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Cosmetics and tobacco are two of the 20th century's most fascinating fashion influences, for they inspired new accessories for the well-dressed woman. This book highlights the evolution of popular vanity cases by investigating materials from compact, cigarette case and lighter manufacturers. The book begins with a history of cosmetics, and their impact on society, and goes on to show how compacts evolved to hold cosmetics and who fashioned them. The tobacco-related containers are also traced from their beginnings to the establishment of a new line of accessories for both men and women. Through her newly revised text and hundreds of color photographs and advertising pieces of examples arranged chronologically, the author provides a wealth of information in this growing collector's field.
Snake Robots is a novel treatment of theoretical and practical topics related to snake robots: robotic mechanisms designed to move like biological snakes and able to operate in challenging environments in which human presence is either undesirable or impossible. Future applications of such robots include search and rescue, inspection and maintenance, and subsea operations. Locomotion in unstructured environments is a focus for this book. The text targets the disparate muddle of approaches to modelling, development and control of snake robots in current literature, giving a unified presentation of recent research results on snake robot locomotion to increase the reader's basic understanding of these mechanisms and their motion dynamics and clarify the state of the art in the field. The book is a complete treatment of snake robotics, with topics ranging from mathematical modelling techniques, through mechatronic design and implementation, to control design strategies. The development of two snake robots is described and both are used to provide experimental validation of many of the theoretical results. Snake Robots is written in a clear and easily understandable manner which makes the material accessible by specialists in the field and non-experts alike. Numerous illustrative figures and images help readers to visualize the material. The book is particularly useful to new researchers taking on a topic related to snake robots because it provides an extensive overview of the snake robot literature and also represents a suitable starting point for research in this area.
Quantum dots as nanomaterials have been extensively investigated in the past several decades from growth to characterization to applications. As the basis of future developments in the field, this book collects a series of state-of-the-art chapters on the current status of quantum dot devices and how these devices take advantage of quantum features. Written by 56 leading experts from 14 countries, the chapters cover numerous quantum dot applications, including lasers, LEDs, detectors, amplifiers, switches, transistors, and solar cells. "Quantum Dot Devices" is appropriate for researchers of all levels of experience with an interest in epitaxial and/or colloidal quantum dots. It provides the beginner with the necessary overview of this exciting field and those more experienced with a comprehensive reference source."
Additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and composites using laser energy, direct energy deposition, electron beam methods, and wire arc melting have recently gained importance due to their advantages in fabricating the complex structure. Today, it has become possible to reliably manufacture dense parts with certain AM processes for many materials, including steels, aluminum and titanium alloys, superalloys, metal-based composites, and ceramic matrix composites. In the near future, the AM material variety will most likely grow further, with high-performance materials such as intermetallic compounds and high entropy alloys already under investigation. Additive Manufacturing Applications for Metals and Composites is a pivotal reference source that provides vital research on advancing methods and technological developments within additive manufacturing practices. Special attention is paid to the material design of additive manufacturing of parts, the choice of feedstock materials, the metallurgical behavior and synthesis principle during the manufacturing process, and the resulted microstructures and properties, as well as the relationship between these factors. While highlighting topics such as numerical modeling, intermetallic compounds, and statistical techniques, this publication is ideally designed for students, engineers, researchers, manufacturers, technologists, academicians, practitioners, scholars, and educators.
This book reveals how polymer blending and grafting now offer a growing range of new applications for advanced films and fibers. Further, it details how the processing and original physical properties of cellulosics can be improved, and demonstrates how new, cellulose-core polymeric materials offer a wide range of synergistic functionalities. Lastly, it summarizes basic characterization studies and successful fabrications of advanced films and fibers. The book is primarily intended for advanced undergraduates, academic and industrial researchers and professionals studying or using bio-based polymers.
This book describes the state of the art in the field of bioanalytical nano- and microsystems with optical functionality. In 12 chapters distinguished scientists and leaders in their respective fields show how various optical technologies have been miniaturized and integrated over the last few decades in order to be combined with nano- and microsystems for applications in the life sciences. The main detection and characterization technologies are introduced, and examples of the superiority of these integrated approaches compared to traditional ones are provided. Examples from e.g. the fields of optical waveguides, integrated interferometers, surface plasmon resonance or Raman spectroscopy are introduced and discussed, and it is shown how these approaches have led to novel functionalities and thereby novel applications.
At the same time that the pace of science and technology has greatly accelerated in recent decades, our legal and ethical oversight mechanisms have become bogged down and slower. This book addresses the growing gap between the pace of science and technology and the lagging responsiveness of legal and ethical oversight society relies on to govern emerging technologies. Whether it be biotechnology, genetic testing, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, computer privacy, autonomous robotics, or any of the other many emerging technologies, new approaches are needed to ensure appropriate and timely regulatory responses. This book documents the problem and offers a toolbox of potential regulatory and governance approaches that might be used to ensure more responsive oversight.
