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Quantitative traits-be they morphological or physiological characters, aspects of behavior, or genome-level features such as the amount of RNA or protein expression for a specific gene-usually show considerable variation within and among populations. Quantitative genetics, also referred to as the genetics of complex traits, is the study of such characters and is based on mathematical models of evolution in which many genes influence the trait and in which non-genetic factors may also be important. Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits presents a holistic treatment of the subject, showing the interplay between theory and data with extensive discussions on statistical issues relating to the estimation of the biologically relevant parameters for these models. Quantitative genetics is viewed as the bridge between complex mathematical models of trait evolution and real-world data, and the authors have clearly framed their treatment as such. This is the second volume in a planned trilogy that summarizes the modern field of quantitative genetics, informed by empirical observations from wide-ranging fields (agriculture, evolution, ecology, and human biology) as well as population genetics, statistical theory, mathematical modeling, genetics, and genomics. Whilst volume 1 (1998) dealt with the genetics of such traits, the main focus of volume 2 is on their evolution, with a special emphasis on detecting selection (ranging from the use of genomic and historical data through to ecological field data) and examining its consequences.
Understanding mechanisms of gene regulation that are independent of the DNA sequence itself - epigenetics - has the potential to overthrow long-held views on central topics in biology, such as the biology of disease or the evolution of species. High throughput technologies reveal epigenetic mechanisms at a genome-wide level, giving rise to epigenomics as a new discipline with a distinct set of research questions and methods. Leading experts from academia, the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries explain the role of epigenomics in a wide range of contexts, covering basic chromatin biology, imprinting at a genome-wide level, and epigenomics in disease biology and epidemiology. Details on assays and sequencing technology serve as an up-to-date overview of the available technological tool kit. A reliable guide for newcomers to the field as well as experienced scientists, this is a unique resource for anyone interested in applying the power of twenty-first-century genomics to epigenetic studies.
Due to their importance to cell biology, DNA topology-altering enzymes, collectively DNA topoisomerases and gyrases, have been studied thoroughly from a biochemical perspective, yet the expansion of research at the molecular and cellular levels continues to show a great deal of promise. In DNA Topoisomerases: Methods and Protocols, experts in the field present a compendium of protocols that extends into the new areas of research that have been recently uncovered in order to elucidate the methodology needed to study topoisomerases in the molecular and cellular context. The volume examines subjects such as the analysis of DNA topologies and the interaction of topoisomerases with DNA as tools to measure topoisomerase functions, the binding of topoisomerases to specific sites in the genomes of eukaryotes, including origins of DNA replication, as well as exploration of perturbed topoisomerase function. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, laboratory protocols, and notes on trouble-shooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
Cutting-edge and easy-to-use, DNA Topoisomerases: Methods and Protocols provides key content which reflects an expanded understanding of the functions of these essential enzymes in the hope of inspiring researchers to further important discoveries in this dynamic field.
This text explores the most recent advances in NGS instrumentation and data anlysis. It begins with a comprehensive description of current NSG platforms, their sequencing chemistries, instrument specifications, and general workflows and procedures. A separate chapter is dedicated to low-quanitity, single molecule sequencing technology. Further chapters explore the application of NSG technologies in various fields.
This book provides a broad introduction to all major aspects of quantum dot properties including fluorescence, electrochemical, photochemical and electroluminescence. Such properties have been produced for applications in biosensing, cell tracking, in vivo animal imaging and so on. It focuses on their special applications in DNA biosensing and provides readers with detailed information on the preparation and functionalization of quantum dots and the fabrication of DNA biosensors, using examples to show how these properties can be used in DNA biosensor design and the advantages of quantum dots in DNA biosensing. Further new emerging quantum dots such as metal nanoclusters and graphene dots and their applications in DNA biosensing have also been included.
GENE EXPRESSION provides a comprehensive coverage on the structure, organization, evolution, function, expression (transcription and translation), and regulation of gene in bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotes. The book wil also deal with often ignored but very essential aspect of gene expression, i.e., chromatin (DNA and protein) modifications that affect gene expression in bacteria, viruses, and eukaryotes. Recent progresses have been discussed. Nobel Prize winning work finds a special mention. Various terms in the subject have been define in context of the present day knowledge. For this, there is a separate section on glossary of important terms in the book. Recent literature relevant to the subject matter has been cited and complete references are provided to the reader at the end of the subject matter. In addition, references for further reading have also been suggested. Efforts will be made to pin-point applications/implications of different discoveries in the area of molecular genetics. Text is supported by well drawn figures and tables.
