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"We are sure that DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications will play
its part in promoting this most powerful tool in the forensic
Because it consists of a number of complex steps and procedures subject to both scientific and legal standards, the collection, analysis, presentation, and interpretation of DNA evidence remains a complex process. Any procedural or documentary misstep can potentially render key evidence or testimony useless. To avoid such costly errors, scientists, law enforcement personnel, attorneys, and judges all must possess a detailed knowledge of how forensic DNA works, from the crime scene to the laboratory to the courtroom and beyond.
DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date guide to this important and increasingly prevalent legal tool. Designed to reach readers in both legal and scientific fields, this text gives a global view of the practical issues involved in the forensic use of DNA. In clear, nontechnical language, the text covers:
In a unique combination of legal practice and scientific analysis, DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications provides forensic scientists, potential expert witnesses, and professionals in the criminal justice system with the definitive resource on the methods of DNA analysis as well as the handling, potential, and limitations of DNA evidence.
"Genome Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis" is a concise introduction to the subject, successfully bringing together these three key areas of research. Starting with a revision of molecular genetics the book offers clear explanations of the tools and techniques widely used in genome, transcriptome and proteome analysis. Subsequent chapters offer a broad overview of linkage maps, physical maps and genome sequencing, with a final discussion on the identification of genes responsible for disease.
An invaluable introduction to the basic concepts of the subject, this text offers the student an excellent overview of current research methods and applications and is a good starting point for those new to the area.A clear, concise introduction to the subject of modern genomic analysisA technology-oriented approach including the latest developments in the fieldInvaluable to those students taking courses in Bioinformatics, Human Genetics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
This book provides an overview of the latest advancements in the field of alien introgression in wheat. The discovery and wide application of molecular genetic techniques including molecular markers, in situ hybridization, and genomics has led to a surge in interspecific and intergeneric hybridization in recent decades. The work begins with the taxonomy of cereals, especially of those species which are potential gene sources for wheat improvement. The text then goes on to cover the origin of wheat, breeding in connection with alien introgressions, and the problems of producing intergeneric hybrids and backcross derivatives. These problems can include crossability, sterility, and unequal chromosome transmission. The work then covers alien introgressions according to the related species used, as well as new results in the field of genomics of wild wheat relatives and introgressions.
The primary purpose of this volume is to demonstrate the range of applications of the Pyrosequencing technology in research and diagnostics and to provide detailed protocols. Beginning with an up-to-date overview of the biochemistry, the volume continues with quantitative analysis of genetic variation, ratio of expressed alleles at the RNA level, analysis of DNA methylation, global DNA methylation assays, specialized applications for DNA methylation analysis including loss of imprinting, single blastocyst analysis, allele-specific DNA methylation patterns, DNA methylation patterns associated with specific histone modifications. The volume further details tools and protocols for the detection of viruses and bacteria, and genetic and epigenetic analyses for forensics using Pyrosequencing. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters contain introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and adaptable, Pyrosequencing: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition will greatly aid doctorial students, postdoctoral investigators and research scientists studying different aspects of genetics and cellular and molecular biology.
Updated and revised, this thorough volume covers a range of methods focusing on systems, including mammalian, yeast, bacterial and archaeal. This second edition of DNA Replication: Methods and Protocols describes approaches to analyze whole genomes to single molecules, as well as both in vivo and in vitro experiments. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters contain introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, DNA Replication: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition provides a collections of methods intended for newcomers to this research field and for established laboratories.
