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When setting out to decide on the content of DNA Repair Protocols: Prokaryotic Systems, I was conscious of the need to portray the vast array of pathways and enzymatic activities that are part of the discipline of DNA repair. In addition to the classical DNA repair activities, I wanted to convey the significant interest that has been generated in recent years in the use of the proteins and repair systems as research tools, much like the use of restriction enzymes over the last few decades. Therefore, in addition to chapters deta- ing protocols for investigating specific repair activities, I have included s- eral chapters in this book on the applied use of DNA repair proteins and systems. The many years of research on bacterial DNA repair systems have allowed us to really understand the majority of DNA repair pathways in bac- rial cells. Building on this knowledge, research has lead to major advances in understanding mammalian DNA repair and uncovered its links to human d- ease, such as DNA mismatch repair and colon cancer, nucleotide excision repair and xeroderma pigmentosum, DNA helicase function in Bloom's s- drome, and so on. Such have been the advances that Science magazine iden- fied the collective DNA repair systems as its "Molecule of the Year" in 1994.
Our ability to manipulate the genome of living organisms for the
elucidation of gene function in vivo has improved dramatically over
the last decade. Genetic Manipulation of Receptor Expression and
Function provides a comprehensive review of the principles and
applications for genetic manipulation of receptor expression and
function. By providing the necessary conceptual framework of
transgenic and knockout technologies, Genetic Manipulation of
Receptor Expression and Function offers a concise and easily
accessible analysis for researchers. The material reviews the
numerous advances in the field of transgenic technology allowing
researchers to alter expression and function in the mouse genome.
Cutting edge reviews by leading researchers illuminate key aspects of DNA repair in mammalian systems and its relationship to human genetic disease and cancer. Major topics include UV and X-Ray repair, repair of chemical damage, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, transcription-repair coupling, and the role of DNA repair in disease prevention. Extensive up-to-date references and rigorous peer-review of each chapter make this volume definitive and bring it to the active frontiers of research.
The current explosive progress in molecular biological research can be definitively traced to the development of molecular cloning technology. The ability to insert specific gene sequences into cloning vectors and their subse- quent expansion is the cornerstone of modem molecular biology. A direct practical outcome of molecular cloning technology is its application to ex- press specific recombinant genes. Currently, recombinant gene products are used in a wide spectrum of applications, including gene therapy, production of bioactive pharmaceuticals, synthesis of novel biopolymers, in agriculture and animal husbandry, and so on. A fundamental requirement for successful recombinant gene expression is the design of the cloning vector and the choice of the host organism for expression. Recombinant Gene Expression Protocols grows out of the need for a laboratory manual that provides the reader the background and rationale, as well as the practical protocols for the preparation of "expression constructs" and their introduction into appropriate host cells and/or organisms. The chap- ters in this book are grouped by their expression hosts, including E. coli, yeast, mammalian cells, nonmammalian eukaryotes such as plants, Xenopus, and insects, as well as in transgenic organisms. In-depth information is presented on the important characteristics of expression cloning vectors and the various methods for efficiently introducing expression constructs into target cells and/ or organisms. Throughout Recombinant Gene Expression Protocols, the authors have consistently striven for a balanced presentation of both background informa- tion and actual laboratory details.
James Watson, a discoverer of the structure of DNA, described it as "the most golden of molecules," the true chemical for life. Indeed, it is the essential component from which our genes are made. In it is encoded the genetic language that controls our destinies. Astonishingly powerful, just six millionths of a gram of DNA carries as much information as ten volumes of the Oxford English Dictionary.
