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The increased and widespread availability of large network data resources in recent years has resulted in a growing need for effective methods for their analysis. The challenge is to detect patterns that provide a better understanding of the data. However, this is not a straightforward task because of the size of the data sets and the computer power required for the analysis. The solution is to devise methods for approximately answering the questions posed, and these methods will vary depending on the data sets under scrutiny. This cutting-edge text introduces biological concepts and biotechnologies producing the data, graph and network theory, cluster analysis and machine learning, before discussing the thought processes and creativity involved in the analysis of large-scale biological and medical data sets, using a wide range of real-life examples. Bringing together leading experts, this text provides an ideal introduction to and insight into the interdisciplinary field of network data analysis in biomedicine.
Longlisted for the National Book Award for Nonfiction and A New York Times Notable Book of 2018. Our understanding of the 'tree of life', with powerful implications for human genetics, human health and our own human nature, has recently completely changed. This book is about a new method of telling the story of life on earth - through molecular phylogenetics. It involves a fairly simple method - the reading of the deep history of life by looking at the variation in protein molecules found in living organisms. For instance, we now know that roughly eight per cent of the human genome arrived not through traditional inheritance from directly ancestral forms, but sideways by viral infection. In The Tangled Tree, acclaimed science writer David Quammen chronicles these discoveries through the lives of the researchers who made them - such as Carl Woese, the most important little-known biologist of the twentieth century; Lynn Margulis, the notorious maverick whose wild ideas about 'mosaic' creatures proved to be true; and Tsutomu Wantanabe, who discovered that the scourge of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a direct result of horizontal gene transfer, bringing the deep study of genome histories to bear on a global crisis in public health. Quammen explains how molecular studies of evolution have brought startling recognitions about the tangled tree of life - including where we humans fit into it. Thanks to new technologies, we now have the ability to alter even our genetic composition - through sideways insertions, as nature has long been doing. The Tangled Tree is a brilliant exploration of our transformed understanding of evolution and of life's history itself.
The past few years have seen a revolution in our ability to map whole genome DNA from ancient humans. With the ancient DNA revolution, combined with rapid genome mapping of present human populations, has come remarkable insights into our past. This important new data has clarified and added to our knowledge from archaeology and anthropology, helped resolve long-existing controversies, challenged long-held views, and thrown up some remarkable surprises. The emerging picture is one of many waves of ancient human migrations, so that all populations existing today are mixes of ancient ones, as well as in many cases carrying a genetic component from Neanderthals, and, in some populations, Denisovans. David Reich, whose team has been at the forefront of these discoveries, explains what the genetics is telling us about ourselves and our complex and often surprising ancestry. Gone are old ideas of any kind of racial 'purity', or even deep and ancient divides between peoples. Instead, we are finding a rich variety of mixtures. Reich describes the cutting-edge findings from the past few years, and also considers the sensitivities involved in tracing ancestry, with science sometimes jostling with politics and tradition. He brings an important wider message: that we should celebrate our rich diversity, and recognize that every one of us is the result of a long history of migration and intermixing of ancient peoples, which we carry as ghosts in our DNA. What will we discover next?
The Compact Guide: DNA provides a fascinating look at the world of the double helix and examines who we are, how we're wired, and how we repair ourselves. With information on so-called 'junk' DNA, how our genes evolved, heritability, the genetics of neuroscience, viruses, disease and what happens when things go wrong, this is a beautiful, visual journey through the polymer chain. The Compact Guide: DNA is an engaging and essential read for anyone captivated by the scope of human discovery, and reveals how we might just uncover the answers to the secrets of life on Earth.
