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Metallic quantum clusters belonging to intermediate size regime between two and few hundred of atoms, represent unique building blocks of new materials. Nonlinear optical (NLO) characteristics of liganded silver and gold quantum clusters reveal remarkable features which can be tuned by size, structure and composition. The two-photon absorption cross sections of liganded noble metal quantum clusters are several orders of magnitude larger than that of commercially-available dyes. Therefore, the fundamental photophysical understanding of those two-photon processes in liganded clusters with few metal atoms deserve special attention, in particularly in context of finding the mechanisms responsible for these properties. A broad range of state-of-the-art experimental methods to determine nonlinear optical properties (i.e. two-photon absorption, two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation) of quantum clusters are presented. The experimental setup and underlying physical concepts are described. Furthermore, the theoretical models and corresponding approaches are used allowing to explain the experimental observations and simultaneously offering the possibility to deduce the key factors necessary to design new classes of nanoclusters with large NLO properties. Additionally, selected studied cases of liganded silver and gold quantum clusters with focus on their NLO properties will be presented as promising candidates for applications in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or Second-Harmonic Generation microscopy.
Problems facing manufacturing clusters that intersect information technology, process management, and optimization within the Internet of Things (IoT) are examined in this book. Recent advances in information technology have transformed the use of resources and data exchange, often leading to management and optimization problems attributatble to technology limitations and strong market competition. This book discusses several problems and concepts which makes significant connections in the areas of information sharing, organization management, resource operations, and performance assessment. Geared toward practitioners and researchers, this treatment deepens the understanding between resource collaborative management and advanced information technology. Those in manufacturing will utilize the numerous mathematical models and methods offered to solve practical problems related to cutting stock, supply chain scheduling, and inventory management. Academics and students with a basic knowledge of manufacturing, combinatorics, and linear programming will find that this discussion widens the research area of resource collaborative management and unites the fields of information technology, manufacturing management, and optimization.
Written on behalf of the Animal Traction Network for Eastern and South Africa (ATNESA), these guidelines, aimed mainly at African countries, cover all aspects of the design, production, and marketing of animal-drawn carts. Full details - with many three-dimensional drawings - are given of the construction of a range of ox and donkey carts, including wheels and axles, with information on materials and costs. Information is based as far as possible on designs that have been shown to work effectively.;Other sections cover harnessing of oxen and donkeys, manufacture and marketing, credit and design standards. The guidelines are aimed at promoting improved supply, quality and use of animal-dawn carts in the region.
"On Time-In Full" is an important work. Tim McLean provides an easy to follow practical approach to building a highly performing supply chain" -Drew Locher, Shingo Prize Winning Author and Lean Thinker The most fundamental requirement for a manufacturing or distribution business is to deliver to customers what they want, in the quantity they want, when they want it. It doesn't matter how good your product is, how much the customer likes your salesperson, how slick your marketing campaign is: If your customers can't get what they want when they want it, they will get it elsewhere, and your business will be in serious trouble. On Time in Full: Achieving Perfect Delivery with Lean Thinking in Purchasing, Supply Chain and Production Planning is a step-by-step practical guide to designing a Lean Supply Chain that will deliver what your customers need, when they need it, every time. Timothy McLean shares his three decades of Lean supply chain experience -- In simple straightforward language, he explores the reasons why supply chains fail to deliver and what you can do about it. On Time In Full includes practical guidance for tackling the big issues affecting supply chains including: How to understand your extended supply chain with a value stream map The role of forecasting in your supply chain and how to get a meaningful forecast Calculating the right level of inventory for your business Scheduling daily production to meet demand Managing suppliers and your supply chain at home and internationally Selecting and making the best use out of an ERP system Designing an efficient distribution network The book is full of practical case studies and examples as well as references for further study. On Time, In Full is the complete guide to setting up a supply chain that works.