Analysis of the equine genome began just over a decade ago, culminating in the recent complete sequencing of the horse genome. The availability of the equine whole genome sequence represents the successful completion of an important era of equine genome analysis, and the beginning of a new era where the sequence information will catalyze the development of new tools and resources that will permit study of a range of traits that are economically important and are significant to equine health and welfare."Equine Genomics" provides a timely comprehensive overview of equine genomic research. Chapters detail key accomplishments and the current state of research, as well as looking forward to possible applications of genomic technologies to horse breeding, health, and welfare. "Equine Genomics" delivers a global overview of the topic and is seamlessly edited by a leading equine genomics researcher. "Equine Genomics" is an indispensible source of information for anyone with an interest in this increasingly important field of study, including equine genomic researchers, clinicians, animal science professionals and equine field veterinarians.
Bioinformatics is a computer-assisted interface discipline dealing with acquisition, storage, management, access and processing of biological data. Bioinformatics is useful in identifying genes in DNA sequences, in the study of structure and function of gene and protein sequences, in identifying families of related sequences, in aligning similar sequences and generating phylogenetic trees, in discovering drug targets, and in drug development. This book is designed to provide the newcomer to bioinformatics with enough information to understand the principles of bioinformatic applications. The book covers the following topics in a simple and concise manner: History and importance of bioinformatics, DNA, RNA and protein, Computers, Internet and World Wide Web, Databases, DNA and Protein Sequencing and Analysis, Sequence Alignment, Predictive Methods using DNA and Protein sequences, Homology and Phylogeny, Drug discovery and pharmainformatics and Procedures for hands on training. This is a must for every beginner in bioinformatics.
Transposable elements are short lengths of DNA with the capacity to move between different points within a genome. This process can affect the function of genes at or near the insertion site. The present book gives an overview of the impact of transposable elements on plant genomes and explains how to recognize and study transposable elements, e.g. by using state-of-the-art strategies like "new generation sequencing." Moreover, the impact of transposable elements on plant genome structure and function is reviewed in detail, and also illustrated in examples and case studies. The book is intended both for readers familiar with the field and for newcomers. With large-scale sequencing becoming increasingly available, more and more people will come across transposable element sequences in their data, and this volume will hopefully help to convince them that they are not just "junk DNA."
Published continuously since 1944, the Advances in Protein
Chemistry and Structural Biology serial has been a continuous,
essential resource for protein chemists. Covering reviews of
methodology and research in all aspects of protein chemistry,
including purification/expression, proteomics, modeling and
structural determination and design, each volume brings forth new
information about protocols and analysis of proteins while
presenting the most recent findings from leading experts in a broad
range of protein-related topics. This volume features articles on
Challenges and Opportunities of Next-Generation Sequencing for
Exciting work in the past decade has revealed commonalities and differences among individual cell fusion events. In Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods, a team of leading experts provide a collection of overviews that outline our current understanding of cell fusion and methods that present classic and state-of-the-art experimental approaches in a variety of systems. Divided into two convenient parts, the volume begins with nine overviews which describe different cell fusion events in models from yeast to mammals, and it continues with thirteen chapters illustrating commonly used methods to assay cell fusion in particular systems. As a part of the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series, these methods chapters compile step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols with lists of the necessary materials and reagents, along with tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and user-friendly, Cell Fusion: Overviews and Methods serves as a comprehensive resource for anyone, expert or novice, interested in the fascinating biological process of cell fusion.