The "Book of Man," is the term used by Walter Bodmer and Robin McKie for the DNA that is the instruction set according to which all humans are made. At conception, a single cell--the fertilized egg--is produced, and it is this one cell that has the potential to form a new and unique individual under the guidance of the DNA within its nucleus. The human body is made up of a hundred million million cells of many different sorts, and all contain the inherited information that comes from that first, single cell created at fertilization. Bodmer and McKie assert that when we learn how to read DNA's pages and chapters we will obtain the information relevant to the understanding of most diseases, individual differences in behavior, and a new awareness of our own history and evolution. The Book of Man explores how genetic information is now being read and interpreted by focusing on biology's most ambitious undertaking to date--the Human Genome Project, an attempt to uncover all the 100,000 genes that control our development and detail the DNA alphabet of each. The authors go on to wrestle with the moral and ethical issues of modern genetics, making a case for a rational appraisal of genetic engineering and for the public to become sufficiently "DNA literate" in order to appreciate the crucial role it plays in our lives.
From Gregor Mendel's discovery of the laws of inheritance to the high-tech, crime-stopping power of forensics science and the fascinating but sometimes troublesome implications of the latest science of genetic engineering, The Book of Man brilliantly explores and explains the quest that is changing our understanding of what it means to be a human being.
This book describes the driving forces behind the evolutionary process at the molecular and genome levels, the effects of the various molecular mechanisms on the structure of genes, proteins, and genomes, the methodology and the analytical tools involved in dealing with molecular data from an evolutionary perspective, and the logic of evolutionary hypothesis testing. Evolutionary phenomena at the molecular level are detailed in a way that can be understood without much prerequisite knowledge of molecular biology, evolution, or mathematics. Numerous examples that support and clarify the theoretical arguments and methodological discussions are included.
Mechanisms of DNA Recombination and Genome Rearrangements: Intersection between Homologous Recombination, DNA Replication and DNA Repair, Volume 601, the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Homologous genetic recombination remains the most enigmatic process in DNA metabolism. The molecular machines of recombination preserve the integrity of the genetic material in all organisms and generate genetic diversity in evolution. The same molecular machines that support genetic integrity by orchestrating accurate repair of the most deleterious DNA lesions, however, also promote survival of cancerous cells and emergence of radiation and chemotherapy resistance. This two-volume set offers a comprehensive set of cutting edge methods to study various aspects of homologous recombination and cellular processes that utilize the enzymatic machinery of recombination. The chapters are written by the leading researches and cover a broad range of topics from the basic molecular mechanisms of recombinational proteins and enzymes to emerging cellular techniques and drug discovery efforts.
To harness the high-throughput potential of DNA microarray technology, it is crucial that the analysis stages of the process are decoupled from the requirements of operator assistance. Microarray Image Analysis An Algorithmic Approach presents an automatic system for microarray image processing to make this decoupling a reality. The proposed system integrates and extends traditional analytical-based methods and custom-designed novel algorithms.
The book first explores a new technique that takes advantage of a multiview approach to image analysis and addresses the challenges of applying powerful traditional techniques, such as clustering, to full-scale microarray experiments. It then presents an effective feature identification approach, an innovative technique that renders highly detailed surface models, a new approach to subgrid detection, a novel technique for the background removal process, and a useful technique for removing "noise." The authors also develop an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for modeling gene regulatory networks from gene expression time series data. The final chapter describes the overall benefits of these techniques in the biological and computer sciences and reviews future research topics.
This book systematically brings together the fields of image processing, data analysis, and molecular biology to advance the state of the art in this important area. Although the text focuses on improving the processes involved in the analysis of microarray image data, the methods discussed can be applied to a broad range of medical and computer vision analysis areas.
Providing an interface between dry-bench bioinformaticians and wet-lab biologists, DNA Methylation Microarrays: "Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis" presents the statistical methods and tools to analyze high-throughput epigenomic data, in particular, DNA methylation microarray data. Since these microarrays share the same underlying principles as gene expression microarrays, many of the analyses in the text also apply to microarray-based gene expression and histone modification (ChIP-on-chip) studies.
After introducing basic statistics, the book describes wet-bench technologies that produce the data for analysis and explains how to preprocess the data to remove systematic artifacts resulting from measurement imperfections. It then explores differential methylation and genomic tiling arrays. Focusing on exploratory data analysis, the next several chapters show how cluster and network analyses can link the functions and roles of unannotated DNA elements with known ones. The book concludes by surveying the open source software (R and Bioconductor), public databases, and other online resources available for microarray research.