There is a growing need for manufacturing optimization all over the world. The immense market of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies dictates a need for a book that will provide knowledge of the various aspects of AM for anyone interested in learning about this fast-growing topic. This book disseminates knowledge of AM amongst scholars at graduate level, post graduate level, doctoral level, as well as industry personnel. The objective is to offer a state-of-the-art book which covers all aspects of AM and incorporates all information regarding trends, historical developments, classifications, materials, tooling, software issues, dynamic design, principles, limitations, and communication interfaces in a one-stop resource. Features: Breaks down systematic coverage of various aspects of AM within four distinct sections Contains details of various AM techniques based on ASTM guidelines Discusses many AM applications with suitable illustrations Includes recent trends in the field of AM Covers engineering materials utilized as raw materials in AM Compares AM techniques with different traditional manufacturing methods
Why did Pythagoras pause outside a Blacksmith's workshop? Can the nature of Harmony really be understood visually? Why do harmonies leave gaps or 'commas' when added together? In this charming little book Anthony Ashton uses a Victorian device called a Harmonograph to tell the story of Harmony and the intervals in the scale. With useful appendices and exquisite line drawings this is a unique and original introduction to this magical subject. WOODEN BOOKS are small but packed with information. "Fascinating" FINANCIAL TIMES. "Beautiful" LONDON REVIEW OF BOOKS. "Rich and Artful" THE LANCET. "Genuinely mind-expanding" FORTEAN TIMES. "Excellent" NEW SCIENTIST. "Stunning" NEW YORK TIMES. Small books, big ideas.
Surface Engineering constitutes a variety of processes and sub processes. Each chapter of this work covers specific processes by experts working in the area. Included for each topic are tribological performances for each process as well as results of recent research. The reader also will benefit from in-depth studies of diffusion coatings, nanocomposite films for wear resistance, surfaces for biotribological applications, thin-film wear, tribology of thermal sprayed coatings, hardfacing, plating for tribology and high energy beam surface modifications. Material scientists as well as engineers working with surface engineering for tribology will be particularly interested in this work.
Buying a previously owned watch can be a risky purchase. Fake watches are legion on the internet and unscrupulous vendors are increasingly using this market place to sell their fraudulent products. Few second-hand watch websites call upon true experts and purchases are increasingly made at the buyer's risk. How to tell a true watch from a fake? That is exactly what you will discover in this volume covering the main luxury watch brands, and above all providing specific documentation on the counterfeit market - which is constantly evolving and perpetually on the lookout for the perfect fake watch. Enhanced knowledge of watchmaking and its flagship brands along with an understanding of the fake market will help you make the right decisions when buying a watch.
In this thesis, real-time evolution of the nanopore channel growth and self-ordering process in anodic nanoporous alumina are simulated on the basis of an established kinetics model. The simulation results were in accordance with the experiments on the (i) growth sustainability of pore channels guided by pre-patterns; and (ii) substrate grain orientation dependence on self-ordering. In addition, a new fabrication method for the rapid synthesis of highly self-ordered nanoporous alumina is established, based on a systematic search for the self-ordering conditions in experiments. Lastly, it reports on a novel surface-charge induced strain in nanoporous alumina-aluminium foils, which indicates that nanoporous alumina can be used as a new type of actuating material in micro-actuator applications.
Designed for junior- and senior-level courses in plant and facilities planning and manufacturing systems and procedures, this textbook also is suitable for graduate-level and two-year college courses. The book takes a practical, hands-on, project-oriented approach to exploring the techniques and procedures for developing an efficient facility layout. It also introduces state-of-the-art tools including computer simulation. Access to Layout-iQ workspace planning software is included for purchasers of the book. Theoretical concepts are clearly explained and then rapidly applied to a practical setting through a detailed case study at the end of the volume. The book systematically leads students through the collection, analysis, and development of information to produce a quality functional plant layout for a lean manufacturing environment. All aspects of facility design, from receiving to shipping, are covered. In the sixth edition of this successful book, numerous updates and corrections have been made, and a chapter on engineering cost estimating and analysis has been added. Also, rather than including brief case-in-point examples at the end of each chapter, a single, detailed case study is provided that better exposes students to the multiple considerations that need to be taken into account when improving efficiency in a real manufacturing facility. The textbook has enjoyed substantial international adoptions and has been translated into Spanish and Chinese.