The living world runs on genomic software - what Dawn Field and Neil Davies call the 'biocode' - the sum of all DNA on Earth. In Biocode, they tell the story of a new age of scientific discovery: the growing global effort to read and map the biocode, and what that might mean for the future. The structure of DNA was identified in 1953, and the whole human genome was mapped by 2003. Since then the new field of genomics has mushroomed and is now operating on an industrial scale. Genomes can now be sequenced rapidly and increasingly cheaply. The genomes of large numbers of organisms from mammals to microbes, have been mapped. Getting your genome sequenced is becoming affordable for many. You too can check paternity, find out where your ancestors came from, or whether you are at risk of some diseases. Some check out the pedigree of their pets, while others turn genomes into art. A stray hair is enough to crudely reconstruct the face of the owner. From reading to constructing: the first steps to creating artificial life have already been taken. Some may find the rapidity of developments, and the potential for misuse, alarming. But they also open up unprecedented possibilities. The ability to read DNA has changed how we view ourselves and understand our place in nature. From the largest oceans, to the insides of our guts, we are able to explore the biosphere as never before, from the genome up. Sequencing technology has made the invisible world of microbes visible, and biodiversity genomics is revealing whole new worlds within us and without. The findings are transformational: we are all ecosystems now. Already the first efforts at 'barcoding' entire ecological communities and creating 'genomic observatories' have begun. The future, the authors argue, will involve biocoding the entire planet.
Applied plant genomics and biotechnology reviews the recent advancements in the post-genomic era, discussing how different varieties respond to abiotic and biotic stresses, investigating epigenetic modifications and epigenetic memory through analysis of DNA methylation states, applicative uses of RNA silencing and RNA interference in plant physiology and in experimental transgenics, and plants modified to produce high-value pharmaceutical proteins. The book provides an overview of research advances in application of RNA silencing and RNA interference, through Virus-based transient gene expression systems, Virus induced gene complementation (VIGC), Virus induced gene silencing (Sir VIGS, Mr VIGS) Virus-based microRNA silencing (VbMS) and Virus-based RNA mobility assays (VRMA); RNA based vaccines and expression of virus proteins or RNA, and virus-like particles in plants, the potential of virus vaccines and therapeutics, and exploring plants as factories for useful products and pharmaceuticals are topics wholly deepened. The book reviews and discuss Plant Functional Genomic studies discussing the technologies supporting the genetic improvement of plants and the production of plant varieties more resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses. Several important crops are analysed providing a glimpse on the most up-to-date methods and topics of investigation. The book presents a review on current state of GMO, the cisgenesis-derived plants and novel plant products devoid of transgene elements, discuss their regulation and the production of desired traits such as resistance to viruses and disease also in fruit trees and wood trees with long vegetative periods. Several chapters cover aspects of plant physiology related to plant improvement: cytokinin metabolism and hormone signaling pathways are discussed in barley; PARP-domain proteins involved in Stress-Induced Morphogenetic Response, regulation of NAD signaling and ROS dependent synthesis of anthocyanins. Apple allergen isoforms and the various content in different varieties are discussed and approaches to reduce their presence. Euphorbiaceae, castor bean, cassava and Jathropa are discussed at genomic structure, their diseases and viruses, and methods of transformation. Rice genomics and agricultural traits are discussed, and biotechnology for engineering and improve rice varieties. Mango topics are presented with an overview of molecular methods for variety differentiation, and aspects of fruit improvement by traditional and biotechnology methods. Oilseed rape is presented, discussing the genetic diversity, quality traits, genetic maps, genomic selection and comparative genomics for improvement of varieties. Tomato studies are presented, with an overview on the knowledge of the regulatory networks involved in flowering, methods applied to study the tomato genome-wide DNA methylation, its regulation by small RNAs, microRNA-dependent control of transcription factors expression, the development and ripening processes in tomato, genomic studies and fruit modelling to establish fleshy fruit traits of interest; the gene reprogramming during fruit ripening, and the ethylene dependent and independent DNA methylation changes.