Nonlinear Control of Vehicles and Robots develops a unified approach to the dynamic modeling of robots in terrestrial, aerial and marine environments. The main classes of nonlinear systems and stability methods are summarized and basic nonlinear control methods, useful in manipulator and vehicle control, are presented. Formation control of ground robots and ships is discussed.
The book also deals with the modeling and control of robotic systems in the presence of non-smooth nonlinearities. Robust adaptive tracking control of robotic systems with unknown payload and friction in the presence of uncertainties is treated.
Theoretical and practical aspects of the control algorithms under discussion are detailed. Examples are included throughout the book allowing the reader to apply the control and modeling techniques in their own research and development work. Some of these examples demonstrate state estimation based on the use of advanced sensors as part of the control system.
A successful cyber-physical system, a complex interweaving of hardware and software with some part of the physical environment, depends on proper identification of the, often pre-existing, physical element. A bespoke "cyber" part of the system may then be designed from scratch. Optimal Mobile Sensing and Actuation Strategies in Cyber-physical Systems focuses on distributed-parameter systems the dynamics of which can be modelled with partial differential equations. These are very challenging to observe, their states and inputs being distributed throughout a spatial domain. Consequently, systematic approaches to the optimization of sensor location have to be devised for parameter estimation. The text begins by reviewing the field of cyber-physical systems and introducing background notions of distributed parameter systems and optimal observation theory. New research problems are then defined within this framework. Two important problems considered are optimal mobile sensor trajectory planning and the accuracy effects and allocation of remote sensors. These are followed up with a solution to the problem of optimal robust estimation. Actuation policies are then introduced into the framework with the purpose of improving estimation and optimizing the trajectories of both sensors and actuators simultaneously. The large number of illustrations within the text will assist the reader to visualize the application of the methods proposed. A group of similar examples are used throughout the book to help the reader assimilate the material more easily. The monograph concentrates on the use of methods for which a cyber-physical-systems infrastructure is required. The methods are computationally heavy and require mobile sensors and actuators with communications abilities. Application examples cover fields from environmental science to national security so that readers are encouraged to link the ideas of cyber-physical systems with their own research.
Precision Nanometrology describes the new field of precision nanometrology, which plays an important part in nanoscale manufacturing of semiconductors, optical elements, precision parts and similar items. It pays particular attention to the measurement of surface forms of precision workpieces and to stage motions of precision machines. The first half of the book is dedicated to the description of optical sensors for the measurement of angle and displacement, which are fundamental quantities for precision nanometrology. The second half presents a number of scanning-type measuring systems for surface forms and stage motions. The systems discussed include: * error separation algorithms and systems for measurement of straightness and roundness, * the measurement of micro-aspherics, * systems based on scanning probe microscopy, and * scanning image-sensor systems. Precision Nanometrology presents the fundamental and practical technologies of precision nanometrology with a helpful selection of algorithms, instruments and experimental data. It will be beneficial for researchers, engineers and postgraduate students involved in precision engineering, nanotechnology and manufacturing.
"Functional Clothing Design" is a book about how and why clothing works. This interdisciplinary text introduces new ways to look at the human body, the environment and clothing and to explore the relationships between them by looking at the ways clothing achieves goals such as protecting the body, increasing health and safety, improving a worker's efficiency on the job or increasing body function. Watkins and Dunne present technical material using clear, simple language that can be readily understood by beginning design students with no science or engineering background. Building on the groundbreaking text by Watkins, "Clothing: The Portable Environment," this text covers a full range of factors involved in designing functional clothing: protection from thermal, impact and other environmental hazards; enhancing movement and visibility and increasing body function with smart clothing; designing clothing for people with handicaps and designing protective clothing for groups such as the military, who face multiple hazards. "Functional Clothing Design" focuses on the full range of activities needed to develop functional clothing--from analysis of user needs to choosing appropriate materials to design and design evaluation. The text includes case studies throughout as well as new content on smart textiles and all the latest developments in wearable technology. Designers and others seeking clothing solutions to problems in many fields will find a common language linking a number of disciplines through which they can explore both problems and solutions.