DNA can be extracted and sequenced from a diverse range of biological samples, providing a vast amount of information about evolution and ecology. The analysis of DNA sequences contributes to evolutionary biology at all levels, from dating the origin of the biological kingdoms to untangling family relationships. An Introduction to Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics presents the fundamental concepts and intellectual tools you need to understand how the genome records information about evolutionary past and processes, how that information can be "read", and what kinds of questions we can use that information to answer. Starting with evolutionary principles, and illustrated throughout with biological examples, it is the perfect starting point on the journey to an understanding of the way molecular data is used in modern biology. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre features: For registered adopters of the book: - Class plans for one-hour hands-on sessions associated with each chapter - Figures from the textbook to view and download
In this book, the author deals mainly with two topics: (1) single-molecule visualization of switching behaviors in the DNA nanoframe system utilizing different kinds of molecular switches through the use of high-speed atomic force microscope (AFM); (2) construction of photocontrollable DNA nanostructures in programmed patterns and direct visualization of the dynamic assembling process. Here, high-speed AFM was employed to observe the dynamic movements of single molecules. Compared to a traditional single-molecule analysis method, such as fluorescence spectroscopy or electron microscopy, high-speed AFM makes possible the real-time observation of molecule behaviors. DNA nanostructures were designed and assembled as scaffolds to incorporate interested biomolecules. The observations were carried out under robust conditions without complicated pretreatment. Moreover, the photoresponsive molecules were successfully assembled into around 100 nm-sized DNA nanostructures. The assembly/disassembly of nanostructures can be regulated reversibly by photoirradiation. This book explains how DNA origami has gradually become a useful tool for the investigation of biochemical interactions in defined nanospace. It also shows the possibility of DNA nanostructures acting as nanodevices for application in biological systems, serving as a good introduction to basic DNA nanotechnology.
'A most moving and important biography, as well as an impressive account of a major event in the history of science'
Although Rosalind Franklin took the crucial photograph of DNA revealing its double helix structure, her work was overlooked when, four years after her death, three men – Maurice Wilkins of King's College London, Francis Crick of the Cavendish Laboratory and James Watson of Cambridge – were awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of DNA.
In this compelling biography of Franklin, Brenda Maddox tells the story of a remarkably single-minded, forthright and tempestuous young woman, who at the age of fifteen decided she wanted to be a scientist, but who was airbrushed out of the greatest scientific discovery of the twentieth century.
'Maddox is a dab hand at drawing a heroine out from behind the long shadows cast by men and her Franklin emerges as a determined, combative woman – a perfectionist who is plagued with self doubt'
'This magnificent biography gives a gripping yet nuanced account that resists the stock story-line of Franklin as the wronged heroine. What really happened is far more intriguing.'
'An exhilarating and vivid tale of scientific and personal politics at a time of rapid change in British science.'
Phylogenomics is a rapidly growing field of study concerned with using genome-wide data-usually in the form of DNA sequence loci-to infer the evolution of genes, genomes, and the Tree of Life. Accordingly, this discipline connects many areas in biology including molecular and genomic evolution, systems biology, molecular systematics, phylogeography, conservation genetics, DNA barcoding, and others. With the advent of Next Generation Sequencing in addition to advances in computer hardware and software over the past decade, researchers can now generate unparalleled phylogenomic datasets that are helping to illuminate many areas in the life sciences. This book is an introduction to the principles and practices of gathering these data. Phylogenomic Data Acquisition: Principles and Practice is intended for a broad cross-section of biologists and anyone else interested in learning how to obtain phylogenomic data using the latest methods.
Genomics has transformed the biological sciences. From epidemiology and medicine to evolution and forensics, the ability to determine an organism's complete genetic makeup has changed the way science is done and the questions that can be asked of it. Its most celebrated achievement was the Human Genome Project, a technologically challenging endeavor that took thousands of scientists around the world 13 years and over 3 billion US dollars to complete. In this Very Short Introduction John Archibald explores the science of genomics and its rapidly expanding toolbox. Sequencing a human genome now takes only a few days and costs as little as $1,000. The genomes of simple bacteria and viruses can be sequenced in a matter of hours on a device that fits in the palm of your hand. The resulting sequences can be used to better understand our biology in health and disease and to 'personalize' medicine. Archibald shows how the field of genomics is on the cusp of another quantum leap; the implications for science and society are profound. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
How genes are not the only basis of heredity-and what this means for evolution, human life, and disease For much of the twentieth century it was assumed that genes alone mediate the transmission of biological information across generations and provide the raw material for natural selection. In Extended Heredity, leading evolutionary biologists Russell Bonduriansky and Troy Day challenge this premise. Drawing on the latest research, they demonstrate that what happens during our lifetimes--and even our grandparents' and great-grandparents' lifetimes-can influence the features of our descendants. On the basis of these discoveries, Bonduriansky and Day develop an extended concept of heredity that upends ideas about how traits can and cannot be transmitted across generations. By examining the history of the gene-centered view in modern biology and reassessing fundamental tenets of evolutionary theory, Bonduriansky and Day show that nongenetic inheritance-involving epigenetic, environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors-could play an important role in evolution. The discovery of nongenetic inheritance therefore has major implications for key questions in evolutionary biology, as well as human health. Extended Heredity reappraises long-held ideas and opens the door to a new understanding of inheritance and evolution.