DNA transfer to cultured cells
Applied Antisense Oligonucleotide Technology
The nitrogen (N) cycle is one of the most important nutrient cycles on the planet, and many of its steps are performed by microbial organisms. During the cycling process, greenhouse gases are formed, including nitrous oxide and methane. In addition, the use of nitrogen fertilizers increases freshwater nitrate levels, causing pollution and human health problems. A greater knowledge of the microbial communities involved in nitrogen transformations is necessary to understand and counteract nitrogen pollution. This book - written by renowned researchers who are specialized in the most relevant and emerging topics in the field - provides comprehensive information on the new theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of metagenomics and other 'omics' approaches used to study the microbial N cycle. The book provides a thorough account of the contributions of metagenomics to microbial N cycle background theory. It also reviews state-of-the-art investigative methods and explores new applications in water treatment, agricultural practices, climate change, among others. The book is recommended for microbiologists, environmental scientists, and anyone interested in microbial communities, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics of the microbial N cycle.
Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Methods and Protocols focuses on different applications of qPCR ranging from microbiological detections (both viral and bacterial) to pathological applications. Several chapters deal with quality issues which regard the quality of starting material, the knowledge of the minimal information required to both perform an assay and to set the experimental plan, while the others focus on translational medicine applications that are ordered following an approximate logical order of their medical application. The last part of the book gives you an idea of an emerging digital PCR technique that is a unique qPCR approach for measuring nucleic acid, particularly suited for low level detection and to develop non-invasive diagnosis. Written for the Methods in Molecular Biology series, most chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, laboratory protocols and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Practical and authoritative, Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Methods and Protocols aims to aid researchers seeking to devise new qPCR-based approaches related to his or her area of investigation.
Transcription factors are the molecules that the cell uses to interpret the genome: they possess sequence-specific DNA-binding activity, and either directly or indirectly influence the transcription of genes. In aggregate, transcription factors control gene expression and genome organization, and play a pivotal role in many aspects of physiology and evolution.
This book provides a reference for major aspects of transcription factor function, encompassing a general catalogue of known transcription factor classes, origins and evolution of specific transcription factor types, methods for studying transcription factor binding sites in vitro, in vivo, and in silico, and mechanisms of interaction with chromatin and RNA polymerase."
Microarrays for simultaneous measurement of redundancy of RNA species are used in fundamental biology as well as in medical research. Statistically, a microarray may be considered as an observation of very high dimensionality equal to the number of expression levels measured on it. In "Statistical Methods for Microarray Data Analysis: Methods and Protocols, " expert researchers in the field detail many methods and techniques used to study microarrays, guiding the reader from microarray technology to statistical problems of specific multivariate data analysis. Written in the highly successful "Methods in Molecular Biology " series format, the chapters include the kind of detailed description and implementation advice that is crucial for getting optimal results in the laboratory.
Thorough and intuitive, "Statistical Methods for Microarray Data Analysis: ""Methods and Protocols "aids scientists in continuing to study microarrays and the most current statistical methods.
GW bodies are novel cytoplasmic foci that were discovered and named by Dr. Chan's group in 2002. These bodies are now known to be active cytoplasmic foci involved with the new gene regulation process mediated by microRNA that leads to translational repression and mRNA degradation. The detailed biological functions of these cytoplasmic structures are still being uncovered and the idea for this book is to provide the history of the discovery and the major work from different laboratories that has led to the characterization and elucidation of the structure and function of these new multiple subcellular structures.
In recent years, a number of groundbreaking structural and mechanistic studies deepened our understanding of helicase mechanisms and established new approaches for their analyses. Many fundamental mechanistic questions ranging from the mechanism of force generation, mechanochemical coupling to distinct mechanisms by which the same enzyme translocates on DNA removing obstacles, unwinds DNA and/or remodels nucleoprotein complexes, however, remain to be answered. It is even less understood how the helicase motors are incorporated into a wide range of genome maintenance and repair machines. The field has reached a stage when the studies of molecular mechanisms and basic biology of helicases can and shall be integrated with the studies of development, cancer and longevity. The objective of this book is to provide the first systematic overview of structure, function and regulation of DNA helicases and related molecular motors. By integrating the knowledge obtained through the diverse technical approaches ranging from single-molecule biophysics to cellular and molecular biological studies the editors aim to provide a unified view on how helicases function in the cell, are regulated in response to different cellular stresses and are integrated into large macromolecular assemblies to form a complex and adaptive living system.