Requiring only limited knowledge of statistics and programming, this book helps readers gain a solid understanding of the methodological foundations of DNA microarray analysis.
This is an introductory text and laboratory manual to be used primarily in undergraduate courses. It is also useful for graduate students and research scientists who require an introduction to the theory and methods of nanopore sequencing. The book has clear explanations of the principles of this emerging technology, together with instructional material written by experts that describes how to use a MinION nanopore instrument for sequencing in research or the classroom.At Harvard University the book serves as a textbook and lab manual for a university laboratory course designed to intensify the intellectual experience of incoming undergraduates while exploring biology as a field of concentration. Nanopore sequencing is an ideal topic as a path to encourage students about the range of courses they will take in Biology by pre-emptively addressing the complaint about having to take a course in Physics or Maths while majoring in Biology. The book addresses this complaint by concretely demonstrating the range of topics - from electricity to biochemistry, protein structure, molecular engineering, and informatics - that a student will have to master in subsequent courses if he or she is to become a scientist who truly understands what his or her biology instrument is measuring when investigating biological phenomena.
"Genomic Control Process" explores the biological phenomena around genomic regulatory systems that control and shape animal development processes, and which determine the nature of evolutionary processes that affect body plan. Unifying and simplifying the descriptions of development and evolution by focusing on the causality in these processes, it provides a comprehensive method of considering genomic control across diverse biological processes.
This book is essential for graduate researchers in genomics,
systems biology and molecular biology seeking to understand deep
biological processes which regulate the structure of animals during
development. Covers a vast area of current biological research to
produce a genome oriented regulatory bioscience of animal life
Places gene regulation, embryonic and postembryonic development,
and evolution of the body plan in a unified conceptual
frameworkProvides the conceptual keys to interpret a broad
developmental and evolutionary landscape with precise experimental
illustrations drawn from contemporary literatureIncludes a range of
material, from developmental phenomenology to quantitative and
logic models, from phylogenetics to the molecular biology of gene
regulation, from animal models of all kinds to evidence of every
relevant typeDemonstrates the causal power of system-level
understanding of genomic control process
A Step-by-Step Guide to Describing Biomolecular Structure Computational and Visualization Techniques for Structural Bioinformatics Using Chimera shows how to perform computations with Python scripts in the Chimera environment. It focuses on the three core areas needed to study structural bioinformatics: biochemistry, mathematics, and computation. Understand Important Concepts of Structural Bioinformatics The book covers topics that deal primarily with protein structure and includes many exercises that are grounded in biological problems at the molecular level. The text encourages mathematical analysis by providing a firm foundation for computations. It analyzes numerous Python scripts for the Chimera environment, with the scripts and other material available on a supplementary website. Build Python Scripts to Extend the Capabilities of Chimera Through more than 60 exercises that involve the development of Python scripts, the book gives you concrete guidance on using the scripting capabilities of Chimera. You'll gain experience in solving real problems as well as understand the various applications of linear algebra. You can also use the scripts as starting points for the development of similar applications and use classes from the StructBio toolkit for computations, such as structure overlap, data plotting, scenographics, and display of residue networks.
Through the use of dramatic narratives, The Drama of DNA brings to
life the complexities raised by the application of genomic
technologies to health care and diagnosis. This creative,
pedagogical approach shines a unique light on the ethical,
psychosocial, and policy challenges that emerge as comprehensive
sequencing of the human genome transitions from research to
clinical medicine. Narrative genomics aims to enhance understanding
of how we evaluate, process, and share genomic information, and to
cultivate a deeper appreciation for difficult decisions encountered
by health care professionals, bioethicists, families, and society
as this technology reaches the bedside.
This new volume of "Current Topics in Developmental Biology"
covers epigenetics and development, with contributions from an
international board of authors. The chapters provide a
comprehensive set of reviews covering such topics as epigenetic
marking of the zebrafish developmental program, functions of DNA
methylation and hydroxymethylation in mammalian development, and
reprogramming and the pluripotent stem cell cycle.
