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Diffuse interface (D.I.) model for muliphase flows.- Phase separation of viscous ternary liquid mixtures.- Dewetting and decomposing films of simple and complex liquids.- Phase-field models.
Multiphase flows are typically described assuming that the different phases are separated by a sharp interface, with appropriate boundary conditions. This approach breaks down whenever the lengthscale of the phenomenon that is being studied is comparable with the real interface thickness, as it happens, for example, in the coalescence and breakup of bubbles and drops, the wetting and dewetting of solid surfaces and, in general, im micro-devices. The diffuse interface model resolves these problems by assuming that all quantities can vary continuously, so that interfaces have a non-zero thickness, i.e. they are "diffuse." The contributions in this book review the theory and describe some relevant applications of the diffuse interface model for one-component, two-phase fluids and for liquid binary mixtures, to model multiphase flows in confined geometries.
This volume documents the first International Workshop on Atomic Scale Interconnection Machines organised by the European Integrated Project AtMol in June 2011 in Singapore. The four sessions, discussed here in revised contributions by high level speakers, span the subjects of multi-probe UHV instrumentation, atomic scale nano-material nanowires characterization, atomic scale surface conductance measurements, surface atomic scale mechanical machineries. This state-of-the-art account brings academic researchers and industry engineers access to the tools they need to be at the forefront of the atomic scale technology revolution.
3D printing has rapidly established itself as an essential enabling technology within research and industrial chemistry laboratories. Since the early 2000s, when the first research papers applying this technique began to emerge, the uptake by the chemistry community has been both diverse and extraordinary, and there is little doubt that this fascinating technology will continue to have a major impact upon the chemical sciences going forward. This book provides a timely and extensive review of the reported applications of 3D Printing techniques across all fields of chemical science. Describing, comparing, and contrasting the capabilities of all the current 3D printing technologies, this book provides both background information and reader inspiration, to enable users to fully exploit this developing technology further to advance their research, materials and products. It will be of interest across the chemical sciences in research and industrial laboratories, for chemists and engineers alike, as well as the wider science community.
Graphene has emerged as a potential candidate to replace traditional CMOS for a number of electronic applications; this book presents the latest advances in graphene nanoelectronics and the potential benefits of using graphene in a wide variety of electronic applications. The book also provides details on various methods to grow graphene, including epitaxial, CVD, and chemical methods. This book serves as a spring-board for anyone trying to start working on graphene. The book is also suitable to experts who wish to update themselves with the latest findings in the field.
The book describes first the principle photon generation processes from nuclear reactions, electron motion and from discrete quantum transitions. It then focuses on the use of photons in various selected fields of modern natural and life sciences. It bridges disciplines such as physics, chemistry, earth- and materials science, proteomics, information technology, photoelectrochemistry, photosynthesis and spintronics. Advanced light sources and their use in natural and life sciences are emphasized and the effects related to the quantum nature of photons (quantum computing, teleportation) are described. The content encompasses among many other examples the role of photons on the origin of life and on homochirality in biology, femtosecond laser slicing, photothermal cancer therapy, the use of gamma rays in materials science, photoelectrochemical surface conditioning, quantum information aspects and photo-spintronics. The book is written for scientists and graduate students from all related disciplines who are interested in the science beyond their immediate research field. It is meant to encourage interdisciplinary research and development in an age where nanoscience results in a convergence of formerly more disparate science.
This book contains a selection of papers presented at the 16th AISEM ( Associazione Italiana Sensori e Microsistemi ) National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems, held in Rome 7-9 February 2011. The conference highlighted updated results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and microsystems. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications.
Metal-dielectric interfaces are ubiquitous in modern electronics. As advanced gigascale electronic devices continue to shrink, the stability of these interfaces is becoming an increasingly important issue that has a profound impact on the operational reliability of these devices. In this book, the authors present the basic science underlying the thermal and electrical stability of metal-dielectric interfaces and its relationship to the operation of advanced interconnect systems in gigascale electronics. Interface phenomena, including chemical reactions between metals and dielectrics, metallic-atom diffusion, and ion drift, are discussed based on fundamental physical and chemical principles. Schematic diagrams are provided throughout the book to illustrate interface phenomena and the principles that govern them. Metal-Dielectric Interfaces in Gigascale Electronics provides a unifying approach to the diverse and sometimes contradictory test results that are reported in the literature on metal-dielectric interfaces. The goal is to provide readers with a clear account of the relationship between interface science and its applications in interconnect structures. The material presented here will also be of interest to those engaged in field-effect transistor and memristor device research, as well as university researchers and industrial scientists working in the areas of electronic materials processing, semiconductor manufacturing, memory chips, and IC design.