The discovery of the spatial structure of the double-stranded
DNA molecule is one of the greatest achievements of science. It
would not be an exaggeration to say that the DNA double helix is a
distinguished symbol of modern biology.
Surveying the last sixty years of research, this book describes the physical properties of DNA in the context of its biological functioning. It is designed to enable both students and researchers of molecular biology, biochemistry and physics to better understand the biophysics of DNA, addressing key questions and facilitating further research. The chapters integrate theoretical and experimental approaches, emphasising throughout the importance of a quantitative knowledge of physical properties in building and analysing models of DNA functioning. For example, the book shows how the relationship between DNA mechanical properties and the sequence specificity of DNA-protein binding can be analyzed quantitatively by using our current knowledge of the physical and structural properties of DNA. Theoretical models and experimental methods in the field are critically considered to enable the reader to engage effectively with the current scientific literature on the physical properties of DNA.
Recent advances in the study and understanding of human disease have largely been made possible by advances in molecular biology methodology. However, as the number and variety of laboratory techniques increases, so does the requirement for sufficient quantities of genomic DNA. This shortfall in availability of DNA has been addressed by the development of a number of whole genome amplification (WGA) approaches. Using these methods, it is possible to generate microgram quantities of DNA starting with as little as one nanogram of genomic DNA and in some cases even a single eukaryotic or bacterial cell. The implementation of such WGA methods provides an ample supply of DNA for large-scale genetic studies. This book will be welcomed by experienced researchers wishing to take advantage of the latest developments and by newcomers to the field who need to rapidly identify reliable techniques and approaches that will yield success in the laboratory.
What are the models used in phylogenetic analysis and what exactly is involved in Bayesian evolutionary analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods? How can you choose and apply these models, which parameterisations and priors make sense, and how can you diagnose Bayesian MCMC when things go wrong? These are just a few of the questions answered in this comprehensive overview of Bayesian approaches to phylogenetics. This practical guide: * Addresses the theoretical aspects of the field * Advises on how to prepare and perform phylogenetic analysis * Helps with interpreting analyses and visualisation of phylogenies * Describes the software architecture * Helps developing BEAST 2.2 extensions to allow these models to be extended further. With an accompanying website providing example files and tutorials (http://beast2.org/), this one-stop reference to applying the latest phylogenetic models in BEAST 2 will provide essential guidance for all users - from those using phylogenetic tools, to computational biologists and Bayesian statisticians.
The bestselling introduction to bioinformatics and genomics now in its third edition Widely received in its previous editions, Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics offers the most broad-based introduction to this explosive new discipline. Now in a thoroughly updated and expanded third edition, it continues to be the go-to source for students and professionals involved in biomedical research. This book provides up-to-the-minute coverage of the fields of bioinformatics and genomics. Features new to this edition include: * Extensive revisions and a slight reorder of chapters for a more effective organization * A brand new chapter on next-generation sequencing * An expanded companion website, also updated as and when new information becomes available * Greater emphasis on a computational approach, with clear guidance of how software tools work and introductions to the use of command-line tools such as software for next-generation sequence analysis, the R programming language, and NCBI search utilities The book is complemented by lavish illustrations and more than 500 figures and tables - many newly-created for the third edition to enhance clarity and understanding. Each chapter includes learning objectives, a problem set, pitfalls section, boxes explaining key techniques and mathematics/statistics principles, a summary, recommended reading, and a list of freely available software. Readers may visit a related Web page for supplemental information such as PowerPoints and audiovisual files of lectures, and videocasts of how to perform many basic operations: www.wiley.com/go/pevsnerbioinformatics. Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics, Third Edition serves as an excellent single-source textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate-level courses in the biological sciences and computer sciences. It is also an indispensable resource for biologists in a broad variety of disciplines who use the tools of bioinformatics and genomics to study particular research problems; bioinformaticists and computer scientists who develop computer algorithms and databases; and medical researchers and clinicians who want to understand the genomic basis of viral, bacterial, parasitic, or other diseases.