The aim of this book is to present foundational research on the nano-crystallization, high-temperature modification, micro-structure evolution and plastic deformation induced by laser shock processing. In this regard, the focus is on heat-resistant steel, aluminum alloy, Ti alloys and Ni-based alloys, offering valuable scientific insights into the industrial applications of laser shock processing (LSP) technology. The book addresses various topics, i.e., the formation mechanism and productivity improvement of nano-crystalline diamond by laser processing, the surface integrity and fatigue lives of heat-resistant steels, Ti alloys and Ni-based alloys after LSP with different processing parameters, tensile properties and fractural morphology after LSP at different temperatures, strain-rates and grain refinement mechanisms based on the micro-structure evolution. Moreover, the effect of heating temperature and exposure time on stress thermal relaxation and the influence of compressive stress on the stress intensity factor of hole-edge cracks by high strain rate laser shock processing are also analyzed. A new type of statistical data model to describe the fatigue cracking growth with limited data is proposed based on the consideration of the effects of fracture growth on the reliability and confidence level. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates in the fields of nanotechnology and micro-engineering who are interested in the partial or overall strengthening of materials, especially those with a focus on surface integrity and fatigue life.
This book presents cutting-edge research on the design and development of novel, advanced high-strength, light-weight materials via the incorporation of novel reinforcements, namely, metallic amorphous alloys/bulk metallic glasses (BMG), in light metal matrix composites (LMMCs) based on Al and Mg. The book begins with an introduction to conventional ceramic reinforced light metal matrix composites, along with the major drawbacks which limit their application. Metallic amorphous alloys/Bulk Metallic Glasses (BMG) are new class of metallic materials that are distinctly differently from conventional metals/alloys in terms of their structure and thermal behavior, and exhibit extremely high strength (1 to 2 GPa) and large elastic strain limit (1 to 2%). Given these unique properties, upon their incorporation into Al/Mg-matrices, they provide superior interfacial properties, i.e. high degree of compatibility with the matrix due to their metallic nature when compared to conventional ceramic reinforcements, and thereby significantly enhance the mechanical performance of LMMCs. Amorphous/BMG reinforced LMMCs is an emerging research field and the existing literature is meager. This book discusses the various processing methods that would be suitable for these novel materials. A comparison of mechanical properties and strengthening mechanisms of amorphous/BMG reinforced composites with those of conventional ceramic composites is presented. Future research directions and wider research potential of the novel materials are discussed, and prospective applications are highlighted. For ease of understanding and comparison, appropriate schematics, tables, and figures are provided.
The present volume is a collection of review articles highlighting the fundamental advances made in this area by the internationally acclaimed research groups , most of them being pioneers themselves and coming together for the first time.
This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being investigated for the development of nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesting devices, also known as nanogenerators. There is growing interest in strategies for energy harvesting that use a variety of existing and well-known materials in new morphologies or architectures. A key change of morphology to enable new functionality is the nanostructuring of a material. One area of particular interest is self-powered devices based on portable energy harvesting. The charging of personal electronic equipment and other small-scale electronic devices such as sensors is a highly demanding environment that requires innovative solutions. The output of these so-called nanogenerators is explained in terms of the requirements for self-powered applications. The authors summarise the range of production methods used for nanostructured devices, which require much lower energy inputs than those used for bulk systems, making them more environmentally friendly and also compatible with a wide range of substrate materials.
The revised version of this established textbook provides a unique
introduction for students and new entrants to the clothing
industry. Profusely illustrated, it sets out a panoramic view of
the day-to-day operation of a clothing factory, including
management, design, marketing, finance and purchasing as well as
quality control and production.
The practical aspects of clothing manufacturing are explained,
from the original design to deliveries to retail customers, and
each of the basic planning and manufacturing technologies is
described with many practical examples of their applications.
Gerry Cooklin had over 30 years' experience in the British and
Israeli clothing industries and for 12 years was deputy managing
director of the Bagis Group in Israel where he was responsible for
technology and development.
Dr Steven G Hayes is Senior Lecturer in Fashion Technology at
The Department of Clothing Design and Technology, Manchester
Metropolitan University, Manchester.