The genomes of cellular organisms are organized as double-stranded DNA, a structure that must be unwound to provide DNA replication, recombination, and repair machinery access to genomic information. However, DNA unwinding comes with inherent risks to genome stability. To help mediate these risks, bacterial, archael, and eukaryotic cells have evolved protective ssDNA-binding proteins (SSBs) that bind ssDNA with high affinity and specificity. SSBs also aid genome metabolic processes through direct interactions with key proteins in genome maintenance enzymes. Single-Stranded DNA Binding Proteins: Methods and Protocols assembles methods developed for examining the fundamental properties of SSBs and for exploiting the biochemical functions of SSBs for their use as in vitro and in vivo reagents. Clearly and concisely organized, the volume opens with an introduction to the structures and functions of SSBs, followed protocols for studying SSB/DNA complexes, methods for studying SSB/heterologous protein complexes, protocols for interrogating post-translational modifications of SSBs, and concludes with uses of fluorescently-labeled SSBs for in vitro and in vivo studies of genome maintenance processes. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easily accessible, Single-Stranded DNA Binding Proteins: Methods and Protocols provides a rich introduction for investigators who are interested in this fascinating family of DNA-binding proteins.
Genomic imprinting, the process by which the non-equivalence of the paternal and maternal genomes is established, has been fascinating us for over three decades and has provided many emerging scientists with the chance to hit their stride in a frontier posing many unexpected questions and even more surprising answers. In Genomic Imprinting: Methods and Protocols, experts in the field provide a survey of the technologies that are being applied to advance the study of imprinting. This detailed volume features new technologies that are accelerating the pace of discovery of imprinted genes and characterization of their epigenetic profile, bioinformatic procedures for prediction and comparative analyses of imprinted genes, as well as methods in embryology and basic molecular biology that have been employed for many years, some appearing in new versions for small cell numbers. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easy to use, Genomic Imprinting: Methods and Protocols will aid scientists in unveiling both much awaited answers and all-new questions to keep this vital field busy for many exciting years to come.
This book offers an overview of state-of-the-art in non amplified DNA detection methods and provides chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists and material scientists with an introduction to these methods. In fact all these fields have dedicated resources to the problem of nucleic acid detection, each contributing with their own specific methods and concepts. This book will explain the basic principles of the different non amplified DNA detection methods available, highlighting their respective advantages and limitations. Non-amplified DNA detection can be achieved by adopting different techniques. Such techniques have allowed the commercialization of innovative platforms for DNA detection that are expected to break into the DNA diagnostics market. The enhanced sensitivity required for the detection of non amplified genomic DNA has prompted new strategies that can achieve ultrasensitivity by combining specific materials with specific detection tools. Advanced materials play multiple roles in ultrasensitive detection. Optical and electrochemical detection tools are among the most widely investigated to analyze non amplified nucleic acids. Biosensors based on piezoelectric crystal have been also used to detect unamplified genomic DNA. The main scientific topics related to DNA diagnostics are discussed by an outstanding set of authors with proven experience in this field.
Transcriptome Analysis, by Frank Stahl, Bernd Hitzmann, Kai Mutz, Daniel Landgrebe, Miriam Lubbecke, Cornelia Kasper, Johanna Walter und Thomas Scheper Transcriptome Data Analysis for Cell Culture Processes, by Marlene Castro-Melchor, Huong Le und Wei-Shou Hu Modeling Metabolic Networks for Mammalian Cell Systems: General Considerations, Modeling Strategies, and Available Tools, by Ziomara P. Gerdtzen Metabolic Flux Analysis in Systems Biology of Mammalian Cells, by Jens Niklas und Elmar Heinzle Advancing Biopharmaceutical Process Development by System-Level Data Analysis and Integration of Omics Data, by Jochen Schaub, Christoph Clemens, Hitto Kaufmann und Torsten W. Schulz Protein Glycosylation and Its Impact on Biotechnology, by Markus Berger, Matthias Kaup und Veronique Blanchard Protein Glycosylation Control in Mammalian Cell Culture: Past Precedents and Contemporary Prospects, by Patrick Hossler Modeling of Intracellular Transport and Compartmentation, by Uwe Jandt und An-Ping Zeng Genetic Aspects of Cell Line Development from a Synthetic Biology Perspective, by L. Botezatu, S. Sievers, L. Gama-Norton, R. Schucht, H. Hauser und D. Wirth.