Wide coverage of traditional unsupervised and supervised methods and newer contemporary approaches that help researchers handle the rapid growth of classification methods in DNA microarray studies
Proliferating classification methods in DNA microarray studies have resulted in a body of information scattered throughout literature, conference proceedings, and elsewhere. This book unites many of these classification methods in a single volume. In addition to traditional statistical methods, it covers newer machine-learning approaches such as fuzzy methods, artificial neural networks, evolutionary-based genetic algorithms, support vector machines, swarm intelligence involving particle swarm optimization, and more.
"Classification Analysis of DNA Microarrays "provides highly detailed pseudo-code and rich, graphical programming features, plus ready-to-run source code. Along with primary methods that include traditional and contemporary classification, it offers supplementary tools and data preparation routines for standardization and fuzzification; dimensional reduction via crisp and fuzzy c-means, PCA, and non-linear manifold learning; and computational linguistics via text analytics and n-gram analysis, recursive feature extraction during ANN, kernel-based methods, ensemble classifier fusion.
This powerful new resource: Provides information on the use of classification analysis for DNA microarrays used for large-scale high-throughput transcriptional studiesServes as a historical repository of general use supervised classification methods as well as newer contemporary methodsBrings the reader quickly up to speed on the various classification methods by implementing the programming pseudo-code and source code provided in the bookDescribes implementation methods that help shorten discovery times
"Classification Analysis of DNA Microarrays" is useful for professionals and graduate students in computer science, bioinformatics, biostatistics, systems biology, and many related fields.
Synthetic biology is one of the 21st century's fastest growing fields of research, as important for technology as for basic science. Building on traditional genetic engineering, which was restricted to changing one or two genes, synthetic biology uses multi-gene modules and pathways to make very significant changes to what cells can do. Synthetic biologists aim to have an impact in fields as diverse as drug manufacture, biofuel production, tackling pollution, and medical diagnostics. Further ahead, synthetic biology may even make possible the long-standing goal of creating new life from non-living starting materials. This Very Short Introduction provides a concise explanation of what synthetic biology is, and how it is beginning to affect many fields of technology. Jamie Davies also discusses the considerable controversies surrounding synthetic biology, from questions over the assumption that engineering concepts can be applied to living systems easily, to scepticism over the claims for commercial promise, fears that the dangers of engineering life are worse than its benefits, and concerns over whether humans should be designing living systems at all. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Combining myth, biography, and wit, this is a highly original depiction of cutting-edge science and its profound implications, told through the scientists who are rewriting life on earth. Throughout history, the scientists' personalities have astonished us. From Galileo to Jonas Salk, they push and stretch society's boundaries though their great leaps of imagination and originality, providing us with everything from the wheel to rocket ships and penicillin. Today's masterminds in biotechnology promise lifespans up to 400 years, cures for cancer, and an end to pollution. But they are also capable of causing social upheavals with Frankenstein-like nightmare creations, as well as bioweapons. Award-winning writer David Ewing Duncan has written a startling narrative about science and personality, delving into stem cells, cloning, bioengineering, and genetics by telling the stories of the characters at the fulcrum of the science. He uses a unique method of tying in age-old stories and myths - from Prometheus and Eve to Faustus and Frankenstein - to ask the question: can we trust these scientists?