John Mcloughlin is a Research Associate at the University of
Manchester and an International Technical Consultant to the
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The book offers a snapshot of the state-of-art in the field of model-based mechatronic system design. It covers topics including machine design and optimization, predictive systems in manufacturing networks, and the development of software for modeling and simulation of processes, which are supplemented by practical case studies. The book is a collection of fifteen selected contributions presented during the Workshop on Mechatronic Systems, held on March 17-19, 2014, in Mahdia, Tunisia. The workshop was jointly organized by the Laboratory of Mechanics Modeling and Production (LA2MP) of the National School of Engineers Sfax, Tunisia, and the Laboratory for Mechanical Systems and Materials Engineering (LISMMA) of Higher Institute of Mechanics (SUPMECA), Paris, France.
Your customers have become increasingly sophisticated and more connected than ever-broadcasting real-time feedback to a cloud of followers who are watching your every move. As savvy customers continue to demand more for less, organizations that choose to rest on their laurels will quickly see their market share evaporate. Gemba Walks for Service Excellence: The Step-by-Step Guide for Identifying Service Delighters guides readers on a journey towards organizational effectiveness that supports a culture of service excellence. It provides a fresh perspective on how to apply Gemba Walks-visiting the areas where the service provider interacts directly with the customer-to identify new service delighters and make a lasting positive impression on customers. Using an abundance of color pictures and hand-drawn graphics, Robert Petruska builds on his considerable experience implementing Lean and quality systems to demonstrate how to create the infrastructure required for service excellence to flourish. Presented in an easy-to-follow format that anyone in the service industry can enjoy, this workbook: Shares proven techniques used in Lean manufacturing that can easily be applied to the service industry Guides new employees and veterans alike through a journey filled with real-life stories that inspire confidence Contains hands-on exercises that allow you to immediately apply the ideas to your own work Includes a CD with innovative "placemats" designed to provide stepping stones on a development path for your team to achieve a competitive advantage Filled with real-world examples and stories of service excellence, the book will help you develop the counterintuitive thinking needed to discover new sources of customer delight. Designed to be used with your entire team, this workbook will guide your organization, step by step, through a plan for assessing, prioritizing, and implementing innovative ideas that will lead to unprecedented levels of service excellence.
Optoelectronics--technology based on applications light such as micro/nano quantum electronics, photonic devices, laser for measurements and detection--has become an important field of research. Many applications and physical problems concerning optoelectronics are analyzed in Optical Waveguiding and Applied Photonics. The book is organized in order to explain how to implement innovative sensors starting from basic physical principles. Applications such as cavity resonance, filtering, tactile sensors, robotic sensor, oil spill detection, small antennas and experimental setups using lasers are analyzed. Innovative materials such as nanocomposites are characterized, designed, and applied in order to provide new ideas about detection principles. As with many electric circuitries, light applications and architectures suffer from noising due to physical and transmission connections. The book illustrates some examples for practical issues. The theory and the nanotechnology facilities provide important tools for researchers working with sensing applications.
Temperature Measurement covers nearly every type of temperature measurement device, in particular, bimetallic thermometers, filled bulb and glass stem thermometers, thermistors, thermocouples, and thermowells. Includes suppliers and prices.
In an unscientific era when maps were rarities, how did ancient Romans envisage their far flung empire? This was done by various means for certain, including with the aid of an ingenious type of portable sundial that has barely attracted notice. As the Romans understood before the first century BCE, to track the passage of the sun across the sky hour-by-hour one needed to know one's latitude and the time of year, and that, furthermore, sundials did not have to be fixed objects. These portable instruments, crafted in bronze, were adjustable for the changes of latitude to be expected on long journeys-say, for instance, from Britain to Spain, or from Alexandria to Rome, or even on a Mediterranean tour. For convenient reference, these sundials incorporated lists of twenty to thirty names of cities or regions, each with its specific latitude. One of the insights of Roman Portable Sundials is that the choice of locations offers unique clues to the mental world-map and self-identity of individuals able to visualize Rome's vast empire latitudinally. The sixteen such sundials known to date share common features but designers also vied to create enhancements. Comparison with modern calculations shows that often the latitudes listed are incorrect, in which case the sundial may not perform at its best. But then the nature of Romans' time-consciousness (or lack of it) must be taken into consideration. Richard Talbert suspects that owners might prize these sundials not so much for practical use but rather as prestige objects attesting to scientific awareness as well as imperial mastery of time and space. In retrospect, they may be seen as Roman precursors to comparable Islamic and European instruments from the Middle Ages onwards, and even to today's luxury watches which display eye-catching proof of their purchasers' wealth, sophistication, and cosmopolitanism. Richly enhanced with detailed photographs, line drawings, maps, a gazetteer, and a table of latitudes and locations, Roman Portable Sundials brings these overlooked gadgets out of the shadows at last to reveal their hitherto untapped layers of meaning.
