites, instead arguing that profit-minded entities can make common cause with and even lead citizens in advocating for broad-based social and cultural change.
In the late fifteenth century, Burgundy was incorporated in the kingdom of France. This, coupled with the advent of Protestantism in the early sixteenth century, opened up new avenues for participation in public life by ordinary Burgundians and led to considerably greater interaction between the elites and the ordinary people. Mack Holt examines the relationship between the ruling and popular classes from Burgundy's re-incorporation into France in 1477 until the Lanturelu riot in Dijon in 1630, focusing on the local wine industry. Indeed, the vineyard workers were crucial in turning back the tide of Protestantism in the province until 1630 when, following royal attempts to reduce the level of popular participation in public affairs, Louis XIII tried to remove them from the city altogether. More than just a local study, this book shows how the popular classes often worked together with local elites to shape policies that affected them.
The manual provides guidance on the application of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach to the prevention and control of mycotoxin contamination of foods and feed. After a brief introduction on the nature of mycotoxins and their effects on human and animal health, the document describes the HACCP system, as defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Six examples (yellow maize kernels, maize-based animal feed, copra cake and meal, commercially produced peanut butter, apple juice and pistachio nuts) illustrate how the HACCP approach can be applied to prevent and control mycotoxin contamination.
The fourth edition of IFC's Food Safety Handbook is a step-by-step guide to help food sector businesses large or small establish or improve food safety systems. Written in easy-to-follow English and supplemented with useful tools for food safety management system implementation.
Chemometrics is the chemical discipline that uses analytical techniques in combination with mathematical and statistical methods to obtain maximum information from chemical samples. The techniques used to measure physicochemical properties of the sample are selected depending of the given situation, and include spectroscopy, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, etc. Data obtained is analyzed with methods of pattern recognition and multivariate calibration, thus extracting valuable information such as how ripe fruit is, the quality of olive oils, the origin of coffee beans, etc. Moreover, the presence of toxic substances, allergens or adulteration is uncovered. With increasing globalization, it is paramount that we ensure only the highest quality of food is traded between countries. Food Analysis and Chemometrics gives the reader the necessary background of the application of chemometrics in food. In the first chapters, the design and planning of experiments is explained, followed by the most widely used methods and the fundamentals of data analysis and calibration. The reader will learn how to choose the most suitable technique, obtain, process and analyze the samples, and how to interpret the results. This book is referenced with a wide selection of published research studies, and highlights practical situations in which chemometrics has been applied. The book is aimed at a diverse audience, including food quality and safety testing laboratories, food scientists from academic institutions, industry professionals, and governmental regulatory agencies. Readers will understand both the key principles of chemometric methods of modern food science and how to identify and apply the best technique in real situations.
Food engineering is the application of engineering principles to the storage, processing and distribution of food materials and their bio-products. In today's world, food production is a significant issue and Food Engineers play an important role in addressing that. Food engineering applies engineering principles to food processing equipment. Food that is grown or processed must follow strict safety health and standards to ensure they are safe and that people do not get sick (or worse) from consuming produced food. In the development of food engineering, one of the many challenges is to employ modern tools, technology, and knowledge, such as computational materials science and nanotechnology, to develop new products and processes. Simultaneously, improving quality, safety, and security remain critical issues in food engineering study. New packaging materials and techniques are being developed to provide more protection to foods, and novel preservation technology is emerging. Additionally, process control and automation regularly appear among the top priorities identified in food engineering. Advanced monitoring and control systems are developed to facilitate automation and flexible food manufacturing. Furthermore, energy saving and minimization of environmental problems continue to be important food engineering issues, and significant progress is being made in waste management, efficient utilization of energy, and reduction of effluents and emissions in food production. Food Engineers control the health and safety of food production by designing and operating food processing plants. They also involve themselves in waste management and the genetic modification of foods. This Text will present a comprehensive overview of engineering principles and concepts to handle, store, process, package, and distribute food and related products. Readers will study the concepts of food refrigeration, freezing, thermal processing, drying, and other food operations.
Food processing is any method used to turn fresh foods into food products. This can involve one or a combination of the following: washing, chopping, pasteurizing, freezing, fermenting, packaging and many more. Food processing also includes adding components to food, for example to extend shelf life, or adding vitamins and minerals to improve the nutritional quality of the food. Food Processing and Technology includes a set of physical, chemical or microbiological methods and techniques used to transmute raw ingredients into food and its transformation into other forms in food processing industry. Food processing dates back to the prehistoric ages when crude processing incorporated fermenting, sun drying, preserving with salt, and various types of cooking (such as roasting, smoking, steaming, and oven baking). Such basic food processing involved chemical enzymatic changes to the basic structure of food in its natural form, as well served to build a barrier against surface microbial activity that caused rapid decay. Modern food processing technology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries was developed in a large part to serve military needs. In 1809 Nicolas Appert invented a hermetic bottling technique that would preserve food for French troops which ultimately contributed to the development of tinning, and subsequently canning by Peter Durand in 1810. Although initially expensive and somewhat hazardous due to the lead used in cans, canned goods would later become a staple around the world. Pasteurization, discovered by Louis Pasteur in 1864, improved the quality of preserved foods and introduced the wine, beer, and milk preservation. The efficient use of resources is the growing concern for all involved in food production, processing, distribution and retailing. The unique features of the raw materials of the food processing industries such as seasonality, perishability and variability in conjunction with sophistication required for processing to maintain high quality standards, necessitates special attention towards focused availability of qualified technical manpower, effective technologies and efficient machinery. The food industries in the country need modernization to face the challenges of the globalization.