This book addresses reliability and energy efficiency of on-chip networks using cooperative error control. It describes an efficient way to construct an adaptive error control codec capable of tracking noise conditions and adjusting the error correction strength at runtime. Methods are also presented to tackle joint transient and permanent error correction, exploiting the redundant resources already available on-chip. A parallel and flexible network simulator is also introduced, which facilitates examining the impact of various error control methods on network-on-chip performance.
Most books about continuous and process improvement are written in a textbook format with straightforward information and plenty of graphs and charts to convey the points being made. Sometimes, even the best step-by-step instructions can escape even the most adamant of followers for an improvement method in determining exactly how to apply what they've learned. Taking a different approach, Focus and Leverage is presented in an engaging business-novel format and is a sequel to the authors' bestselling book, Epiphanized, Second Edition. The primary characters remain the same, but this time the storyline features two different industries: Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul (MRO) and Healthcare (hospital) environments. This book expands and highlights the two improvement methods first introduced in the appendix section of Epiphanized: the Interference Diagram (ID)/Intermediate Objectives (IO) map (ID/IO Simplified Strategy) and Multiple-Drum-Buffer-Rope (M-DBR). Both of these innovative methods are the result of some much-focused thinking that allows for multiple improvement methods, and steps, to be combined into a single thinking process tool. This groundbreaking new method is designed to save time and money and allows faster and better results to be achieved. The two storylines move the reader through the necessary system analysis, problem identification, and solution implementation. The novel format aids in presenting several realistic situational discussions as well as a multitude of graphs and figures to explain the step-by-step process for success. The storyline of this book weaves some well-known and some not-so-well-known thinking tools into the problem-solving sphere to provide you with an understanding of how to first discover and then overcome issues not readily known or expected at the start of any project.
This book presents a mechatronic approach to Active Noise Control (ANC). It describes the required elements of system theory, engineering acoustics, electroacoustics and adaptive signal processing in a comprehensive, consistent and systematic manner using a unified notation. Furthermore, it includes a design methodology for ANC-systems, explains its application and describes tools to be used for ANC-system design. From the research point of view, the book presents new approaches to sound source localization in weakly damped interiors. One is based on the inverse finite element method, the other is based on a sound intensity probe with an active free field. Furthermore, a prototype of an ANC-system able to reach the physical limits of local (feed-forward) ANC is described. This is one example for applied research in ANC-system design. Other examples are given for (i) local ANC in a semi-enclosed subspace of an aircraft cargo hold and (ii) for the combination of audio entertainment with ANC.
The book contains 26 scientific contributions by leading experts from Russia, Austria, Italy, Japan and Taiwan. It presents an overview on recent developments in Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines. Main topics are nonlinear control of structures and systems, sensing and actuation, active and passive damping, nano- and micromechanics, vibrations and waves.
With the increasing complexity and dynamism in today's product design and manufacturing, more optimal, robust and practical approaches and systems are needed to support product design and manufacturing activities. Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimisation for Product Design and Manufacturing presents a focused collection of quality chapters on state-of-the-art research efforts in multi-objective evolutionary optimisation, as well as their practical applications to integrated product design and manufacturing. Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimisation for Product Design and Manufacturing consists of two major sections. The first presents a broad-based review of the key areas of research in multi-objective evolutionary optimisation. The second gives in-depth treatments of selected methodologies and systems in intelligent design and integrated manufacturing. Recent developments and innovations in multi-objective evolutionary optimisation make Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimisation for Product Design and Manufacturing a useful text for a broad readership, from academic researchers to practicing engineers.
The apparel and textiles industry is one of the industries most affected by globalization, and involves complex relationships that are constantly evolving. This carefully-researched book, formally Plunkett's Apparel & Textiles Industry Almanac, covers exciting trends in apparel and textile supply chains; manufacturing; design; women's, men's and children's fashions; shoes; accessories; retailing; trade; distribution; technologies; and smart fabrics. It includes a thorough market analysis as well as our highly respected trends analysis. It also includes thousands of contacts for business and industry leaders, industry associations, Internet sites and other resources. In addition, this book features extensive statistical tables, an industry glossary and thorough indexes. We are careful to detail the latest developments in global trade agreements, third party logistics and retail chain stores, along with important news from China and other emerging nations. The corporate profiles section of the book includes our proprietary, in-depth profiles of the 350 leading companies in all facets of the apparel and textiles industry. Major retailers, distributors, manufacturers and designers are covered thoroughly. You'll find a complete overview, industry analysis and market research report in one superb, value-priced package.