The development of new-generation micro-manufacturing technologies and systems has revolutionised the way products are designed and manufactured today with a s- nificant impact in a number of key industrial sectors. Micro-manufacturing techno- gies are often described as disruptive, enabling and interdisciplinary leading to the creation of whole new classes of products that were previously not feasible to ma- facture. While key processes for volume manufacture of micro-parts such as mach- ing and moulding are becoming mature technologies, micro-assembly remains a key challenge for the cost-effective manufacture of complex micro-products. The ability to manufacture customizable micro-products that can be delivered in variable volumes within relatively short timescales is very much dependent on the level of development of the micro-assembly processes, positioning, alignment and measurement techniques, gripping and feeding approaches and devices. Micro-assembly has developed rapidly over the last few years and all the pred- tions are that it will remain a critical technology for high-value products in a number of key sectors such as healthcare, communications, defence and aerospace. The key challenge is to match the significant technological developments with a new gene- tion of micro-products that will establish firmly micro-assembly as a mature manuf- turing process. th The book includes the set of papers presented at the 5 International Precision - sembly Seminar IPAS 2010 held in Chamonix, France from the 14th to the 17th February 2010.
This brief highlights nanoparticles used in the diagnosis and treatment of prominent diseases and toxic conditions. Ecofriendly methods which are ideal for the synthesis of medicinally valued nanoparticles are explained and the characteristic features of these particles projected. The role of these particles in the therapeutic field, and the induced biological changes in some diseases are discussed. The main focus is on inflammation, oxidative stress and cellular membrane integrity alterations. The effect of nanoparticles on these changes produced by various agents are highlighted using in vitro and in vivo models. The mechanism of nanoparticles in ameliorating the biological changes is supported by relevant images and data. Finally, the brief demonstrates recent developments on the use of nanoparticles in diagnosis or sensing of some biological materials and biologically hazardous environmental materials.
According to the FDA Quality System Regulations, manufacturers must ensure that "device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect the device from alteration or damage during the customary conditions of processing, storage, handling, and distribution." As specific as this statement is, the FDA does not provide instructions on how to achieve their standards. Validating Medical Packaging demystifies the validation procedure for medical device packaging by providing specific examples and templates for creating and maintaining a validation file.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies are developing impressively and are expected to bring about the next revolution. AM is gradually replacing traditional manufacturing methods in some applications because of its unique properties of customisability and versatility. This book provides a very comprehensive and updated text about different types of AM technologies, their respective advantages, shortcomings and potential applications.3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing: Principles and Applications is a comprehensive textbook that takes readers inside the world of additive manufacturing. This book introduces the different types of AM technologies, categorised by liquid, solid and powder-based AM systems, the common standards, the trends in the field and many more.Easy to understand, this book is a good introduction to anyone interested in obtaining a better understanding of AM. For people working in the industry, this book will provide information on new methods and practices, as well as recent research and development in the field. For professional readers, this book provides a comprehensive guide to distinguish between the different technologies, and will help them make better decisions regarding which technology they should use. For the general public, this book sheds some light on the fast-moving AM field.In this edition, new AM standards (e.g. Standard of Terminology and Classification of AM systems) and format standards will be included, Furthermore, the listing of new machines and systems, materials, and software; as well as new case studies and applications in industries that have recently adopted AM (such as the Marine and Offshore industry) have also been incorporated.
The decoration of packaging for the "fast moving consumer goods" market plays a vital role in promoting the product to the customer, as well as in carrying informative and legislative detail. Combining these roles requires commercial awareness, detailed knowledge of the relevant technologies, creative care and consideration of the effects of colours, typefaces and images which must support the brand, position the product and provide the required product "stand--out" at the point of sale. This practical handbook, written by a team of experienced industrialists and those involved in relevant, applied research, details and discusses the printing technologies and decoration formats used on the mainstream structural packaging that is found in consumer markets worldwide. The emphasis is on the technology. The volume is directed at packaging technologists and those involved in the design and development of packaging. It will also be of interest to those responsible for specifying or purchasing the decoration of packaging. This practical handbook, written by a team of experienced industrialists and those involved in relevant, applied research, details and discusses the printing technologies and decoration formats used on the mainstream structural packaging that is found in consumer markets worldwide. The emphasis is on the technology.