Sequencing is often associated with the Human Genome Project and celebrated achievements concerning the DNA molecule. However, the history of this practice comprises not only academic biology, but also the world of computer-assisted information management. The book uncovers this history, qualifying the hype and expectations around genomics.
This new volume in the "Current topics in Developmental Biology"
series concentrates on MicroRNAs in Development. It includes
chapters on such topics as miRNA networks in neuronal development,
let-7 in development, and Hox networks and miRNA. With an
international team of authors, this volume is a must-have addition
for researchers and students alike.
RNA Interference (RNAi) technology has rapidly become one of the key methods used in functional genomics. RNAi is used to block the expression of genes and create phenotypes that can potentially yield clues about the function of these genes. In the postgenomic era, the elucidation of the physiological function of genes has become the rate-limiting step in the quest to develop 'gene-based drugs' and RNAi could potentially play a pivotal role in the validation of such novel drugs. In this 2005 overview, the basic concepts and applications of RNAi biology are discussed. Leading experts from both academia and industry have contributed to this invaluable reference. The volume is forwarded by Andrew Fire, one of the winners of the 2006 Nobel Prize for the discovery of RNA Interference.
This unique introduction to the growing field of microfluidics applied to genomics provides an overview of the latest technologies and emphasizes its potential in answering important biological questions. Written by a physicist and a biologist, it offers a more comprehensive view than the previous literature. The book starts with key ideas in molecular biology, developmental biology and microtechnology before going on to cover the specifics of single cell analysis and microfluidic devices for single cell molecular analysis. Review chapters discuss the state-of-the art and will prove invaluable to all those planning to develop microdevices for molecular analysis of single cells. Methods allowing complete analysis of gene expression in the single cell are stressed - as opposed the more commonly used techniques that allow analysis of only a few genes at a time. As pioneers in the field, the authors understand how critical it is for a physicist to understand the biological issues and questions related to single cell analysis, as well for biologists to understand what microfluidics is all about. Aimed predominantly at graduate students, this book will also be of significant interest to scientists working in or affiliated with this field.
Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is used to discover the genetic and molecular architecture underlying complex quantitative traits. It has important applications in agricultural, evolutionary, and biomedical research. R/qtl is an extensible, interactive environment for QTL mapping in experimental crosses. It is implemented as a package for the widely used open source statistical software R and contains a diverse array of QTL mapping methods, diagnostic tools for ensuring high-quality data, and facilities for the fit and exploration of multiple-QTL models, including QTL x QTL and QTL x environment interactions. This book is a comprehensive guide to the practice of QTL mapping and the use of R/qtl, including study design, data import and simulation, data diagnostics, interval mapping and generalizations, two-dimensional genome scans, and the consideration of complex multiple-QTL models. Two moderately challenging case studies illustrate QTL analysis in its entirety.
The book alternates between QTL mapping theory and examples illustrating the use of R/qtl. Novice readers will find detailed explanations of the important statistical concepts and, through the extensive software illustrations, will be able to apply these concepts in their own research. Experienced readers will find details on the underlying algorithms and the implementation of extensions to R/qtl. There are 150 figures, including 90 in full color.