Praise for the First Edition extremely well written a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of this important field. Journal of Environmental Quality Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray and Other High-Dimensional Data, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of recent advancements in microarray data analysis. A cutting-edge guide, the Second Edition demonstrates various methodologies for analyzing data in biomedical research and offers an overview of the modern techniques used in microarray technology to study patterns of gene activity. The new edition answers the need for an efficient outline of all phases of this revolutionary analytical technique, from preprocessing to the analysis stage. Utilizing research and experience from highly-qualified authors in fields of data analysis, Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray and Other High-Dimensional Data, Second Edition features: * A new chapter on the interpretation of findings that includes a discussion of signatures and material on gene set analysis, including network analysis * New topics of coverage including ABC clustering, biclustering, partial least squares, penalized methods, ensemble methods, and enriched ensemble methods * Updated exercises to deepen knowledge of the presented material and provide readers with resources for further study The book is an ideal reference for scientists in biomedical and genomics research fields who analyze DNA microarrays and protein array data, as well as statisticians and bioinformatics practitioners. Exploration and Analysis of DNA Microarray and Other High-Dimensional Data, Second Edition is also a useful text for graduate-level courses on statistics, computational biology, and bioinformatics.
This book provides an up-to-date review and analysis of the carrot's nuclear and organellar genome structure and evolution. In addition, it highlights applications of carrot genomic information to elucidate the carrot's natural and agricultural history, reproductive biology, and the genetic basis of traits important in agriculture and human health. The carrot genome was sequenced in 2016, and its relatively small diploid genome, combined with the fact that it is the most complete root crop genome released to date and the first-ever Euasterid II genome to be sequenced, mean the carrot has an important role in the study of plant development and evolution. In addition, the carrot is among the top ten vegetables grown worldwide, and the abundant orange provitamin A carotenoids that account for its familiar orange color make it the richest crop source of vitamin A in the US diet, and in much of the world. This book includes the latest genetic maps, genetic tools and resources, and covers advances in genetic engineering that are relevant for plant breeders and biologists alike.
This fourth edition reflects the most recent technical advances in DNA-protein interaction research. With fully updated chapters that describe techniques proven by their continuous value, the volume also many new chapters have been added that mostly deal with larger-scale experiments, reflecting recent advances in "big biology", combining to offer a very useful compendium of protocols allowing readers to delve into the intricacies of protein-DNA interaction at levels ranging from the very small (as in the case of single-molecule FRET) to the very complex (as with circular chromatin conformation capture or 4C). Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and up-to-date, DNA-Protein Interactions: Principles and Protocols, Fourth Edition will aid researchers in continuing the incredible progress made in this vital area of study.
DNA Repair and Replication brings together contributions from active researchers. The first part of this book covers most aspects of the DNA damage response, emphasizing the relationship to replication stress. The second part concentrates on the relevance of this to human disease, with particular focus on both the causes and treatments which make use of DNA Damage Repair (DDR) pathways. Key Selling Features: Chapters written by leading researchers Includes description of replication processes, causes of damage, and methods of repair
The earth's daily rotation affects just about every living creature. From dawn through to dusk, there are changes in light, temperature, humidity, and rainfall. However, these changes are regular, rhythmic and, therefore, predictable. Thus, the near 24 hour circadian rhythm is innate: a genetically programmed clock that essentially ticks of its own accord. This Very Short Introduction explains how organisms can "know" the time and reveals what we now understand of the nature and operation of chronobiological processes. Covering variables such as light, the metabolism, human health, and the seasons, Foster and Kreitzman illustrate how jet lag and shift work can impact on human well-being, and consider circadian rhythms alongside a wide range of disorders, from schizophrenia to obesity. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Race, while drawn from the visual cues of human diversity, is an idea with a measurable past, an identifiable present, and an uncertain future. The concept of race has been at the center of both triumphs and tragedies in American history and has had a profound effect on the human experience. Race Unmasked revisits the origins of commonly held beliefs about the scientific nature of racial differences, examines the roots of the modern idea of race, and explains why race continues to generate controversy as a tool of classification even in our genomic age. Surveying the work of some of the twentieth century's most notable scientists, Race Unmasked reveals how genetics and related biological disciplines formed and preserved ideas of race and, at times, racism. A gripping history of science and scientists, Race Unmasked elucidates the limitations of a racial worldview and throws the contours of our current and evolving understanding of human diversity into sharp relief.
Written by an international team of experts, Somatic Genome Variation presents a timely summary of the latest understanding of somatic genome development and variation in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Wide-ranging in coverage, the authors provide an updated view of somatic genomes and genetic theories while also offering interpretations of somatic genome variation. The text provides geneticists, bioinformaticians, biologist, plant scientists, crop scientists, and microbiologists with a valuable overview of this fascinating field of research.
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