Adenine Nucleotides play a major role in cellular metabolism and functions, serving as high-potential phosphate transfer compounds in energy metabolism and as substrates and co-factors for proteins involved in signal transduction. During the last few years definite advancement has been made in elucidating the molecular and genetic aspects of the enzyme involved in oxidative phosphorylation, the so-called FoFl H~-ATP synthase. Non-invasive NMR technologies have been developed to monitor in vivo the energy level of tissues based on determination of the concentrations of adenine nucleotides, phosphate and phosphate esters. Thus it became clear that the capacity of oxidative phosphorylation adapts itself to the ATP demand which changes continuously with the physiological state in various tissues. This is achieved by regulation of the enzyme activity as well as by regulation of its biogenesis. The reversible phosphorylation of proteins is re- cognised as a major regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic as well as in prokaryotic cells for cellular signal transduction and control of gene expression, cell growth, differentation and oncogenesis. The same applies to the role played by cAMP. A further topic of growing interest concerns the discovery of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport proteins which includes systems of primary importance in medicine such as the multi-drug resistance P glycoprotein, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the 70 kd peroxisomal membrane protein. Finally, much attention is being devoted in many laboratories to the molecular structure and role of ATP- modulated channels.
"Recombinant DNA Techniques: A Textbook" has all the techniques used in the Genetic Engineering like the PCR, Microarray, transfection techniques, Blotting techniques, DNA sequencing, site directed Mutagenesis and protein engineering. It also includes various aspects of the gene therapy. It also have the good description of the mapping techniques along with the various molecular markers used in the mapping of the genomes like RFLP, RAPD, AFLP etc. DNA chip technology is the most important techniques used for the study of the gene expression and it is the only technique that can analyze the multiple genes at a time. This techniques is very well explained in the book. DNA sequencing by Sanger's Method and maxam and Gilbert's method is also explained by the help of good diagrams. These are the important topics covered in this book.
Over the last decade Life Science has undergone an accelerated evolution, culminating in the -omics era characterized by the development of a multitude of high throughput methods that are becoming more routinely applied in biochemistry labs. In Functional Genomics: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods which are now commonly used for studies in the life sciences focusing on the dynamic aspects of the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, respectively.Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Functional Genomics: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in establishing or extending technologies and techniques in their laboratories.
In somatic cells, DNA is normally wrapped around the histones octamer to forms nucleosomes that eventually give rise to a solenoid DNA structure. Unlike somatic cells, in mammalian sperm, the development of spermatids into mature spermatozoa is accomplished by a series of structural and chemical modifications including a gradual replacement of lysine-rich histones by transition proteins and then by protamines which bind more tightly to DNA than histones, which results in compaction of chromatin in the sperm nucleus, a process which is termed 'sperm chromatin condensation'. This book examines the several techniques that have been devised in order to study chromatin and DNA defects in human spermatozoa.
MicroRNAs are involved in crucial biological processes, including developmental timing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and stress responses. This book presents topical research in the study of microRNAs, including their potential applications in aquaporin associated pathogenesis; microRNAs as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for cancer; microRNAs used in regulating EMT and blood circulation metastasis of lung cancer stem cells; the biological functions of microRNAs in animals and the regulation of metabolism, ageing and lifespan by microRNAs.
Although less than a decade old, the field of microarray data analysis is now thriving and growing at a remarkable pace. Biologists, geneticists, and computer scientists as well as statisticians all need an accessible, systematic treatment of the techniques used for analyzing the vast amounts of data generated by large-scale gene expression studies. And there is arguably no group better qualified to do so than the authors of this book.
This book presents and discusses topical research in the study of DNA, genetics and cell biology. Topics discussed include DNA damage related to exposure to oil spills; mutation detection in TP53 gene; DNA and protein sequence analysis; the role of effectors on hypoxia due to nitric oxide production in human alveolar epithelial cells and plasma cell dyscrasias.
Massive data acquisition technologies, such as genome sequencing, high-throughput drug screening, and DNA arrays are in the process of revolutionizing biology and medicine. Using the mRNA of a given cell, at a given time, under a given set of conditions, DNA microarrays can provide a snapshot of the level of expression of all the genes in the cell. Such snapshots can be used to study fundamental biological phenomena such as development or evolution, to determine the function of new genes, to infer the role individual genes or groups of genes may play in diseases, and to monitor the effect of drugs and other compounds on gene expression. Originally published in 2002, this inter-disciplinary introduction to DNA arrays will be of value to anyone with an a interest in this powerful technology.