This volume provides a collection of robust protocols for molecular biologists studying comparative genomics. Each chapter includes detailed instructions for using a particular tool or method and an introduction to the theory behind the technique. Given the tremendous increase in available biosequence data over the past ten years, this volume is timely, comprehensive, and novel.
The latest edition of this highly successful textbook introduces
the key techniques and concepts involved in cloning genes and in
studying their expression and variation.
Noted for its outstanding balance between clarity of coverage
and level of detail, this book provides an excellent introduction
to the fast moving world of molecular genetics.
Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping is used to discover the genetic and molecular architecture underlying complex quantitative traits. It has important applications in agricultural, evolutionary, and biomedical research. R/qtl is an extensible, interactive environment for QTL mapping in experimental crosses. It is implemented as a package for the widely used open source statistical software R and contains a diverse array of QTL mapping methods, diagnostic tools for ensuring high-quality data, and facilities for the fit and exploration of multiple-QTL models, including QTL x QTL and QTL x environment interactions. This book is a comprehensive guide to the practice of QTL mapping and the use of R/qtl, including study design, data import and simulation, data diagnostics, interval mapping and generalizations, two-dimensional genome scans, and the consideration of complex multiple-QTL models. Two moderately challenging case studies illustrate QTL analysis in its entirety.
The book alternates between QTL mapping theory and examples illustrating the use of R/qtl. Novice readers will find detailed explanations of the important statistical concepts and, through the extensive software illustrations, will be able to apply these concepts in their own research. Experienced readers will find details on the underlying algorithms and the implementation of extensions to R/qtl. There are 150 figures, including 90 in full color.
With the predicted increase of the human population and the subsequent need for larger food supplies, root health in crop plants could play a major role in providing sustainable highly productive crops that can cope with global climate changes. While the essentiality of roots and their relation to plant performance is broadly recognized, less is known about their role in plant growth and development. Root Genomics examines how various new genomic technologies are rapidly being applied to the study of roots, including high-throughput sequencing and genotyping, TILLING, transcription factor analysis, comparative genomics, gene discovery and transcriptional profiling, post-transcriptional events regulating microRNAs, proteome profiling and the use of molecular markers such as SSRs, DArTs, and SNPs for QTL analyses and the identification of superior genes/alleles. The book also covers topics such as the molecular breeding of crops in problematic soils and the responses of roots to a variety of stresses.
This Microbiology Monographs volume covers the current and most recent advances in genomics and genetics, biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology of C. reinhardtii. Expert international scientists contribute with reviews on the genome, post-genomic techniques, the genetic toolbox development as well as new insights in regulation of photosynthesis and acclimation strategies towards environmental stresses and other structural and genetic aspects, including applicable aspects in biotechnology and biomedicine. Advancement in Chlamydomonas biology allowed new understandings in biotechnological and biomedical related aspects.
This book is a guide for users of new technologies, as it includes accurately proven protocols, allowing readers to prepare their samples for experiments. Additionally, it is a guide for the bioinformatics tools that are available for the analysis of the obtained tags, including the design of the software, the sources and the Web. Finally, the book provides examples of the application of these technologies to identify promoters, annotate genomes, identify new RNAs and reconstruct models of transcriptional control. Although examples mainly concern mammalians, the discussion expands to other groups of eukaryotes, where these approaches are complementing genome sequencing.
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