This book covers additive manufacturing of polymers, metals, ceramics, fiber reinforced polymer composites, energy harvesting materials, and biomaterials. Hybrid manufacturing is discussed. Topology optimization methodology is described and finite element software examples are provided. The book is ideal for graduate students and career starters in the industry.
Nanofabrication is critical to the realization of potential benefits in the field of electronics, bioengineering and material science. One enabling technology in nanofabrication is Tip-Based Nanofabrication, which makes use of functionalized micro-cantilevers with nanoscale tips. Tip-Based Nanofabrication: Fundamentals and Applications discusses the development of cantilevered nanotips and how they evolved from scanning probe microscopy and are able to manipulate environments at nanoscale on substrates generating different nanoscale patterns and structures. Also covered are the advantages of ultra-high resolution capability, how to use tip based nanofabrication technology as a tool in the manufacturing of nanoscale structures, single-probe tip technologies, multiple-probe tip methodology, 3-D modeling using tip based nanofabrication and the latest in imaging technology.
Tutorial lectures given by world-renowned researchers have become one of the important traditions of the Nano and Giga Challenges (NGC) conference series. 1 Soon after preparations had begun for the rst forum, NGC2002, in Moscow, Russia, the organizers realized that publication of the lectures notes would be a va- able legacy of the meeting and a signi cant educational resource and knowledge base for students, young researchers, and senior experts. Our rst book was p- lished by Elsevier and received the same title as the meeting itself-Nano and Giga 2 Challenges in Microelectronics. Our second book, Nanotechnology for Electronic 3 4 Materials and Devices, based on the tutorial lectures at NGC2004 in Krakow, 5 Poland, the third book from NGC2007 in Phoenix, Arizona, and the current book 6 from joint NGC2009 and CSTC2009 meeting in Hamilton, Ontario, have been published in Springer's Nanostructure Science and Technology series. Hosted by McMaster University, the meeting NGC/CSTC 2009 was held as a joint event of two conference series, Nano and Giga Challenges (Nano & Giga Forum) and Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conferences (CSTC), bringing together the networks and expertise of both professional forums. Informational (electronics and photonics), renewable energy (solar systems, fuel cells, and batteries), and sensor (nano and bio) technologies have reached a new stage in their development in terms of engineering limits to cost-effective impro- ment of current technological approaches. The latest miniaturization of electronic devices is approaching atomic dimensions.
-Shear-Induced Transitions and Instabilities in Surfactant Wormlike Micelles By S. Lerouge, J.-F. Berret -Laser-Interferometric Creep Rate Spectroscopy of Polymers By V. A. Bershtein, P. N. Yakushev -Polymer Nanocomposites for Electro-Optics: Perspectives on Processing Technologies, Material Characterization, and Future Application K. Matras-Postolek, D. Bogdal
Clothing for Children and Teenagers: Anthropometry, Sizing and Fit addresses the complexities of developing size specifications for clothing aimed at seven to seventeen year olds. Children and teenagers experience rapid physical growth and alterations in body shape as they develop-changes that pose significant challenges in creating apparel sizing systems. The book begins by introducing the principles of apparel fit and sizing systems. Drawing on the author's own fieldwork, it goes on to discuss methods of conducting anthropometric surveys in children and teenagers, and techniques for analyzing the resulting data in order to produce successful sizing systems.
This book showcases the state of the art in the field of sensors and microsystems, revealing the impressive potential of novel methodologies and technologies. It covers a broad range of aspects, including: bio-, physical and chemical sensors; actuators; micro- and nano-structured materials; mechanisms of interaction and signal transduction; polymers and biomaterials; sensor electronics and instrumentation; analytical microsystems, recognition systems and signal analysis; and sensor networks, as well as manufacturing technologies, environmental, food and biomedical applications. The book gathers a selection of papers presented at the 19th AISEM National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems. Held in Lecce, Italy in February 2017, the event brought together researchers, end users, technology teams and policy makers.
Due to their rare combination of high chemical stability, exceptional optical and electrical properties, high surface-to-volume ratio, and high aspect ratio, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have made an enormous impact on materials science, molecular biology, biomedicine, and bioanalytical chemistry. Carbon Nanotubes: Methods and Protocols provides reliable, consistent protocols on the application of CNTs in molecular biology-related fields. These are of vital importance, as the commercially available CNTs differ in purity, agglomeration state, as well as length and diameter distribution, all of which have a profound influence on the dispersability and surface properties of the tubes. The volume contains detailed sections on functionalization, toxicity, trafficking, scaffolds, and biosensors, provided by expert researchers from various fields. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Carbon Nanotubes: Methods and Protocols serves to contribute to the achievement of common standards and helps researchers to avoid discrepancies in future biology-related CNT studies.