This book describes the design and fabrication of novel nanostructures in III-nitride material systems. It introduces an inexpensive and ultra-efficient nanopatterning method - nanosphere lithography (NSL) - used to develop diversely functional nanostructures, including clover-shaped photonic crystals, nanorings, and nanolenses. Furthermore, the research findings previously distributed in various international scientific journals and conference papers are brought together and methodically presented in a unified form. The book is of interest to postgraduate students, university researchers, R&D engineers and scientists in the fields of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics and photonics.
As future generation electrical, information engineering and mechatronics become specialized and fragmented, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that many topics in these areas have common threads and, because of this, advances in one discipline may be transmitted to others. The 2011 International Conference on Electrical, Information Engineering and Mechatronics (EIEM 2011) is the first conference that attempts to follow the above idea of hybridization in electrical, information engineering, mechatronics and applications. This Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Electrical, Information Engineering and Mechatronics provides a forum for engineers and scientists to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges and social, legal, political, and economic issues, and to present and discuss their ideas, results, works in progress and experience on all aspects of electrical, information engineering, mechatronics and applications. Engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government will find a insights into the solutions that combine ideas from multiple disciplines in order to achieve something more significant than the sum of the individual parts in all aspects of electrical, information engineering, mechatronics and applications.
This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the Josephson effect, a topic of never-ending interest in both fundamental and applied physics. In this volume, world-renowned experts present the unique aspects of the physics of the Josephson effect, resulting from the use of new materials, of hybrid architectures and from the possibility of realizing nanoscale junctions. These new experimental capabilities lead to systems where novel coherent phenomena and transport processes emerge. All this is of great relevance and impact, especially when combined with the didactic approach of the book. The reader will benefit from a general and modern view of coherent phenomena in weakly-coupled superconductors on a macroscopic scale. Topics that have been only recently discussed in specialized papers and in short reviews are described here for the first time and organized in a general framework. An important section of the book is also devoted to applications, with focus on long-term, future applications. In addition to a significant number of illustrations, the book includes numerous tables for comparative studies on technical aspects.
This book addresses controller and estimator design for systems that vary both spatially and in time: systems like fluid flow, acoustic noise and flexible structures. It includes coverage of the selection and placement of actuators and sensors for such distributed-parameter systems. The models for distributed parameter systems are coupled ordinary/partial differential equations. Approximations to the governing equations, often of very high order, are required and this complicates both controller design and optimization of the hardware locations. Control system and estimator performance depends not only on the controller/estimator design but also on the location of the hardware. In helping the reader choose the best location for actuators and sensors, the analysis provided in this book is crucial because neither intuition nor trial-and-error is foolproof, especially where multiple sensors and actuators are required, and moving hardware can be difficult and costly. The mechatronic approach advocated, in which controller design is integrated with actuator location, can lead to better performance without increased cost. Similarly, better estimation can be obtained with carefully placed sensors. The text shows how proper hardware placement varies depending on whether, disturbances are present, whether the response should be reduced to an initial condition or whether controllability and/or observability have to be optimized. This book is aimed at non-specialists interested in learning controller design for distributed-parameter systems and the material presented has been used for student teaching. The relevant basic systems theory is presented and followed by a description of controller synthesis using lumped approximations. Numerical algorithms useful for efficient implementation in real engineering systems and practical computational challenges are also described and discussed.
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