Structural Biology Using Electrons and X-Rays discusses the diffraction and image-based methods used for the determination of complex biological macromolecules. The book focuses on the Fourier transform theory, which is a mathematical function that is computed to transform signals between time and frequency domain. Composed of five parts, the book examines the development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which allows the calculation of the images of a certain protein. Parts 1 to 4 provide the basic information and the applications of Fourier transforms, as well as the different methods used for image processing using X-ray crystallography and the analysis of electron micrographs. Part 5 focuses entirely on the mathematical aspect of Fourier transforms. In addition, the book examines detailed structural analyses of a specimen's symmetry (i.e., crystals, helices, polyhedral viruses and asymmetrical particles). This book is intended for the biologist or biochemist who is interested in different methods and techniques for calculating the images of proteins using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It is also suitable for readers without a background in physical chemistry or mathematics.
A quantum leap in technology took place a few years ago with the introduction of cDNA arrays that have been developed in response to the need for simultaneous analysis of the patterns of expression of thousands of genes. DNA Arrays: Technologies and Experimental Strategies offers a view of different aspects of this rapidly developing technology, including oligonucleotide and electrochemical arrays. Distinguished investigators from academia and industry provide expert insight into methodological fundamentals of construction of DNA arrays, optimization of hybridization conditions, the use of expression data in bioinformatics, different software tools, and the application of microarray technology for drug discovery process.
Transcription factors are the molecules that the cell uses to interpret the genome: they possess sequence-specific DNA-binding activity, and either directly or indirectly influence the transcription of genes. In aggregate, transcription factors control gene expression and genome organization, and play a pivotal role in many aspects of physiology and evolution.
This book provides a reference for major aspects of transcription factor function, encompassing a general catalogue of known transcription factor classes, origins and evolution of specific transcription factor types, methods for studying transcription factor binding sites in vitro, in vivo, and in silico, and mechanisms of interaction with chromatin and RNA polymerase."
In situ hybridization is a technique that allows for the visualization of specific DNA and RNA sequences in individual cells, and is an especially important method for studying nucleic acids in heterogeneous cell populations. in situ Hybridization in Electron Microscopy reviews the three main methods developed for the ultrastructural visualization of genes:
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. DNA sequencing is a common and requisite practice for molecular biologists today working in all areas of biology, including microbiology. This book aims to provide clues for DNA sequencing projects directed to unsequenced organisms in which many transcripts wait to be discovered, either coding small RNAs or genes homologue to known genes coding for protein products. This book also looks at the adoption of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to generate DNA profiles from minute biological samples, and the use of mitochondrial DNA to obtain information from old bones and the applications of Y chromosomal polymorphisms in sexual assault cases. Present research focuses on genetic markers for external visible traits and on improving the utility of poor quality samples with degraded DNA. The other direction of forensic DNA research addresses the difficulty of obtaining a DNA profile in a degraded crime stain. The third topic covered in this book is DNA chips- a microchip that holds DNA probes that form half of the DNA double helix. This book examines the development of DNA chips, as the prototype for global technology genetics.
A comprehensive, authoritative look at an emergent area in post-genomic science, Evolutionary genomics is an up-and-coming, complex field that attempts to explain the biocomplexity of the living world. "Evolutionary Genomics and Systems Biology" is the first full-length book to blend established and emerging concepts in bioinformatics, evolution, genomics, and structural biology, with the integrative views of network and systems biology.
Three key aspects of evolutionary genomics and systems biology are covered in clear detail: the study of genomic history, i.e., understanding organismal evolution at the genomic level; the study of macromolecular complements, which encompasses the evolution of the protein and RNA machinery that propels life; and the evolutionary and dynamic study of wiring diagrams--macromolecular components in interaction--in the context of genomic complements. The book also features: A solid, comprehensive treatment of phylogenomics, the evolution of genomes, and the evolution of biological networks, within the framework of systems biologyA special section on RNA biology--translation, evolution of structure, and micro RNA and regulation of gene expressionChapters on the mapping of genotypes to phenotypes, the role of information in biology, protein architecture and biological function, chromosomal rearrangements, and biological networks and diseaseContributions by leading authorities on each topic
"Evolutionary Genomics and Systems Biology" is an ideal book for students and professionals in genomics, bioinformatics, evolution, structural biology, complexity, origins of life, systematic biology, and organismal diversity, as well as those individuals interested in aspects of biological sciences as they interface with chemistry, physics, and computer science and engineering.
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