Research and development of various parallel mechanism applications in engineering are now being performed more and more actively in every industrial field. Parallel robot based machine tools development is considered a key technology of robot applications in manufacturing industries. The material covered here describes the basic theory, approaches, and algorithms in the field of parallel robot based machine tools. In addition families of new alternative mechanical architectures which can be used for machine tools with parallel architecture are introduced. Given equal importance is the design of mechanism systems such as kinematic analysis, stiffness analysis, kinetostatic modeling, and optimization.
This book focuses on chemical and nanophotonic technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices and systems. It begins with temperature- and photo-induced phase transition of ferromagnetic materials. Further topics include: energy transfer in artificial photosynthesis, homoepitaxial multiple quantum wells in ZnO, near-field photochemical etching and nanophotonic devices based on a nonadiabatic process and optical near-field energy transfer, respectively and polarization control in the optical near-field for optical information security. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics. Written for: Scientists, optical engineers and graduate students
Changing world market conditions have forced manufacturers to apply new architectures and technologies for the design and control of manufacturing systems. Distributed Manufacturing: Paradigm, Concepts, Solutions and Examples outlines the current requirements of manufacturing systems and addresses the architectures, methodologies, and technologies developed within European research activities in response to these requirements.
Distributed Manufacturing: Paradigm, Concepts, Solutions and Examples will be of interest to researchers and developers in all fields involving industrial control systems, as well as to decision-makers within industry and government organizations. The reader will gain a detailed knowledge of the current research directions in industrial control, reaching a comprehensive understanding of current advances, their expected benefits and limitations, and the possible consequences for industrial businesses.
Green Power: Perspectives on Sustainable Electricity Generation provides a systematic overview of the current state of green power and renewable electrical energy production in the world. Presenting eight in-depth case studies of green power production and dissemination, it illustrates the experiences and best practices of various countries on this topic of critical importance. The book's case studies provide readers with policy, business, and societal perspectives. They examine the differences in each country's natural endowments, cultural make-up, technological development, public-policy concerns, and institutional incentive structures relative to the advancement of green and sustainable energy. Considers China's energy profile and what is being done to reduce the country's reliance on coal Describes the cultural foundations and institutional environment that gave birth to Germany's energy revolution Supplies an overview of the renewable energy sector in Spain and analyzes its future prospects in light of recent economic difficulties Reports on French Polynesia's progress in its quest to generate half of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020 Investigates the feasibility of biomass as a large-scale electricity generation option Explores the vision of power generation in space that could solve mankind's energy needs permanently By illustrating the experiences of other nations, the book outlines valuable lessons learned and best practices that can be extremely helpful to other countries as they seek a greener energy profile. Supplying a timely overview of renewable and non-renewable electric power sources, it provides in-depth analysis of the key factors that affect success. It also identifies practices that have been precursors to failure so you can avoid making the same mistakes in your quest to contribute to the long-overdue advancement of green energy.
Piano Makers in Russia in the Nineteenth Century is a richly detailed thematic study of the history of the piano in Russian society from its beginnings with the European artisans who settled in St. Petersburg in the early decades of the century through the transition to Russian-owned family firms. The piano played a defining role in the shaping of Russia's musical culture in the nineteenth century, as artisans and entrepreneurs provided the foundation for the great tradition of the Russian virtuoso in the performance and the composition of piano music. It also helped bring about a transformative change in the material culture as the piano expanded its reach from the court and the nobility to include music enthusiasts from all social classes and Russian families in their homes. This historical study brings to light the impact of neglected piano artisans in nineteenth-century Russia, and presents a fresh view of the social and economic ties between the state and the piano-manufacturing artisans in an era largely defined by handcrafting and entrepreneurship. It contributes significantly to current issues surrounding the role of the piano and the entrepreneur-artisans in the urban centers of imperial Russia and represents an expansion of what is currently known about the piano builders who established workshops in Russia beginning in the late 1830s and 1840s, well before the heyday of the virtuoso in that country. Rare documents, including letters, memoirs, gazettes, exhibition catalogs, music journals, and administrative reports, form the nucleus of this book and provide fascinating insights about state and private patronage and the class/economic issues related to the affordability and prestige of the piano in Russia. Issues surrounding the transformation of the music industry in Russia, the role of women as patrons and performers, the exportation of instruments to the Russian Far East, and the complex system of tariffs and trade protection that benefited domestic piano manufacturers provide this book's thematic links. Conclusions indicate that while favorable tariff laws and state-imposed economic policies benefited the family-owned firms in the nineteenth century, they remained in effect in the decades after the nationalization of the piano industry in 1917.
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