Food plays as one of the indispensable part of people's life. Food is an essential prerequisite for life and as such the primary goal of eating and drinking is to enable the body to function normally. Access to good quality food has been man's endeavor from the earliest of human existence. We always look forward to the quality of food to assure its safety as its basic requirement. "Food safety" implies absence or acceptable and safe levels of contaminants, adulterants, naturally occurring toxins or any other substance that may make food injurious to health on an acute or chronic basis. Food safety is about handling, storing and preparing food to prevent infection and help to make sure that our food keeps enough nutrients for us to have a healthy diet. Unsafe food and water means that it has been exposed to dirt and germs, or may even be rotten, which can cause infections or diseases such as diarrhoea, meningitis, etc. These diseases can make people very sick or even be life threatening. When people are sick, they are weak and would have difficulty working or concentrating at school. Some of these infections also make it difficult for our bodies to absorb the nutrients they need to get healthy. Unsafe or stale foods also deteriorate and be of poor quality, which means they lose nutrients and so we do not get enough of what we need for a healthy diet. So unsafe food can also lead to poor nutrition. Foodborne illnesses are a burden on public health and contribute significantly to the cost of health care. A small percentage of these illnesses are the result of identified foodborne outbreaks, which happen when two or more cases of similar illnesses result from eating the same food. Investigations of foodborne outbreaks, along with analyses of data on the germs that make us sick and behaviors that contribute to food contamination, help us identify where we can make improvements in the country's food safety system. This system spans from growing the food on the farm through processing, packing, distribution, transportation, and storage, to preparing it to be eaten. Clean and safe food are very important to prevent germs from getting into foods and water. Such germs not only cause diseases, but they also destroy valuable nutrients in the food.
Food Science is the multidisciplinary study of food and the application of knowledge thus gained to the development of food products and processes, the preservation and storage of foods, and the assurance of food safety and quality. Nutrition, nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials - food - required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizing food. We know that the food we eat is digested and it is absorbed and utilized by the body. Food helps us in staying healthy. Our diet should be such that it meets our nutritional requirements and thus helps us in our health. Although food occupies the first position in the hierarchy of our needs, ignorance of many basic facts relating to food and nutrition is still widespread. All of us eat food every day - but have we ever paused to consider if our diet is balanced? In fact, do we even know what kinds and amounts of foods would make our diet balanced and lead us toward good health? Buying and cooking foodstuffs is a common experience for all of us. However, when purchasing, do we really know how to select the food items? Do we know the household ways of finding out whether the food item is adulterated? If the diet is not balanced, the result would be malnutrition and nutritional deficiency diseases. So, we find out the type of diet that should be eaten by a person who is suffering from a disease - from fever, diarrhea, and diabetes to hypertension. Activities of food scientists include the development of new food products, design of processes to produce these foods, choice of packaging materials, shelf-life studies, sensory evaluation of products using panels or potential consumers, as well as microbiological and chemical testing. Food scientists may study more fundamental phenomena that are directly linked to the production of food products and its properties. Food science brings together multiple scientific disciplines. It incorporates concepts from fields such as microbiology, chemical engineering, and biochemistry.
Food additive is any substance added to food to enhance the food flavor, taste and appearance, to preserve the food or to improve the food nutritional value. For centuries, our ancestors used salt for meat and fish preservation, herbs for food flavoring, vinegar for vegetable pickling and sugar for fruit preservation. Nowadays, people enjoy a more flavorful, colorful, nutritious food, and the development of food additive technology makes that possible. There are thousands of ingredients that can be used as food additive. In fact, people also have concerns about the use of food additive, as some of them coming with unfamiliar name and complex chemical structures. In addition, there are certain group of people have allergies with specific food additive substance while the rest do not. Therefore, the analysis of food additive is an obligatory foundation of food manufacturers to ensure the safe use of food additive to consumers. In this book, we will discuss general aspects of food additive and the analytical methods for such compounds. Starting by presenting an overview of food additive and the intolerance value of them to people, the book will unveil the theory, parameters and practical methods for food additive analysis and regulations in food processing. Methods of food additive analysis will be the main theme of this book. Some of the most advanced technology in food additive analysis such as high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), high throughput screening program, voltametric techniques, mass spectrometry (MS) and more will be presented. Each of the method will contain protocol to a specific food additive group, pros and cons of that method compared against others that can be a great reference to any scientist and food producers. Advances on food technology have created hundreds of new food additive substances every year. The last part of this book will discuss about those compounds and their medical and nutritional value. On the other hands, diseases related to food additive consumption, such as autoimmune, will be also discussed.
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