It will be some time beforewe see Relax, there's nothing wrong with the "slime, protoplasm, &c. "generating transpositionpaper. People aren't a new animal. ButI have long readyforthisyet. Istopped publishing regretted that I truckled to public in refereed journals in 1965 because opinion,andusedthePentateuchal therewas nointerest in themaize term of creation,by which I really controlling elements. meant "appeared" by some wholly Barbara McClintockto Mel Green, unknownprocess. It is mere rubbish, 1969 thinking at presentof theorigin of life; onemight as well think of the originof matter. Charles Darwin to James D. Hooker, March29, 1863 Sometimes my students and others have asked me: "what was ?rst in evo- tion - retroviruses or retrotransposons?" Since HowardTemin proposed that retrovirusesevolvedfromretrotransposons(Temin1980;Teminetal. 1995)the other alternative that retroviruses emerged ?rst and were the predecessors of LTR-retrotransposons has since been a controversial issue (Terzian et al. , this BOOK). While DNA-transposons could not have existed in an ancestral R- world by de?nition, sure enough, some arguments de?nitely point towards apre-DNAworldscenarioinwhichretroelementswerethedirectdescendants of the earliest replicators representing the emergence of life. First, these rep- cators likely catalyzed their own or other's replication cycles via the catalytic properties of RNA molecules. After translation had emerged some replicators possibly encoded an RNA polymerase ?rst. This later evolved into reverse transcriptase(RT),i. e. themostprominentkey-factoratthetransitionintothe DNA world. Simultaneously, replicators could also have encoded membrane protein-genessuchastheenvgeneofrecentDNA-proviruses. Membraneswere likely present muchearlier as prebioticoily ?lms that supported theevolution of a prebiotic-protometabolism (Dyson 1999; Grif?ths 2007).
Epigenetics refers to heritable patterns of gene expression which do not depend on alterations of genomic DNA sequence.
This book provides a state-of-the-art account of a few selected hot spots by scientists at the edge in this extremely active field. It puts special emphasis on two main streams of research. One is the role of post-translational modifications of proteins, mostly histones, on chromatin structure and accessibility. The other one deals with parental genomic imprinting, a process which allows to express a few selected genes from only one of the parental allele while extinguishing the other.
Inferring the precise locations and splicing patterns of genes in DNA is a difficult but important task, with broad applications to biomedicine. The mathematical and statistical techniques that have been applied to this problem are surveyed and organized into a logical framework based on the theory of parsing. Both established approaches and methods at the forefront of current research are discussed. Numerous case studies of existing software systems are provided, in addition to detailed examples that work through the actual implementation of effective gene-predictors using hidden Markov models and other machine-learning techniques. Background material on probability theory, discrete mathematics, computer science, and molecular biology is provided, making the book accessible to students and researchers from across the life and computational sciences. This book is ideal for use in a first course in bioinformatics at graduate or advanced undergraduate level, and for anyone wanting to keep pace with this rapidly-advancing field.
Microarray Technology, Volumes 1 and 2, present information in designing and fabricating arrays and binding studies with biological analytes. This is done while providing the reader with a broad description of microarray technology tools and their potential applications. The first volume deals with methods and protocols for the preparation of microarrays. The second volume details applications and data analysis, which is important in analyzing the enormous data coming out of microarray experiments. Microarray Technology, Volumes 1 and 2, provide ample information to all levels of scientists from novice to those intimately familiar with array technology.
How has DNA come to be seen as a cosmic truth, representative of
all life, potential for all cures, repository for all identity, and
end to all stories? In "The Poetics of DNA," Judith Roof examines
the rise of this powerful symbol and the implications of its
ascendancy for the ways we think-about ourselves, about one
another, and about the universe.
Quantitative traits-be they morphological or physiological characters, aspects of behavior, or genome-level features such as the amount of RNA or protein expression for a specific gene-usually show considerable variation within and among populations. Quantitative genetics, also referred to as the genetics of complex traits, is the study of such characters and is based on mathematical models of evolution in which many genes influence the trait and in which non-genetic factors may also be important. Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits presents a holistic treatment of the subject, showing the interplay between theory and data with extensive discussions on statistical issues relating to the estimation of the biologically relevant parameters for these models. Quantitative genetics is viewed as the bridge between complex mathematical models of trait evolution and real-world data, and the authors have clearly framed their treatment as such. This is the second volume in a planned trilogy that summarizes the modern field of quantitative genetics, informed by empirical observations from wide-ranging fields (agriculture, evolution, ecology, and human biology) as well as population genetics, statistical theory, mathematical modeling, genetics, and genomics. Whilst volume 1 (1998) dealt with the genetics of such traits, the main focus of volume 2 is on their evolution, with a special emphasis on detecting selection (ranging from the use of genomic and historical data through to ecological field data) and examining its consequences.
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