Since the original publication of Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy in 2002, the noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) has achieved remarkable progress. This second treatment deals with the following outstanding recent results obtained with atomic resolution since then: force spectroscopy and mapping with atomic resolution; tuning fork; atomic manipulation; magnetic exchange force microscopy; atomic and molecular imaging in liquids; and other new technologies. These results and technologies are now helping evolve NC-AFM toward practical tools for characterization and manipulation of individual atoms/molecules and nanostructures with atomic/subatomic resolution. Therefore, the book exemplifies how NC-AFM has become a crucial tool for the expanding fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Written for: Scientists, practitioners, graduate students
This unique handbook provides a vivid multidisciplinary dimension through technological perspectives to present cutting-edge research in the field of natural coloration and finishing. The 20 chapters are divided in to four parts: Substrates for coloration and finishing; renewable colorants and their applications; advanced materials and technologies for coloration and finishing; sustainability. Among the topics included in the Handbook of Renewable Materials for Coloration and Finishing are: The systematic discussion on the suitability, physical, chemical and processing aspects of substrates for coloration and finishing Bio-colorant's application as photosensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells Animal based natural dyes Natural dyes extraction and dyeing methodology Application of natural dyes to cotton and jute textiles Sol-gel flame retardant and/or antimicrobial finishings for cellulosic textiles Rot resistance and antimicrobial finish of cotton khadi fabrics Advanced materials and technologies for antimicrobial finishing of cellulosic textiles
3D printing is a new craft technique that seems like science fiction. Objects appear to be created out of nothing - as if by magic. This book shows you the practice of 3D printing at home. It gives the reader an overview of the basics of this technique and the materials and the knowledge you need for a successful start in the use of 3D printing. The hardware and software you need is described, and tips and tricks for the practical application of 3D printing are given. If you aspire to use 3D printing for your hobby or for spare parts, this book is a guide for your first steps into a new future: - What is 3D printing? - The differences between 3D printers. - The way to your first print. - Software for construction, preparation of printing and the printing process. - Printing practice. - What can I do with my printer? - Printing at service providers.
A fascinating and scholarly look at the machines that revolutionized office communication from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Nearly 700 color photographs display mechanical typewriters produced by Adlerac, Americanac, Coronaac, Grundkaac, Hallac, Monarchac, Remingtonac, Royalac, Smith Coronaac, and many others. An overview of the historical development of the typewriter includes patents and brief histories of the manufacturers. Additionally, a detailed bibliography, index, and current market values in the captions are also provided. Set designers, historians, and typewriter collectors will learn how technical developments changed the designs through the decades.
This book focuses on the use of semiconducting metal oxides as gas sensing materials, including the sensing mechanism and sensing materials modification approach, while also providing a comprehensive introduction to semiconductor gas sensing devices. As an essential part of IoT (Internet of things), gas sensors have shown great significance and promising prospects. Therefore, studies on semiconducting metal oxides, one of the most important gas sensing materials, have increasingly attracted attention from various disciplines. The book offers a valuable reference guide to metal oxide gas sensing materials for undergraduate and graduate students alike. It will also benefit all researchers who investigate metal oxides nanomaterials synthesis and gas sensing with relevant frontier theories and concepts. Engineers working on research and development for semiconductor gas sensors will also find new ideas in sensor design.
The Cabbage Patch Kid craze started in the 1980s, and continued into the 1990s, where it is perpetuated by a strong community of collectors. This excellent book picks up the story at the start of the 1990s, where the authors' successful first book left off. It shows the full line of Kids produced by Hasbro from 1990-1994, including Birthday Kids, Kissin' Kids, and the 10th Anniversary dolls. All the Kids produced by Mattel between 1995-1998 are here as well, including OlympiKids, Snacktime Kids, and the Keepsake Collection. The book also features pets, with lots of valuable information about the adorable Koosas. The authors have included an excellent 85-photo reference for head molds used through both the '80s and '90s. Learn to recognize fakes and altered Kids in the marketplace, and see some creative ways to turn shabby flea market finds into beautiful Kids again.
The art of history in motion, with the thrill only motorcycles can bring! Between these covers is a spectacular collection of clockwork motorcyles from Europe, Japan, and America. The beauty and complexity of these early toy designs is matched only by their extreme rarity, making this reference book a truly special edition for collectors of all levels. See police chases, stunt riders, elegant cruisers, and spacemen, all with fantastic motorcycles that are ready to roar into action! In addition to current market pricing, this book allows the reader an opportunity to view and become acquainted with the world's finest toy motorcycle designs.
The pinball book you have been waiting for is finally here! From those fabulous '50s & '60s, Jeffrey Lawton, Bingo Pinball Historian, presents 290+ photos, including original promotional brochures and advertisements, that showcase a fantastic collection of Bally*r Bingo pinball machines, along with a history of the evolution and excitement that surrounds this compelling hobby. All who grew up with street cars, slot machines, pinball machines, pool halls, and diners will enjoy this book tremendously! If you buy only one pinball book, this is the one to have.
James L. Dundas provides his readers with a sweeping survey of the shooting toys that gladdened the hearts of children from near the turn of the twentieth century to the 1990s. Concentrating heavily on the decades from the 1920s to the 1960s, over 420 color photographs display a dazzling array of BB guns, cap shooters, marble shooters, squirt guns, and more. Reminding us all of the long car rides and rainy days of our youth, when shooting was impossible, are a selection of colorful key chain puzzles that round out the presentation. Included in the text is a brief history of the Daisy BB Gun--complete with a Daisy BB gun chronology, instructions for determining whether a BB gun is functional or broken, and valuable advice for dating shooting toys with patent numbers, area codes, and zip codes. Price ranges are also provided for the toys shown.
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